Gambar halaman
PDF
ePub

by a line running east and west at about ° south latitude or in the neighborhood of Murchison river. The sale, letting, disposal, or occupation of waste lands north of that line is to remain under the control of the Imperial Government, the proceeds of sales being invested to form an interest-bearing fund, or expended for the benefit of the district, while the interest of this fund and the annual land revenues will i. into the treasury of Western Australia until the Imperial Parliament decides to erect the northern territory, which contains at present about 2,000 inhabitants, into a new colony or colonies. The northern region, unlike the settled district around Perth, is not adapted to agriculture. Its j". will depend on the gold-fields, the pearl fisheries, and the pastoral industry. For the protection of the natives an Aborigines Protection Board was created in 1886, which disposes of an annual grant of £5,000. This board will be continued, the members being appointed by the Imperial Government, against the protest of the Western Australian Council. A bill for granting responsible government to Western Australia, subject to the reservations and conditions made by the colonial authorities, was introduced in Parliament by the Government, but since these conditions were far from being accepted by the Western Australians, the bill was only carried to a second reading, thus affirming the principle of responsible government, but leaving the disputed points open for further negotiations and compromises. Tasmania.-The Legislative Council is elective, the property qualification of electors being higher than for voters for members of the House of Assembly. The present Governor is Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, who was appointed in January, 1887. The following ministers were in office in 1889: Premier and Chief Secretary, Philip Oakley Fysh; Treasurer, Bolton Stafford Bird; Attorney-General, Andrew Inglis Clark; Minister of Lands and Works, Edward Nicholas Coventry Braddon. The revenue for six months of 1888, when the date of the financial year was changed, was £823,103, and the expenditure £328,512. The revenue for 1889 was estimated at £611,617, and the expenditure at £653,169; for 1889–90 the prospects are more cheerful, a revenue being expected of £683,000, against £670,000 of expenditures. To extinguish the deficits of recent years the Government introduced a tax of 9d. in the pound on personal P. jerty, including that of non-residents, and of 4d. in the pound on all incomes. The public debt on Dec. 31, 1888, amounted to £4,545,370. The estimated population at the end of 1887 was 142,478. There were during the year 4,736 births, 2,161 deaths, and 939 marriages. The number of immigrants was 14,980; of emigrants,

[blocks in formation]

Fiji.-The colony, which was formally annexed in 1874, is administered as a direct dependenc of the Crown. The Governor also acts as Hig Commissioner and Consul-General for the Western Pacific. The present Governor is Sir John Bates Thurston. The native Fijians, who numbered 110,754 in 1887, are Wesleyan Christians,

except eight per cent., who are Roman Catholics. There were besides 2,105 Europeans, 838 halfbreeds, 6,085 Indian coolies, and 2,354 Polyne

sian immigrant laborers. Rotumah, a dependent island administered by an English commissioner, had 2,303 inhabitants. The imports in 1887 were £188,071 in value, and the exports £281,080. The oport of sugar was 12,831 tons, valued at £205,29 British New Guinea.—The southern part of New Guinea, which was made a British protectorate after the annexation of the northeastern coast by Germany, has an area of about 86,457 square miles, and a population of 135,000 Papuans. The white population has not hitherto exceeded fifty souls. There is a missionary settlement at Port Moresby, which is now said to possess hotels, water supply, and other conveniences of a civilized town. By the New Guinea act of November, 1887, the administration was placed on a new basis, and on Sept. 4, 1888, British sovereignty was proclaimed. The sum of £15,000 per annum is guaranteed for ten years by the colony of Queensland to meet the expenses of administration, New South Wales and Victoria having promised to contribute equally with Queensland to raise this amount. Dr. William McGregor was appointed Administrator of the new possession. eputy Commissioner Musgrave, in his official report, asserts that the coast is not more unhealthful than northern Queensland, although residents are subject to fever. The mountain regions of the interior he believes to be remarkably salubrious. The country is said to be well suited to the raising of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, goats, and poultry, and to the cultivation of sugar, tobacco, bananas, pineapples, yams, sweet potatoes, and various tropical fruits. In the jungle sago, rattan, and copra can be gathered. Promising discoveries of gold have been made. The natives are not averse to labor, since they already collect, cure, and prepare for shipment copra, gum, and béche de mer. The béche-de-mer and mother-of-pearl supplies are nearly fished out, but the copra industry is capable of indefinite expansion. Much is expected also from the timber resources of the island. Great numbers : of applications for land have been made by individuals, syndicates, and companies. In the neighboring Louisiade Islands gold has been found in apparently large deposits, and Australian o: have invaded the islands in large numbers. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, a dual monarchy in Central Europe, composed of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The two states are united in the person of the sovereign, and have a common army, navy, and diplomacy. They also form a customs union by virtue of a

