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Bank, with a total capitalization of $315,000. for observations made at hangings, and inquirOn Sept. 30 there were 149 State banks.
ing for suggestions in regard to a more humane Four new trust companies, two each in New method. Electricity, prussic acid or other poiYork and Brooklyn, with an aggregate capital of son, the guillotine, and the garrote were sub$2,500,000, have been authorized to do business mitted. Suggestions were also invited in regard during the year. On Sept. 30 there were thirty to the disposition of the body of the person exetrust companies and miscellaneous corporationscuted, with a view of increasing the deterrent
Railroads.-The report of the railroad com- effect of capital punishment. The circular was missioners for 1889 presents the following fig- widely distributed, especially among judges, ures: Gross earnings of railroads, $153,537,208.19; district-attorneys, sheriffs, and physicians. operating expenses, $101,729,493.88; net earn- About 200 replies came, 80 of which were ings, $51,807,714.31; interest charges, $26,793,- against a change, 87 favored electricity, 8 poi733.43 ; taxes paid, $5,269,481.86
; dividends, sons, 5 the guillotine, 4 the garrote, and the rest $14,617,334.99; surplus, $4,544,800.98; miles of were for various methods or were non-committal. road built, 7,466; stock and debt, $1,275,883,- The commissioners were obliged to ask that 953.58; cost of road and improvements, $1,214,- their time be extended until January, 1888, and 531,088.93. All these figures show a moderate at that time they made an elaborate report. increase over 1888, except in case of the surplus, This began with a long description of the penalwhich is reduced more than $800,000.
ties attached to 33 offenses under the Mosaic Floods.-The effects of the May floods, almost law, and it gave an outline of 34 methods of unparalelled in our history, though not to be capital punishment in use from that time to the compared with those in Pennsylvania and Mary- present, as follow: Auto da fé, beating with land, were quite serious in western New York. clubs, beheading, blowing from cannon, boiling, Among the most notable visitations was that of breaking on the wheel, burning, burying alive, Elmira, the streets of which were flooded five crucifixion, decimation, dichotomy, dismemberfeet deep, resulting in the destruction of many ment, drowning, exposure
to wild beasts, flaying thousand dollars of merchandise. The rail- alive, knout, garrote, guillotine, hanging, hararoad bridge, weighted by two heavy freight kara, impalement, iron maiden, peine forte et trains, stood the pressure, but forced the waters of dure, poisoning, pounding in mortar, precipitathe Chemung river back into the city. Late on the tion, pressing to death, rack, running the gantnight of June 1, the railroad embankment gave let, shooting, stabbing, stoning, strangling, sufway, carrying off the railway tracks, portions of focation. The investigation into the present the adjacent buildings, and sumber yards. Sev- methods of execution in civilized countries eral lives were lost, and the people living on the showed that 29 allow executions to be public, flats were saved with great difficulty, The while 7 of them require privacy. The counfreshet at Andover submerged houses and crops tries allowing public executions are as follow, for miles, and destroyed a dozen bridges in and together with the method employed : Austria, about the town. The bursting of two mill-dams gallows; Belgium, guillotine; China, sword added to the danger, and people were forced to or cord; Denmark, guillotine; Ecuador, musthe tops of houses for safety. About ten miles ket; France, guillotine; Holland, gallows; Italy, of railway track were destroyed and fifteen sword or gallows (abolished): Oldenberg, mus feet of mud and débris were left in some cases. ket; Portugal, sword; Russia, musket, sword, At Wellsville, the outer portions of the town or gallows; Spain, garrote; Switzerland (15 were submerged to the eaves of the roofs. Canis- cantons), sword; Switzerland (2 cantons), guilteo was badly devastated and the river flooded lotine. The 7 countries requiring that executhe streets to a height of from five feet to seven tions shall be private are these : Bavaria, guilfeet. The merchants lost heavily by the destruc- lotine; Brunswick, axe; Hanover, guillotine: tion of goods. Many houses were swept from Prussia, sword; Saxony, guillotine ; Switzertheir foundations and two costly blocks were land (2 cantons), guillotine. A summary shows tumbled into ruins. Several people lost their that 10 countries use the guillotine, 19 the lives and there were many narrow escapes from sword, 3 the gallows, 2 the musket, 1 the axe, death. Though more or less ruin was wrought and 1 the cord. The commissioners reported in other sections, the above-mentioned were the that the element of barbarous cruelty is so more notable instances of the havoc wrought. prominent in each of these methods that none The loss in the State is estimated at $500,000. of them can be considered as embodying sugges