financial convention called the Ausgleich, which

is renewed and amended at the end of every ten years. Common affairs are managed by ministers of the Emperor's selection, subject to the sanction of a body called the Delegations, chosen

by the Austrian Reichsrath and the Hungarian Parliament, each being represented by sixty members, two thirds of whom are chosen by the Lower House from among its members, and one third by the Upper House. The reigning mperor of Austria and King of Hungary is Franz Josef I, who succeeded his uncle, Ferdinand I, in 1848. The death of the Archduke Rudolf made the Emperor's brother, Karl Ludwig, heir to the throne; but he renounced his ri it. in favor of his son Franz, born Dec. 18, 1863. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of the Imperial House for the whole monarchy is directed by Count Kálnoky de Köröspatak, born in Letowitz, Moravia, Dec. 29, 1832, who was apinted on Nov. 21, 1881, having for a year or #. previous represented Austria-Hungary at the court of St. Petersburg. The Minister of War for the whole monarchy is Baron Maj.-Gen. Ferdinand Baur, who succeeded Count BylandtRheydt on March 16, 1888. The Minister of Finance for the whole monarchy is Benjamin de Kállay, appointed on June 4, 1882. Commerce.—The total value of imports in 1887, exclusive of precious metals, was 562,700,000 florins; of exports, 648,800,000 florins. Of the total imports of 1886, amounting to 539,223,418 florins, 333,458,308 florins entered the customs territory by way of Germany, 95,380,122 florins through the port of Trieste, 10,094,153 florins from Roumania, 33,410,920 florins through Fiume and other ports, 23.464,820 florins across the Russian frontier, 18,070,037 florins from Italy, 15,698,518 florins from Servia, 9,559,611 florins from Switzerland, 296,083 florins from Montenegro, and 790,774 florins from Turkey. o trade of Hungary in 1887 amounted to ,619,404 florins of imports, 85.15 per cent. of which came from Austria, and 405,991,407 florins of exports, 73.90 per cent. of which went to Austria. Barley and wine are the chief agricultural products exported, and in some years there is a considerable surplus of wheat for exportation. The mineral products of Austria for 1887 had a total value of 72,067,948 florins, and the metals extracted were valued at 27,204,556 florins. The annual value of Austrian manufactures was estimated at 1,200,000,000 florins. The mineral products of Hungary in 1886 were valued at 22,617,834 florins, not reckoning produce of salt mines, of the value of 13,299,421 florins. The commercial treaty with Switzerland, which went into operation on Jan. 1, 1889, contains important reductions in the general tariffs of both states, governing, in conjunction with the new treaty with Italy, running from Jan. 1, 1888, to Jan. 1, 1892, the tariff on imports from Germany and other countries having most-favored-nation treaties with Austria-Hungary. The Swiss treaty was signed on Nov. 28, 1888, and ratified on Dec. 28. It remains in force till Feb. 1, 1892, and from that time will be continued by tacit agreement, subject to abrogation by either party on twelve months' notice. The treaty with Germany was prolonged by a provisional arrangement till June 30, 1888, and in default of notice from either power prior to Feb. 15, 1888, continues in operation from year to year, unless renounced by one party or the other. The treaties