Execution by Electricity.-In 1886 a law tions of improvement over that now in use in was enacted, creating Elbridge T. Gerry, of New this State. The chief objections to the guilloYork, Dr. A. P. Southwick, of Buffalo, and tine by the commissioners were that it is too Matthew Hale, of Albany, a commission to inves- bloody and that it is associated with the scenes tigate and report to the Legislature, in January, of the French revolution. The garrote is ob1887, the most humane and practical method jectionable because physicians say the fatal known to modern science of carrying into effect screw can not be depended upon to be so quick the sentence of death in capital cases. It was and certain in operation that there may not be provided that such report shall be in detail, ac- great agony on the part of the criminal. Shootcompanied by drawings and specifications of any ing, if used in civil life would sometimes lack appliance recommended by such commission for celerity, would require a large number of exeuthat purpose, together with the cost of construc- tioners, and would be demoralizing because of its tion and maintenance and probable durability. tendency to encourage the populace to think The commissioners undertook the work at once. lightly of the fatal use of firearms. The first A circular was first prepared soliciting views objection to hanging, the commissioners ro upon the present mode of punishment, asking ported, is, that the effect of giving stimulants to
the condemned immediately before the execution is demoralizing. The prevalence of the practice is well known even in prisons where criminals are debarred from alcoholic drinks. When the Anarchists were hanged in Chicago, the county physician, at the suggestion of the sheriff, asked them to take stimulants. Another objection to hanging is the danger of an attempt by the condemned man to commit suicide, and of some horrible scene afterward. There are four cases on record where men who had cut their throats just before the time of their execution arrived, were hanged. Still another objection to this form of punishment is the public horror and revulsion against hanging women. The electric current is one hundred times as rapid as the nerve force, and resuscitation after the passage of such a current through the body and functional centers of the brain is impossible. The current, if applied to the brain, would deaden that organ before any sensation could reach it. A chair with metal plates at the head and footrests would be necessary, electrodes being connected with each rest. If the current of electricity were supplied from electric-light wires, the chair and wires could be easily connected. The cost of maintenance and operation would be merely nominal. It was recommended that electric appliances be placed in the prisons at Sing Sing, Auburn, ...} Dannemora. In regard to the time of execution and the disposition of the body of a criminal, the commissioners had definite views. They say he ought to be doomed from the hour of his sentence, kept by himself in prison, and executed on a day to be set by the warden, while opportunity for the display of sentiment ought to be curtailed to the furthest extent. His body should not be paraded like that of a hero. but should belong to the authorities for dissection or destruction; or, if it is given to the family, the law should forbid them to exhibit it. The commissioners believe that by shutting a criminal out from the world from the time of his sentence, leaving him from that moment to the sternness of the law, with the knowledge that only punishment was in store for him, capital crimes would be more effecturally deterred than by any other means. Criminals meet death with bravado when they contemplate elaborate descriptions of their demise in the newspapers, and public funerals afterward; and the effect is to diminish the horrors of crime and hanging. The commissioners also described several experiments with electricity as a means of destroying animals; and they quoted an opinion from Thomas A. Edison, that dynamo-electric machinery which employs intermittent currents would be the most suitable o The passage of the current from these machines through the body, even by the slightest contact, causes instant death. The commissioners added to their report a bill, which became a law in 1888, to take effect on Jan. 1, 1889, and to apply to all convictions for crimes punishable by death, committed on or after that date. It was provided that the punishment of death must be inflicted by causing a current of electricity to pass through the body of the convict, and the application of such current must be continued until such convict is dead; and that the punishment of death must be in
flicted within the walls of the State prison designated in the warrant, or within the yard or inclosure adjoining thereto. The existing laws were amended so that the warden, or other person in charge of the State prison, should have the control of the execution, instead of the sheriff of the county in which the criminal is confined. It is the duty of the agent and warden to be present at the execution, and to invite the presence, by at least three days' notice, of a justice of the Supreme Court, the district attorney, and the sheriff of the county wherein the conviction was had, together with two physicians and twelve reputable citizens of full age, to be selected by said agent and warden. Such agent and warden must, at the request of the criminal, permit ministers of the Gospel, priests, or clergymen of any religious denomination, not exceeding two, to be present at the execution; and, in addition to the persons designated above, he may also appoint seven assistants or deputy sheriffs who may attend the execution. É. shall permit no other person to be present at such execution except those designated. Immediately after the execution an examination of the body of the convict shall be made by the physicians present, and their report in writing, stating the nature of the examination so made by them. shall be annexed to a certificate and filed there with. After such examination the body, unless claimed by some relative of the person executed, shall be interred in the graveyard or cemetery attached to the prison, with a sufficient quantity of quick-lime to consume such body without delay: and no religious or other services shall be held over the remains after such execution, except within the walls of the prison where said execution took place, and only in the presence of the officers of said prison, the person conducting said services, and the immediate family and relatives of said deceased prisoner. No account of the details of any such execution, beyond the statement of the fact that such convict was, on the day in question, duly executed according to law at the prison, shall be published in any newspaper. It is made a misdemeanor to violate, or neglect to comply with, any provision of this law. In November, 1888, a special committee of the Medico-Legal Society of the United States, appointed to investigate as to the best method of executing criminals by electricity under the new law, reported that a stout table, covered with a rubber cloth and having holes along its borders for binding-posts, or a strong chair should be procured. The prisoner, lying on his back, or sitting, should be firmly bound. One electrode should be so inserted into the table or into the back of the chair that it will impinge upon the spine between the shoulders. The head should be secured by means of a helmet fastened to the table or the back of the chair, and to this helmet the other pole should be so joined as to press firmly with its end upon the top of the head. The committee preferred the chair to the table. The instrument for closing the circuit can be attached to the wall. The electrodes should be of metal, not over one inch in diameter, somewhat ovoid. The skin and hair at the point of contact should be thoroughly wet with warm water. The hair should be cut short. A dynamo generating an electro-motive force of at least three thousand volts should be used. The alternating, as against the continuous, current is preferred. The current should be allowed to pass thirty seconds. The first conviction under the new law took place early in 1889, and the convict was sentenced to be put to death #. electricity in the State prison at Auburn. His counsel at once rocured a writ of habeas from Judge wight, of the Supreme Court, requiring i. warden of the prison to produce the prisoner's body before Judge Day, County Judge of Cayu County, June 18. The petition upon which the writ was granted alleged that the convict was sentenced to undergo a cruel and unusual punishment, and the counsel also asked that testimony to establish this point might be taken before a referee. Such testimony was taken at great length, the counsel confining himself to the form of punishment, and not to the scientific points in the case. Thomas A. Edison, who was summoned among other witnesses, testified that an electric current of sufficient power would inflict an instantaneous and painless death every time it was tried. The Attorney-General appeared for the people, to sustain the law. A portion of his brief was devoted to electricity as a science; and the following laws were claimed to have been established: 1. Electricity moves in a circuit. 2. Ohm's law—the intensity of the current in ampères is ascertained by o; the electromotive force, expressed in volts, by the resistance, expressed in ohms. 3. When two paths are offered to an electric current, it divides and follows both, proportionately to their respective conductivities. 