with England and Belgium are terminable on a year's, and those with France and the Netherlands on six months' notice. The Turkish treaty of May 22, 1862, expires on July 6, 1890, and negotiations for a new one are in progress. All efforts to renew the commercial convention with Roumania, which expired on June 1, 1886, have failed. Besides the Swiss and Italian treaties, Austria-Hungary has concluded a conventional tariff with Servia, with reductions favorable to exports from both countries. avigation.—The Austro-Hungarian merchant marine, in the beginning of 1888 comprised 68 ocean steamers, of 80,203 tons; 91 coasting steamers, of 15,307 tons; and 9,569 vessels, including coasters and fishing smacks, of 191,757 tons; total, 9,569 vessels, of 287,267 tons. The number of vessels entered at AustroHungarian ports in 1886 was 66,635, of 7,588,658 tons; the number cleared, 66,381, of 7,578,975 tons. The Austrian flag was carried by 83 per cent. of the vessels and the same percentage of those cleared, the Italian tonnage coming next, and the British third. Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.-The Austrian state lines of railroad on Jan. 1, 1888, had a total length of 3,789 kilometres, exclusive of 84 kilometres of Government railroad worked by companies, while the companies operated 8,674 kilometres of their own lines, and owned 1,607 kilometres more, worked by the state. The total length of Hungarian railroads was 10,121 kilometres. Baross, the Hungarian Minister of Communications, introduced a new system of passenger fares, by which the country is divided into fourteen zones. Uniform rates are charged from any place in one zone to any place in another, and between all stations in the same zone there is put one price. The average rate of fares is about 25 per cent. less than formerly. The Hungarian Legislature in 1867 adopted the system of guaranteed railroads, then common in European countries, and by 1874 a large network had been built, which has been of great benefit in the economic development of the country, but which was administered from the beginning for private gain to the neglect of ublic interests, and through stock speculation as cost the state more in guaranteed interest than it would have cost to build the railroads. At length, in common with the neighboring countries, Hungary adopted the system of state railroads, and gradually bought up the lines of the companies until, with the acquisition of the Hungarian Western Railroad so the line leading into Galicia, the entire network is now in the hands of the state. Lines that under private management, were unable to earn their running expenses, now return a fair profit notwithstanding recent reductions in freight tariffs ranging from 7 to 46 per cent. The number of letters and postal cards sent through the Austrian post-office during 1887 was 462,907,000; of patterns and printed inclosures, 59,288,000; of newspapers, 93,621,000. The receipts of the posts and telegraphs were 27,635,753 florins; expenses. 23.824,267 florins. The Hungarian post-office forwarded 128,113,000 letters and postal cards, 16,647,000 patterns and jointed inclosures, and 50,531,000 newspapers. The postal and telegraph receipts were 10,868,551 florins; expenses, 9,301,374 florins. The Austrian telegraph lines in 1887 had a total length of 24,672 kilometres, with 66,430 kilometres of wire. The number of messages sent during the o: 7,431,131. The length of the Hungarian ines was 11,215 kilometres; length of wires, 41.520 kilometres; number of messages, 3,621,832. In the Occupied Provinces there were 2,000 kilometres of lines, with 3,410 kilometres of wire; number of dispatches in 1886, 288,000. The Common Budget.—The budget of the Delegations for common expenses amounted in 1888 to 135,910,000 florins. The budget estimates for 1889 call for 139,157,324 florins, of which 39,698,314 florins represent the surplus from customs, 96,518,566 florins are assessed on the two parts of the empire, and the remainder represents receipts of the various ministries. Of the expenditure the two chief items are 121,131,004 florins for the army and 11,318,227 florins for the navy. The budget for 1890 amounts to only 129,351,708 florins, of which 113,960,160 florins are ordinary and 15,391,548 florins extraordinary expenditure. The customs receipts are estimated at 39,953,850 florins, leaving a sum of 89,397,858 florins to be provided out of Austria and Hungary for common requirements. The o army expenditure amounts to 15,358,948 florins, and includes new accoutrements for the infantry, repeating carbines for the cavalry, and additional fortifications in Galicia, costing 2,674,000 florins. The Army.-The military forces of the dual monarchy are divided into the active army, the reserve, the Landwehr, and the Landsturm. The active army and its reserve are under the control of the common Minister of War, while the territorial armies of the two monarchies are controlled by the Ministers of National Defense. The footing of the standing army in 1888 was 301,042 officers and men of all arms. There are 102 regiments of regular infantry, numbering 178,778 men; 1 regiment of Tyrolean Jägers and 32 battalions of j. numbering 18,529 men in all; 41 regiments of cavalry, with 47,091 men; 14 regiments of field artillery, numbering 23,493 men; and 12 battalions of fortress artillery, with 7,181 men; besides technical artillery, engineers, pioneers, a railway and telegraph regiment, train, staff, and medical and other establishments. The Austrian Landwehr on the peace footing numbered 4,452 officers and men; the Hungarian Honved, 11,125; Austrian gendarmerie, 10,510. On the war footing the standing army numbers 905,618; the Austrian Landwehr, 234,926; the Honved, 167,360. The number of men liable to serve in the Landsturm is more than 4,000,000. There are 816 field-guns in and in war 1,748. The number of horses in time of peace is 50,362, and in war can be increased to 217,000. The common budget for 1890 continues a number of infantry and cavalry regiments above their strength, and provides for 14 new batteries of heavy artillery and an additional railway battalion. The Austrian infantry is rapidly being equipped with the Mannlicher repeating rifle of eight millimetres caliber, which is that of the French magazine rifle. The model of the Mannlicher rifle, which was adopted by the Austrian Government in 1888, has also

been decided on by the German authorities as the weapon for the German, infantry. . It is not properly a magazine rifle, but is loaded with cartridges in packages of five, with an attachment for inserting the cartridges successively in the breach. e cartridge contains the ball, powder, and percussion material all inclosed in the shell. The rifle can be used as a single loader only when the chamber is o § introducing ordinary single cartridges. The bullets, like those adopted in France for the Lebel rifle, are coated with a thin nickle-washed envelope of steel to preserve the shape and penetrating power when striking a solid substance. The smokeless-powder that has been adopted in Germany was the invention of an Austrian chemist. Although a powder that, burns without much smoke is necessary for the effective use of a magazine rifle, this powder, while adapted for skirmishing and picket-firing, can not be used by large bodies of infantry in close line of battle, as was shown in the Austrian autumn manoeuvres of 1889, when a large number of soldiers were overcome by the powerful fumes, and many were fatally asphyxiated. The Navy.—The navy is under the supreme command of the chief of the naval department of the Ministry of War. The naval forces consisted in 1888 of 11 inon-clads, 8 corvette cruisers, 8 torpedo cruisers, 12 coast guards, 9 transports, 2 monitors, and 42 torpedo boats. The cruiser, “Custoza,” the turret ship “Tegethoff,” and the “ of Albrecht” are the most powerful of the older vessels. The “Kronrinz Rudolf,” a central citadel barbette ship, |...i. in July, 1887, carries 348-ton Krupp guns., “The Stephanie,” a belted barbette ship, armed with 2 |. guns, was launched in April, 1887, Three of the torpedo vessels have attained a speed of 19 knots when fully o: for cruising. The navy is recruited both by conscription and enlistment. A Seewehr of the coast population, jo"; to the Landwehr, was organized in 1888. e term of service in the navy is the same as in the army. Austria.-The Cisleithan Monarchy is officially known as the kingdoms and provinces represented in the Reichsrath. It is composed of seventeen states possessing separate Diets, which exercise a large measure of home rule. The Provincial Diets are composed of bishops of the Roman and Greek Churches, heads of universities, and representatives of land-owners, of towns, of boards of trade and industry, and of rural communes. These bodies are competent to legislate on matters of local administration, the promotion of agriculture, charities, and public works, and to levy taxes for these o oses and for the maintenance of schools and churches. The Reichsrath consists of two chambers. The House of Lords is composed of 20 archdukes, 66 territorial nobles, 10 archbishops, 7 prince-bishops, and 109 life members. The House of Deputies contains 353 members, of whom 85 are elected by land-owners, 116 by urban constituencies, 21 by chambers of commerce and trade guilds, and 131 by rural constituencies. Bohemia has 92 representatives; Galicia, 63; Lower Austria, 37; Moravia, 36; Styria, 23: Tyrol, 18; Upper Austria, 17; the coast provinces of Gorizia, Istria, and Trieste, 12; Carniola, 10; Silesia, 10; Carinthia. 9: Bukowina, 9: Dalmatia, 9; Salzburg, 5; Voralberg, 3. The following rights are owed by patent on the Reichsrath: Consent to all laws relating to military duty; co-operation in laws relating to trade and commerce, customs, banking, the postal service, railroads, and telegraphs; and examination of the budget, tax laws, loans, and the conversion of the funds, and a general control of the debt. All bills before becoming law must receive the sanction of both houses and of the Emperor. The Austrian Cabinet is composed of the following members: President and Minister of the Interior, Count Edward Taafe, appointed on Aug. 19, 1879; Minister of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs, Dr. Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn; Minister of Finance, Dr. J. Dunajewski; Minister of Agriculture, Count Julius Falkenhayn; Minister of Commerce and National Economy, Marquis von Bacquehem; Minister of National Defense, Lieutenant Field-Marshal Count S. von Welsersheimb; Minister of Justice, Count Friedrich von Schönborn, appointed on Oct. 13, 1888; without portfolio, Baron Prazak, appointed on Oct. 13, 1888. Area and Population.—The area, in square miles, and the population of the lands represent