4. Joule's law, or the law of heat. In October, 1889, Judge Day filed his decision in the case. In substance, he said: The question of the constitutionality of this law is of importance; for, apart from any other consideration, should it ultimately be held to be unconstitutional, not only may the condemned possibly escape punishment, but all other persons committing capital crimes since the beginning of the current year may likewise go unpunished, inasmuch as it is expressly provided that after it takes effect, a crime punishable by death must be punished according to its provisions, and not otherwise, and it is clear that any penal act hereafter passed to o to these cases would }.} and justly be held void, as ea post facto, and it is a question of novelty, there is no recedent, and its final decision is awaited with interest. It was to be expected, as the result has proved, that the testimony before the referee would be conflicting, and in great degree speculative and hypothetical: for on no person has the experiment yet been tried, and no endeavor to take human life by electricity has been made, under the circumstances and conditions, and with the appliances indicated by scientific knowledge as those most favorable to produce a fatal result. Back of all other questions lies another, “What is the duty of courts and judicial officers when called upon to declare, in a case like this, a legislative act void as against the Constitution, and by what rules should they be governed to The power of the State over crime is committed by the Constitution to the Legislature, without a definition of any crime. The case then went to the General Term of the Supreme Court,
where it has not }. (December, 1889) been passed upon. Whether it is decided in favor of or against the convict, an appeal will be taken to the Court of Appeals, where it will probably be decided in 1890. New Jersey has a law requiring that executions shall not be as public as they are in nearly all of the other States. The new law in New York was introduced in the legislative body of France, but nothing further was done with it. Germany is also discussing the question. A curious i. of the old system of hanging was shown in June, 1889, when a charter was ranted to the American Execution Company, in Chicago, to execute persons who are sentenced to death. The incorporators' idea is to employ competent executioners and open communication with all the sheriffs in the United States, guaranteeing that there will be no bungle, such as characterized the Bald-Knobbers' execution. Shrouds, coffins, etc., will be furnished, and also any style of apparatus—hempen, electrical, or whatever is asked. Political.—On Sept. 4 a State Convention of Prohibitionists met at Syracuse, and nominated the following candidates for State offices, to be filled by election this year: For Secretary of State, Jesse H. Griffin ; 'o. Beniamin L. Rand; Treasurer, Joseph W. Bruce; Attorney-General, C. A. Hart; State Engineer and Surveyor, Alpheus B. Kenyon; Judge of the Court of Appeals, W. J. Farrington. *h. platform contains the following declarations: That local option has proved unsatisfactory, being too local and two optional. In the future, as in the ast, we will, where the question is presented, vote or no license, but we refuse to accept local option as a substitute for the policy of prohibition. We o the duty of the coming Legislature to submit to the electors of the State an amendment to the Constitution prohibiting the liquor traffic, but, as the political machinery of both the old parties and almost the entire press of these parties in every recent contest have been combined for the defeat of prohibition, we protest against any such submission by any litical party whose only purpose is prohibition deeat; and we further declare that, if the amendment is submitted in this State, the Prohibition party will make every possible effort to secure its adoption. The Republican State Convention met at Saratoga on Sept. 25, and nominated for Secretary of State, John I. Gilbert; Comptroller, Martin W. Cooke; Treasurer, Ira M. Hedges: AttorneyGeneral, James M. Varnum; State Engineer and Surveyor, William P. Van Rensselaer; Judge of the Court of Appeals, Albert Haight. The platform contained the following:
We commend the action of the successive Republican Legislatures in enacting wise and beneficent public measures, including the law taxing collateral inheritances, which has already relieved the burdens of taxation by over $2,000,000; the law taxing inco ration, which produces $200,000 annually; the law making employés first preferred creditors in assignments; the law providing for the proper discipline and employment of convicts; and the }. protecting the products of the farm and dairy.