ed in the Reichsrath as estimated on Dec. 31, 1887, are as follow : provinces. | Area. population.

Lower Austria .... 7,654 2,583,998 Upper Austria..... 4,631 778,819 Salzburg ........... --- --- 2,767 171,001 Styria...... ........... 8,670 1,270.552 Carinthia - 4,005 360,979 Carniola ...... 8,856 500.243 Coast-land.... 3,084 698,134 Tyrol and Worarlberg.... --- 11,824 924,518 Bohemia........................ 20,060 5,789,538 Moravia . --- 8,583 2,227,067 Silesia..... 1,987 592, Galicia..... 80,307 6,408,572 Bukowina. - - - - - - - - - - - 4,035 629,247 Dalmatia ....................... 4,940 521,986

Total Austria ............... 115,903 || 23,447,192

The males numbered 11,456,387, and the females 11,990,805. There were 889,478 births, exclusive of still-births, 672,302 deaths, and 182,088 marriages in 1887; surplus of births over deaths, 217,176. Of the total births 1489 per cent. were illegitimate. The number of Austrian emigrants arriving in the United States in 1886 was 22,006; in 1887, 24,786. According to the last census, 8,005,452 inhabitants of Austria o: er have German for their mother tongue; 5,181,611 speak Bohemian, Moravian or Slovakian; Polish, 3,239,356; Ruthenian, 2,794,554; Slovene, 1,140,548; Servian or Croatian, 563,371; Italian, 668,653: Roumanian, 190,799; Magyar, 9,887. Vienna with its suburbs had about 1,270,000 inhabitants in 1887; Prague, 170,000; Trieste, 144,844; Lemberg, 109,746.

Finances.—The revenue of Austria has not increased in recent years, and the accounts since 1883 have shown an average annual deficit of nearly 25,000,000 florins. e ordinary revenue for 1888 is given in the financial estimates as 497,667,904 florins of which 100,043,000 florins are derived from the land, house, income, industrial, and other direct taxes: 39,462,500 florins from customs; 88,252,800 florinsfrom excise; 20,

452,000 florins from salt; 77,385,400 florins from tobacco; 18,800,000 florins from stamps; 33080,000 florins from judicial fees; 21,500,000 florins from the state lottery; 3,972,300 florins from direct taxes; 27.930,000 florins from posts and telegraphs: 38,771,950 florins from railroads; 4,122,430 florins from forests and domains; 62,830,336 florins from mines; 2,122,549 florins from state properties; and 3,750,250 florins from other sources. The extraordinary revenue is set down as 16,803,932 florins, making the total receipts of the treasury 514,471,836 florins. The total expenditures are estimated at 535,715,753 florins, of which 486,855,160 florins are for ordinary and 48,860,593 florins for extraordinary urposes. Of the ordinary expenditures 16,24880 florins are allocated to the Ministry of the Interior, 11,944,802 florins to education, 6,459,030 florins to public worship, 1,419,330 florins to the central administration of the Ministry of Worship and Education, 10,458,760 florins to the Ministry of National Defense, 4,650,000 florins to the imperial household, 1,866,914 florins to the Cabinet and Reichsrath, 11,873,162 florins to the Ministry of *..." 92,571,525 florins to the Ministry of Finance, 19,891,100 florins to the Ministry of Justice, 56,756,410 florins to the Ministry of Commerce, 16,696,246 florins to pensions and grants, 99,229,806 florins to contributions for common affairs, 135,680,084 florins to the public debt, and 1,114,011 florins to other accounts. The budget estimates for 1889 make the total revenue 538,515,245 florins, and the expenditure 538,345,786 florins. The chief burden of the general debt of the empire falls on the Cisleithan Monarchy, Hungary contributing only 29,338,000 florins to the total annual interest of the consolidated debt, and Austria 120,851,900 florins. The capital of the general consolidated debt is 2,701,329,831 florins, to which should be added a floating debt of 100,720,991 florins, and annuities that have a capitalized value of 13,710,471 florins. Austria's special debt consists of 881,253,370 florins of consols, a floating debt of 3,006,136 florins, and annuities for the redemption of lands of the capitalized value of 98,952,451 florins. The total debt of Austria amounts to 152 florins per capita, and the interest to 5:32 florins. islation.—The great imperial questions of the tariff and military reform, which have helped to hold together for ten years the heterogeneous elements that com the ministerial majority, having been settled before the beginning of 1889, and the Ausgleich having been renewed after protracted negotiations with Hungary, the Taafe ministry entered on a critical period. The pledges given by the Government embraced reforms in the assessment of the income tax and of various industrial taxes and the reform of the system of criminal and civil procedure. The legal system in civil cases entailed a denial of justice to poor chients, because all pleadings are required to be written and the procedure is prolonged by useless formalities. A new criminal code was adopted in 1889. A law prohibiting the sale of all foreign lottery tickets and the issue of domestic lottery tickets of all kinds, aside from the state lottery, was in March. In accordance with this act, Dr. Dunajewski, the Minister of Finance, rohibited subscriptions in Vienna for a Greek

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

overnment lottery to raise money for archaeological explorations that had been encouraged by the Austrian Foreign Office. A bill for the restriction of the liquor traffic was drawn up on the basis of reports showing that drunkenness was spreading. The clerical party has induced Dr. Gautsch, the Minister of Education, to introduce voluntary schools, such as the Belgian clericals borrowed from the English system of public education. Amendments to the publicschool law made in the session of 1889 provide that religious instruction shall be imparted and directed by the ecclesiastical authorities with the o of the provincial school authorities, and in case of disagreement, the Minister of Education shall decide. The ecclesiastical authorities have alone to decide what shall be taught. Religious teachers, ecclesiastical authorities, and religious societies must conform to the school laws and the regulations of the educational authorities. Attendance in school is required from the age of seven to the age of fifteen, though after six years of schooling children will be excused from full attendance for good reasons at the request of parents or guardians. Private institutes are subject to the supervision of the educational authorities, and the erection of a public school in any locality can be omitted when there is a private school fullfilling the requirements of the education laws. This clause not only facilitates the establishment of conventual schools, but relieves people patronizing them in many cases from their share of the cost of public education.