We arraign Gov. Hill as a public enemy for defeating by his vetoes the following measures of legislation: The Enumeration bill, twice passed in obedience to the requirement of the Constitution; the Constitutional Convention bill, passed in pursuance of an overwhelming vote of the people; the Anti-Bribery bill, to prevent the corruption of voters and the in
timidation of employés at elections; all measures for members of the Assembly and the Democrats 57. excise revision and reform, notwithstanding their ap- This is a gain of one Senator and 8 Assemblyproval by prominent men of all political parties; the men for the Democrats. Ballot Reform bill, twice passed, to secure a pure and untrammeled ballot; the Liquor Tax bill, twice
At the same time a special election was held passed, which would have lightened the burdens of in the Ninth Congressional District to fill the taxation on homes and farms to the extent of $3,000,000 vacancy caused by the death of Samuel S. Cox. annually all of which measures were passed by Re- There was no candidate in opposition to Amos publican Legislatures in response to the demand of an Cummings, Democrat, who received 15,508 votes enlightened and patriotic public sentiment. We de- out of a total of 15,559 votes cast. A special nounce these vetoes as being subversive of the rights election was also held in the Twenty-seventh of the people's representatives, and as being autocratic District to select a successor to Congressman N. and revolutionary.
We urge the continuance of efforts to render impos- W. Nutting, resigned, at which Sereno E. Payne, sible improper combinations and conspiracies known Republican, received 20,794 votes; Hopkins, as " trusts.
Democrat, 13,249 votes; and Mills, Prohibitionist, The Democratic State Convention was held at 536 votes. On Nov. 30, at a special election in Syracuse on Oct. 1. It renominated Comptroller the Sixth District to select a successor to ConWemple, Attorney-General Tabor, and State
En- gressman Frank J. Fitzgerald, resigned, Charles gineer and Surveyor Bogart. For Secretary of H. Turner,
Democrat, received 6,811 votes; George State the nominee was Frank Rice; for state w: Collier, Republican, 1,149 votes; Michael Treasurer, Elliot F. Danforth; and for Judge of Hines, Prohibitionist, 191 votes; and John J. the Court of Appeals Denis O'Brien. The plat
Haley 123 votes. form contains the following:
NEW YORK CITY. Government. - The
city officials who took office on Jan. 1, 1889, are : Maintaining, as heretofore, that improper combina- Mayor, Hugh J. Grant, Tammany Democrat tions of capital which limit production, fix the price (salary $10,000);
President of the Board of Alreduce the wages of labor and crush out the smaller dermen, John H. V. Arnold (salary $3,000); independent dealer, and thus strangle legitimate com- Register, James J. Slevin (salary $12,000); Sherpetition, are conspiracies; we demand legislation to iff, James A. Flack, (fees). prevent such combinations. We point to the fact that Finances.—The city debt was increased durwhile the last two Republican Legislatures have de- ing 1889 by $7,349,936.94. This increase is due feated all additional legislation desirable for their to extraordinary expenses which the city was complete suppression, the legal department of the compelled to meet, among which the cost of the and carried to a successful issue litigation
having the new
parks was the greatest. A list of the bonds destruction of such conspiracies as its aim.
issued to meet these expenditures is herewith We arraign the late Republican Legislature for im- given : posing the heaviest State taxes in both rate and amount For new parks in the Twenty-third and Twensince 1875.
ty-fourth wards, Westchester County. $9,057,000 00 We commend the vetoes of a Democratic Governor, Improvement of old parks in the city
176,000 00 which have saved to the tax payers of the State New aqueduct......
1,600,000 00 $200,000.
Other Oroton water work
School houses and sites
1,000,000 00 liquors on the one hand, nor prohibition on the other, Street improvements, regulating, grading, We believe that the liquor traffic should be restrained building sewers, etc..
618,000 00 and regulated by just and equitable excise laws, rigid- Docks, slips, and improvements of water front ly enforced, which laws in their operation should be
750,000 00 substantially uniform throughout the State. We ar- Completion of Washington Bridge over Har
885,100 00 raign the Republican party for its dishonest treatment New armories
168,500 00 of the temperance question.
New criminal court-house.
10,000 00 We demand such changes in our election laws as Museums of Art and Natural History buildwill more effectually promote the secrecy of the ballot, ings.
260,000 00 stop corruption at the
polls, and prevent the intimidation and corruption of electors.
$10,437,182 55 We believe in home rule for cities.
Almost the entire proceeds of the bonds issued We favor a revision of the tax laws, whereby per- this year have been devoted to the purchase of sonal and corporate property shall be made to bear permanent improvements. their full and just burdens.
The tax rate for 1889 was but 1.95 per cent., There was also a ticket in the field, nominated against 2-22 for 1888. by the Labor party, which obtained, however, but For the first time in the history of any politfew supporters.
ical body, whether Federal, State, or municipal, At the November election all candidates on republican or monarchical, the obligations of this the Democratic ticket were elected. For Secre- municipality, bearing 24 per cent. interest, have tary of State, Rice received 505,894 votes; Gil- been sold at a premium in the open market. bert, 485,367; Griffin, 26,763; and Beecher, La The City Chamberlain is Richard Croker (salbor, 753; plurality for Rice, 20,527. For Judge ary $25,000) who succeeded William M. Ivins on of the Court of Appeals, O'Brien received 503,269 April 10. His report is as follows: votes; Haight, 487,567; Farrington, 25,236; plu- Balance, Jan. 1, 1889,
$13,115,918 25 rality for O'Brien, 15,702. The plurality of Cash receipts, Jan. 1, 1889, to Dec. 27, 1889... 95,877,928 08 Wemple for Comptroller was 11,190; of Danforth Cash payments. for Treasurer, 13,955; of Tabor for Attorney- Cash receipts, April 10, 1889, to Dec. 27, 1889. 84,808,647 47
80,159,165 38 General, 10,711 ; of Bogart for State Engineer Interest on bank balances received in eleven and Surveyor, 16,981. For members of the Legis months of 1889 and credited to sinking fund. 161,861 11 lature
of 1890, the Republicans elected 19 Sena In the Finance Department Comptroller Thetors and the Democrats 13; the Republicans 71 odore W. Myers (salary $10,000) signed 27,237
warrants to pay $70,069,729.16. The receipts sewers, walls, and hydrants, paving streets, etc.; were $69,876,324.04, and from this amount $32,- 2, for the collection of revenue from the sale 735,493.78 was from taxes, and of this $27,343, and use of water ; 3, for the care of all prop000 was from taxes of 1889. The total funded erty connected with the supply of Croton wadebt of the city on Dec. 27, 1889, was $140,698,- ter; 4, for grading, flagging, curbing, and gutter128.01, and the total increase of the funded debt ing the streets; 5, for lamps and gas; 6, for is $8,253,032,55.
streets and roads ; 7, for repairs of and supplies The amount of fees received at the register's to public buildings, etc. ; 8, for the removal of office during 1889 was $115,510.05. The ex- incumbrances; 9, for the care of sewers. penses of the office were $124,500 and the in The annual report of the department contains crease in conveyances and mortgages during the the following data : year was 5,612.
On appropriation account for 1889
$2,960,678 83 Board of Estimate and Apportionment.- On local improvement fund ...
1,088,874 78 This body includes the Mayor, the Comptroller, On special fund for restoring pavements
257,124 93 the President of the Board of Aldermen, and the On revenue bonds for water meters..
12,745 $5 President of the Department of Taxes and Assessment.
14,858,231 84 The following are the amounts allowed for During the year 302 contracts were entered 1890: Mayoralty, $26,000; Common Council, into at a total estimated cost of $3,934,513.28. $76,800; Finance Department, $284,500 ; State The number of contracts completed during the taxes, $4,519,641 ; interest on city debt $5,305,- year was 291 ; total cost, $2,128,834.62. As to 819; redemption of principal of the city debt, the water supply, the report says: The water $1,080,617; armories and drill rooms --rents, service has been extended by laying 16 miles of $50,250; rents, $130,572 ; judgments, $150,000; additional water mains, making 654 miles of Law Department, $199,200;; Department of Pub- distributing mains now in use. The city now lic Works, $3,216,215; Department of Public receives 96,000,000 gallons of water a day from Parks, $1,120,700; Department of Public Char- the Croton Aqueduct. ities and Correction, $1,949,100; Health Depart The report sets forth that 212,341 square yards ment, $392,200 ; Police Department, $4,647,791 ; of pavement have been relaid. In the extenDepartment of Street Cleaning, $1,255,835; Firesion and improvement of the sewerage system Department, $2,138,543 ; Department of Taxes 28,279 lineal feet of sewers, 1,274 lineal feet of and Assessments, $118,800; Board of Education, culverts, and 46 receiving basins were built, and $4,224,417: College of the City of New York, the sewerage system on Manhattan Island now $147,000; The Normal College, $125,000; adver- includes 433.73 miles of sewers, with 5,209 receirtising, printing, stationery, etc., $246,700; Muni- ing basins. cipal Service Examining Board, $25,000; coro There are in use on the streets, parks, places, ners' salaries and expenses, $53,855; commis- docks, and bridges of the city 23,604 gas lamps, sioners of accounts, $27,500; the sheriff, $65,700; 1,331 electric lights, and 126 naphtha lamps. the register, $125,650; Bureau of Elections, The Park Department received $1,120,000 for $315,119; preservation of public records, $49,- expenses from the Board of Estimate and Ap200; miscellaneous, $209,072 ; fund for street portionment besides the acquisition of title to and park openings, $204,247 ; salaries — city the new park lands in the annexed district. Ar courts, $382,900; salaries--judiciary, $1,068,840; rangements have been made for sinking the charitable institutions, $1,215,311; total, 35,148,- tracks of the Port Morris branch of the New 097. Deduct general fund, $3,646,960. Total, York and Harlem River Railroad, and for the $32,501,137.
extensions of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Law. The work in this division is divided and the American Museum of Natural History, among four offices, whose chiefs are: Counsel to The figures of the Street-Cleaning Department the Corporation, William H. Clark (salary, $12,- are as follow : Expenses, full amount of appro000); Public Administrator, Charles E. Lýdecker priation, $1,272,040; income, trimming scows, (salary, $4,000); Attorney for Collection of Ar- etc., $67,250. Of ashes and garbage, 1,148,249 rears of Personal Taxes, Henry Bischoff, Jr. cartloads were collected. There were 350 miles (salary, $4,000); and Corporation Attorney, Louis of paved street swept many times, equal to 52,112 Steckler (salary, $4,000). During 1889 there were mises swept once. Of these, 25,258 miles of the begun in the office of the Counsel to the Cor- sweeping was done within the territory south of poration 672 actions and special proceedings. Fourteenth Street, and this shows that all the of old actions and special proceedings begun paved roadways-about 125 miles—of that disprior to Jan. 1, 1889, there were terminated trict have been swept on the average 200 times during the year 844. One hundred and ninety- during the year. four new actions and special proceedings begun Vital Statistics.—The Board of Health consince Jan: 1, 1889, were terminated during the sists of the President of the Board of Police, the year. The collections of money by the Counsel health officer of the port, and two commissionto the Corporation amounted in the aggregate to ers, one of whom must have been for five years $326,843.65.
a practicing physician. The commissioner that Public Works. - This division of the city is not a physicion is the president of the board. government is under the charge of a commis- The commissioners are as follow : President, sioner appointed by the Mayor, independent of Charles G. Wilson (salary $5,000); Dr. Joseph the Board of Aldermen, for'a
term of four years. D. Bryant (salary, $4,000); Health Officer, WilThe present incumbent is Thomas F. Gilroy liam M. Smith ; and President of the Board of (salary, $8,000). There are nine sub-bureaus as Police, Charles F. MacLean. During 1889 the follow: i, for laying water pipes, constructing vital statistics were as follow :