Bohemian Politics.-The Rump Diet of Bohemia, from which the German members absent themselves, enacts new measures each year for the preservation of the Czech language and nationality, one of the latest being a law subjecting Czech parents to a fine when they send their children to German schools. The old Czechs, who, through their alliance with the Ultramontanes, the Galicians, and the Feudalists, have secured the equality of their language, do not go far enough to satisfy the awakened aspirations of the Czech nation, which, recalling its ancient glories, is captivated by the extravagent promises of the young Czech party, led by Dr. Gregr. The young Czechs aim to separate Bohemia from Austria, crown the Emperor as King of Bohemia in the capital of St. Wenceslas, and give the restored kingdom an independent constitution and equal rank with Hungary and Austria in the federal empire. In the elections of 1889 the old Czechs lost two thirds of their seats to the young Czechs, retaining forty-one, while the Germans kept the sixty-two seats that they held before. The young Czechs are considered a dangerous and unpatriotic party, not by the Germans alone, but by the friends of the Government. Their organs have often denounced the German alliance, and hinted at a restoration of Bohemia to her place among nations by the aid of Russia. In the debate on the army bill they went as far as the Hungarian Radicals in their opposition to German as the official language of the army, and were the only ones except the Anti-Semites to vote against the bill. The German Liberals were elated over the young Czech victory as a proof of the failure of the Taafe system of concession and compromise;

but the Government, instead of gratifying the Germans by punishing the electors, held fast to the policy that had been successful in averting race conflicts for ten years, appointing Count Thun-Hohenstein to the governorship of Bohemia when it was rendered vacant by the retirement of Baron Krauss. The new governor is attached to the old Czech party, belonging to the section that is most ready to share the ideas of the young Czechs. Riots in Wienna.-A strike of the street-car drivers in Vienna began on Easter Sunday. The men complained that they had to work from fourteen to eighteen hours a day, for wages averagin about a florin and a quarter. They were subject to a vexatious system of fines for delays that are often entirely beyond their control. The public, which had long protested against the overcrowding of cars, sympathized with the “tramway slaves,” who also suffered from the avaricious management of the company. There were several encounters between friends of the striking drivers and the police on so In the evening o were sent to patrol the streets, and they likewise were assailed with stones. On Monday the strike became general. The Tramway Company sent out hostlers and inspectors with cars, which were stoned by sympathizers of the striking drivers. The police were powerless, and the cavalry that were sent to clear the streets of the suburbs held by the rioters were received with missiles. Beer shops and cafés were taken possession of and used as fortresses by the rioters, who were no sooner dispersed in one quarter than they appeared in another to continue the disturbances. In the evening infantry were called out to re-enforce the cavalry. The working population of Favoriten and Hernals, not the strikers themselves, tore up the tracks and broke the windows of the cars. Many empty cars were overturned on their routes, and one that was full of §. On Tuesday, while police held the depots and troops guarded the streets, cars were enabled to run until evening, when the rioters held the field, although the troops were largely increased. The Socialists were thought by some to have instigated the disturbance, while others held the Anti-Semites responsible. A well-known Anti-Jewish agitator was said to have been active in preparing the strike. There were many Jews among the directors and stockholders of the company, and hostility toward Jews in general, and Jewish capitalists in particular, was evinced, as was natural with a state of feeling existing among the working-class citizens that had led to the election of 11 Anti-Semites out of 17 new members sent to the Municipal Council. The authorities were reluctant to use extreme measures; but when the Emperor returned to Vienna, he told Baron Krauss, the head of the police, that the riots must be brought to an end. At the same time he showed his sympathy for the grievances of the men on strike by appointing an interview with a deputation of the drivers. The company was finally brought to terms by the action of the Municipal Council in fining it 50,000 florins for breach of its charter in not conveying passengers on holidays, and holding over it a fine of 10,000 florins for every additional day that it continued to withhold the street-car service.

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »