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tective duties on produce brought into the col-lic Works, J. H. Howe; Minister of Lands, T. ony across the land frontiers. Recently they Burgoyne ; Minister of Education, J. H. Gordon ; have agitated for an advance of those duties to without portfolio, Dr. Campbell. 25 per cent. ad valorem. In the budget for 1889 The revenue in 1887-'88 was £2,354,743, and the import duty on oats and barley is increased the expenditure £2,245,931. For 1888–89 the from 28..to 3s. per cental. No increase was revenue was estimated at £2,401,874 and the exmade in the stock tax, because it is opposed to penditure at £2,279 800. The amount of the the federal spirit. Victoria had a "debt on public debt on Dec 31, 1888, was £19,397,700, the June 30, 1888, of £34,627,382, of which sum £26,- whole of which had been expended on railroads, 425,706 was borrowed for railroad construction, harbors, and other productive works. £5,345,150 for waterworks, £1,105,557 for public The population on Dec. 31, 1887, was estimated school buildings,
and £1,750,969 for other public- at 317,446, of which number 165,199 were males works. A new loan of £3,000,000 was raised in and 152,247 females. There were 10,831 births, Jan., 1889, at 31 per cent. The capital cost of the 3,944 deaths, and 1,977 marriages during the railroads to June 30, 1889, was £30,120,000, of year. The immigrants numbered 15,468, while which £28,275,000 had been raised by loans. 17,667 persons left the colony. According to the
Victoria has onjoyed for three years a period census of 1881 there were 6,346 aborigines and of unexampled growth and prosperity. A cen- 2,734 Chinese. tennial exhibition commemorative of the first The imports in 1887 amounted to £5,906,293, colonization of Australia was held in Melbourne and exports to £5,330,780. The exports of wool in the winter of 1888-'89. In addition to its were valued at £2,036,775; of wheat and flour, commercial results it had the effect of arousing £1,058,248; of copper and copper ore, £240,333. a wider popular interest in art and of giving an Out of a total area of 578,361,600 acres, only 9,860,impetus to technical schools. The Government 927 acres had been alienated at the close of 1887, is arranging a complete scheme of technical and and not more than 2,785,490 acres were under agricultural education. Measures are being taken cultivation. There were 1,419 miles of railroad to secure the reforesting of the denuded districts, completed and 403 miles building by the end of as well as to conserve the forests still standing. 1887. The colony had 5,485 miles of telegraphs, The system of irrigation adopted by Parliament with 11,007 miles of wire, including the overland is working beneficially, and the land affected is telegraph line crossing the continent from Adeexpected to yield more abundant crops each suc- laide to Port Darwin and connecting with the ceeding year. Boring for water is being done on British-Australian cable. In 1887 the number of a definite plan. A tariff bill which was with- letters and packets passing through the postdrawn in 1888 was reintroduced with changes in office was 15,181,309; of newspapers, 7,376,953. the session that opened on June 4, 1889. An Queensland.—Every adult
male who has been other bill improves the civil-service regulations in the colony six months is qualified to exercise which have now been introduced in all the Aus- the franchise, and property owners and leasetralian colonies, whereas formerly patronage and holders have votes in any districts where their partisan activity were the only roads to office. land is situated. The members of the LegislaThe permanent endowment of the state schools tive Council, as in the majority of the colonies, with revenues from Crown lands is in contem- are nominated for life by the Crown. The presplation. The Legislature was occupied in 1889 ent Governor is Gen. Sir Henry Wylie Norman, by a public health bill dealing specially with the appointed in December, 1888, after the volsanitation of Melbourne, where an epidemic of untary retirement of Sir Henry Blake. The typhoid fever occurred at the time of the exhi- ministry is presided over by Sir Thomas McIlbition. The Parliament was dissolved on March wraith, the leader of the National party, contain11, and in the elections which took place on the ing the same elements that formerly made up 28th of that month the ministerial party obtained the "Squatter” or Conservative party, who when 63 seats, while only 32 went to the Opposition. Premier before proclaimed the annexation of
South Australia.-As in Victoria, the Legis- New Guinea, an act that the home Government lative Council is elected by the people under a disallowed. The Liberal Premier, Sir Samuel property qualification, whereas the House of As- Griffith, resigned on Sept. 4, 1888, in consequence sembly is elected without limitation of suffrage. of a dispute with the Governor, and the National The Governor is the Earl of Kintore, who re- party, which as advocating the Protectionist ceived his appointment in December, 1888. The theory had been victorious in the elections of following ministers at the beginning of 1889 pre- May, 1888, succeeded to office, making the thirsided over the six departments of state : Premier teenth change of government since the colony and Treasurer, Thomas Playford ; Chief Secre was founded in 1859. The ministry is composed retary, James Garden Ramsay; Attorney-Gen- of the following members: Premier and Chief eral, Charles Cameron Kingston; Commissioner Secretary and Treasurer, Sir Thomas Mellwraith; of Crown Lands, Jenkin Coles; Commissioner Colonial Secretary, B. D. Morehead; Minister of Public Works, Alfred Catt; Minister of Ed- for Lands, M. Hume Black; Minister for Railucation, Joseph Colin Francis Johnson. In con- ways, H. M. Nelson; Postmaster-General and sequence of a vote of want of confidence carried Minister for Public Instruction, J. Donaldson ; on the motion of J. A. Cockburn, Minister of Ed- Secretary for Mines and Works, J. M. Macrossan; ucation in the last preceding administration, Minister of Justice, A. J. Thynne ; without portthese ministers resigned on June 24, and a new folio, W. Pattison. Cabinet was constituted, which is composed as Queensland comprises the northeastern part of follows: Premier and Chief Secretary, J. A the continent and adjacent islands, with an estiCockburn; Treasurer, F. W. Holder ; Attorney- mated area of 668,497 square miles and 2,250 General, B. A. Moulden; Commissioner of Pub- miles of coast. Of the total area 8,991,686 acres,
or less than 2 per cent. had been alienated at the close of 1887, the proceeds being £5,756,200. About one half the surface is covered with forests. Under an act passed in 1884, land can be selected for agricultural purposes up to 1,280 acres on a 50-years lease, and afterward can be acquired in fee simple on compliance with certain conditions. Pastoral leaseholds of the maximum area of 20,000 acres can be selected for the term of thirty years. The estimated population on Jan. 1, 1888, was 366,940. The aborigines are supposed to number about 12,000. Chinese and Polynesian laborers have for three years past left the colony in ter numbers d. the arrivals. The European immigrants in 1887 numbered 32,393; Chinese, 307; Polynesian, 2,079; the European emigrants, 16,414; Chinese, 821; Polynesian, 2,120. The number of births in 1887 was 13,513; deaths, 5,166; marriages, 2,914. The population of Brisbane, the political capital, o, its suburbs, was 73,649 by the census of May 1, 1886. The total value of the imports in 1887 was £5,821,611; of exports, £6,453,945. The chief exports, besides gold, are wool, valued at £2,368,711, and sugar, valued at £758,215. Other products are hides and skins, tin, and preserved meat. The gold product in 1887 was 425,923 ounces. Copper and galena are mined to some extent. Extensive and valuable coal deposits have been partly opened. The railroads at the beginning of 1888 had a length of 1,765 miles, and 653 miles more were in course of construction. There were 8,772 miles of telegraph lines and 15,677 miles of wire. The postal traffic in 1887 was 11,586,807 letters, 9,752,563 newspapers, and 1,509,276 packets. The revenue of the Government in 1887–'88 amounted to £3,177,518, and the expenditure to £3,368,883. For four years the expenditures have exceeded receipts, but the returns for 1888–'89 show an increased revenue. The effects of the late drought have disappeared. Artesian wells have been successfully bored in many places. A rabbit-fence constructed across the colony serves its purpose of confining the pest. Among recent legislative acts is the creation of a railway commission, which began its functions in 1889. Western Australia.-The settlement of the colony was begun by the colonists from Sydney in 1829. It has representative government, the Governor and his superiors sharing the legislative authority with a Legislative Council consisting of 17 elected and 9 nominated members. The present Governor is Sir Frederick Napier Broome, appointed in December, 1882. The seat of government is at Perth. The revenue in 1887, was £377,903, and the exo £456,897. There was a debt of £1,90,700 at the end of 1887. The area is estimated at 975,920 square miles. The population on Dec. 31, 1887, was 42,488. During the year there were 4,450 immigrants, while the departures numbered 2,400. There were 1,556 births and 702 deaths. The area under cultivation at the end of 1887 was 105,582 acres out of an area 6,000 times as great. The imports in 1887 were valued at £832,213, and the exports at £604,656. The telegraph lines had a length of 2,955 miles. The post-office transmitted 2,253,814 letters in 1887. he colony has been found to contain rich deposits of copper and gold. Gold was first dis
covered in the northern part of the colony in 1886, and now there are three promising goldfields—Kimberley, Pilbarra, and Yilgarn. Steam machinery has been carted through the tropical forests to Kimberley and Yilgarn. Since 1882 the annual export of wool has risen from 819,758 to 8,475,243 pounds. A railroad, 242 miles in length, was completed in 1887, another of equal length was built in the following year, connecting Perth, the capital, with the harbor of St. George's Sound, one of 294 miles on the western coast has been authorized, and in 1889 a concession was granted for one 800 miles in length that will eventually connect Perth with Adelaide and the other Australian capitals, for building which the company will receive 20,000 acres for every mile of track laid. These railroads have been financed on the land-grant system, the company receiving 12,000 acres along the line for each mile constructed. The Crown lands are open to settlers for selection at the price of 10s. an acre, payable in annual installments of 6d. an acre. Western Australia received representative government in 1870, and three years later a demand was made for responsible government. Lord Carnarvon, the then Colonial Secretary, in 1874 refused to consider the draft constitution that was framed by the Legislative Council. In 1883 Lord Derby announced the terms on which the home Government was prepared to grant the desired constitution. Sir Frederick N. Broome in 1884, when he had been ten months in the colony, o that the change ought to be postponed till the colony had advanced greatly in wealth and population, and that then the tropical northern part of the colony should continue under the administration of the Crown. Later he advocated all the demands of the colonists. Resolutions of the Legislative Council were accepted in principle by the Imperial Government, with reservations as to the northern district and protection for the natives, in a disatch of Lord Knutsford, dated Dec. 22, 1887. n May, 1888, the Governor transmitted a draft constitution, which was returned with the amendments of the Colonial Office. The colonists asked for an elective upper chamber, while the Government insisted on the old model of an upper house nominated by the Crown, but compromised by promising that the elective system should be introduced, should the colonial ministry of the day desire it, at the end of six years or after the population had increased to 60,000. Objections were raised in England to handing over the largest part of what remained of the “patrimony of the Crown " to 8,000 families, who would administer the lands chiefly with a view to the advantage of the section in which they were settled, if not for their own private benefit. The legislatures of the other Australian colonies, resenting the hesitancy of the Imperial Government to yield up the last remnant of Crown legislation on the Australian continent, voted petitions to the Queen seconding the demand of Western Australia for responsible government. The petition from Victoria supported all the demands of the Western Australians; New South Wales and Queensland asked that territory not included in the new constitution should be held exclusively for Australian and British settlement. The English officials proposed to divide the colony into two rts by a line running east and west at about 6° south latitude or in the neighborhood of Murchison river. The sale, letting, disposal, or occupation of waste lands north of that line is to remain under the control of the Imperial Government, the proceeds of sales being invested to form an interest-bearing fund, or expended for the benefit of the district, while the interest of this fund and the annual land revenues will go into the treasury of Western Australia until the Imperial Parliament decides to erect the northern territory, which contains at present about 2,000 inhabitants, into a new colony or colonies. The northern region, unlike the settled district around Perth, is not adapted to agriculture. Its j". will depend on the gold-fields, the pearl fisheries, and the pastoral industry. For the protection of the natives an Aborigines Protection Board was created in 1886, which disposes of an annual grant of £5,000. This board will be continued, the members being appointed by the Imperial Government, against the protest of the Western Australian Council. A bill for granting responsible government to Western Australia, subject to the reservations and conditions made by the colonial authorities, was introduced in Parliament by the Government, but since these conditions were far from being accepted by the Western Australians, the bill was . carried to a second reading, thus affirming the principle of responsible government, but leaving the disputed points open for further negotiations and compromises. Tasmania.-The Legislative Council is elective, the property qualification of electors being higher than for voters for members of the House of Assembly. The present Governor is Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, who was appointed in January, 1887. The following ministers were in office in 1889: Premier and Chief Secretary, Philip Oakley Fysh; Treasurer, Bolton Stafford Bird; Attorney-General, Andrew Inglis Clark; Minister of Lands and Works, Edward Nicholas Coventry Braddon. The revenue for six months of 1888, when the date of the financial year was changed, was £323,103, and the expenditure £328,512. The revenue for 1889 was estimated at £611,617, and the expenditure at £653,169; for 1889–90 the prospects are more cheerful, a revenue being expected of £683,000, against £670,000 of expenditures. To extinguish the deficits of recent years the Government introduced a tax of 9d. in the pound on rsonal property, including that of non-resients, of | 4.d. in the pound on all incomes. The public debt on Dec. 31, 1888, amounted to 424,545,370. The estimated population at the end of 1887 was 142,478. There were during the year 4,736 births, 2,161 deaths, and 939 marriages. The number of immigrants was 14,980; of emigrants, 12,288. The imports in 1887 amounted to £1,596,817; exports, £1,449,371. The exports of wool were valued at £415,425 ; those of tin at £407,857. The next most important articles are gold, fruit,
and timber and bark. There were 318 miles of
railroad completed, 123 miles under construction, 1,816 miles of telegraph lines, and 2,407 miles of wires at the end of 1887. The postoffice forwarded 4,442,736 letters in that year.
Fiji.-The colony, which was formally annexed in 1874, is administered as a direct dependenc of the Crown. The Governor also acts as Hig Commissioner and Consul-General for the Western Pacific. The present Governor is Sir John Bates Thurston. The native Fijians, who numbered 110,754 in 1887, are Wesleyan Christians, except eight per cent., who are Roman Catholics. There were besides 2,105 Europeans, 838 halfbreeds, 6,085 Indian coolies, and 2,354 Polynesian immigrant laborers. Rotumah, a dependent island administered by an English commissioner, had 2,303 inhabitants. The imports in 1887 were £188,071 in value, and the exports £281,080. The export of sugar was 12,831 tons, valued at £205,294. British New Guinea.—The southern part of New Guinea, which was made a British protectorate after the annexation of the northeastern coast by Germany, has an area of about 86,457 square miles, and a population of 135,000 Papuans. The white population has not hitherto exceeded fifty souls. There is a missionary settlement at Port Moresby, which is now said to possess hotels, water supply, and other conveniences of a civilized town. § the New Guinea act of November, 1887, the administration was placed on a new basis, and on Sept. 4, 1888, British sovereignty was proclaimed. The sum of £15,000 per annum is foil. for ten years by the colony of Queensand to meet the expenses of administration, New South Wales and Victoria having promised to contribute equally with Queensland to raise this amount. Dr. William McGregor was appointed Administrator of the new possession. Deputy Commissioner Musgrave, in his official report, asserts that the coast is not more unhealthful than northern Queensland, although residents are subject to fever. The mountain regions of the interior he believes to be remarkably salubrious. The country is said to be well suited to the raising of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, goats, and poultry, and to the cultivation of sugar, tobacco, bananas, pineapples, yams, sweet potatoes, and various tropical fruits. In the jungle sago, rattan, and copra can be gathered. Promising discoveries of gold have been made. The na
tives are not averse to labor, since they already
collect, cure, and prepare for shipment copra, gum, and beche de mer. The bêche-de-mer and mother-of-pearl supplies are nearly fished out, but the copra industry is capable of indefinite expansion. Much is expected also from the timber resources of the island. Great numbers of applications for land have been made by individuals, syndicates, and companies. In the neighboring Louisiade Islands gold has been found in apparently large deposits, and Australian o have invaded the islands in large numbers. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, a dual monarchy in Central Europe, composed of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The two states are united in the person of the sovereign, and have a common army, navy, and diplomacy. They also form a customs union by virtue of a financial convention called the Ausgleich, which is renewed and amended at the end of every ten years. Common affairs are managed by ministers of the Emperor's selection, subject to the sanction of a body called the Delegations, chosen
by the Austrian Reichsrath and the Hungarian with England and Belgium are terminable on a Parliament, each being represented by sixty mem- year's, and those with France and the Netherbers, two thirds of whom are chosen by the lands on six months' notice. The Turkish treaty Lower House from among its members, and one of May 22, 1862, expires on July 6, 1890, and nethird by the Cpper House.
gotiations for a new one are in progress. All The reigning Emperor of Austria and King of efforts to renew the commercial convention with Hungary is Franz Josef I, who succeeded his Roumania, which expired on June 1, 1886, have uncle, Ferdinand I, in 1848. The death of the failed. Besides the Swiss and Italian treaties, Archduke Rudolf made the Emperor's broth- Austria-Hungary has concluded a conventional er, Karl Ludwig, heir to the throne; but he re- tariff with Servia, with reductions favorable to pounced his rights in favor of his son Franz, exports from both countries. born Dec. 18, 1863.
Navigation. - The Austro-Hungarian merThe Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of the chant marine, in the beginning of 1888 comImperial House for the whole monarchy is di- prised 68 ocean steamers, of 80,203 tons; 91 rected by Count Kálnoky de Köröspatak, born in coasting steamers, of 15,307 tons; and 9,569 vesLetowitz, Moravia, Dec. 29, 1832, who was ap- sels, including coasters and fishing smacks, of pointed on Nov. 21, 1881, having for a year or 191,757 tons; total, 9,569 vessels, of 287,267 two previous represented Austria-Hungary at the tons. The number of vessels entered at Austrocourt of St. Petersburg. The Minister of War Hungarian ports in 1886 was 66,635, of 7,588,for the whole monarchy is Baron Maj. - Gen. 658 tons; the number cleared, 66,381, of 7,578,Ferdinand Baur, who succeeded Count Bylandt- 975 tons. The Austrian flag was carried by 83 Rheydt on March 16, 1888. The Minister of per cent. of the vessels and the same percentage Finance for the whole monarchy is Benjamin de of those cleared, the Italian tonnage coming Kállay, appointed on June 4, 1882.
next, and the British third. Commerce.- The total value of imports in Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.— The 1887, exclusive of precious metals, was 562,- Austrian state lines of railroad on Jan. 1, 1888, 700,000 florins; of exports, 648,800,000 florins. had a total length of 3,789 kilometres, exclusive Of the total imports of 1886, amounting to 539,- of 84 kilometres of Government railroad worked 223,418 florins, 333,458,308 florins entered the by companies, while the companies operated customs territory by way of Germany, 95,380,- 8,674 kilometres of their own lines, and owned 122 florins through the port of Trieste, 10,094,- 1,607 kilometres more, worked by the state. 153 florins from Roumania, 33,410,920 florins The total length of Hungarian railroads was through Fiume and other ports, 23,464,820 flor- 10,121 kilometres. Baross, the Hungarian Minins across the Russian frontier, 18,070,037 florins ister of Communications, introduced a new from Italy, 15,698,518 florins from Servia, 9,559,- system of passenger fares, by which the country 611 florins from Switzerland, 296,083 florins is divided into fourteen zones. Uniform rates from Montenegro, and 790,774 florins from are charged from any place in one zone to any Turkey. The special trade of Hungary in 1887 place in another, and between all stations in the amounted to 440,619,404 florins of imports, 85:15 same zone there is put one price. The average per cent. of which came from Austria, and 405,- rate of fares is about 25 per cent. less than for991,407 florins of exports, 73-90 per cent. of merly. The Hungarian Legislature in 1867 which went to Austria. Barley and wine are adopted the system of guaranteed railroads, then the chief agricultural products exported, and in common in European countries, and by 1874 a some years there is a considerable surplus of large network had been built, which has been of wheat for exportation. The mineral products great benefit in the economic development of the of Austria for 1887 had a total value of 72,067,- country, but which was administered from the 948 florins, and the metals extracted were valued beginning for private gain to the neglect of at 27,204,556 florins. The annual value of Aus- public interests, and through stock speculation trian manufactures was estimated at 1,200,000,- has cost the state more in guaranteed interest 000 florins. The mineral products of Hungary than it would have cost to build the railroads. in 1886 were valued at 22,617,834 florins, not At length, in common with the neighboring reckoning produce of salt mines, of the value of countries, Hungary adopted the system of state 18,299,421 florins.
railroads, and gradually bought up the lines of The commercial treaty with Switzerland, which the companies until, with the acquisition of the went into operation on Jan. 1, 1889, contains im- Hungarian Western Railroad and the line leadportant reductions in the general tariffs of both ing into Galicia, the entire network is now in states, governing, in conjunction with the new the hands of the state. Lines that under pritreaty with Italy, running from Jan. 1, 1888, to vate management, were unable to earn their Jan. 1, 1892, the tariff on imports from Germany running expenses, now return a fair profit notand other countries having most favored-nation withstanding recent reductions in freight tariffs treaties with Austria - Ilungary. The Swiss ranging from 7 to 46 per cent. treaty was signed on Nov. 28, 1888, and ratified The number of letters and postal cards sent on Dec. 28. It remains in force till Feb. 1, 1892, through the Austrian post-office during 1887 and from that time will be continued by tacit was 462,907,000; of patterns and printed inclosagreement, subject to abrogation by either party ures, 59,288,000 ; of newspapers, 93,621,000. The on twelve months' notice. The treaty with Ger- receipts of the posts and telegraphs were 27,635,many was prolonged by a provisional arrange- 753 florins; expenses, 23,824,267 florins. ment till June 30, 1888, and in default of notice Hungarian post - office forwarded 128,113,000 from either power prior to Feb. 15, 1888, con- letters and postal cards, 16,647,000 patterns and tinues in operation from year to year, unless re- printed inclosures, and 50,531,000 newspapers. nounced by one party or the other. The treaties The postal and telegraph receipts were 10,868,551
florins; expenses, 9,301,374 florins. The Aus- been decided on by the German authorities as trian telegraph lines in 1887 had a total length the weapon for the German infantry. It is of 24,672 kilometres, with 66,430 kilometres of not properly a magazine rifle, but is loaded wire. The number of messages sent during the with cartridges in packages of five, with an atyear was 7,431,131. The length of the Hungarian tachment for inserting the cartridges successlines was 11,215 kilometres ; length of wires, ively in the breach. The cartridge contains the 41,520 kilometres; number of messages, 3,621,- ball, powder, and percussion material all inclosed 832. In the Occupied Provinces there were 2,000 in the shell. The rifle can be used as a single kilometres of lines, with 3,410 kilometres of wire; loader only when the chamber is empty by innumber of dispatches in 1886, 288,000.
troducing ordinary single cartridges. The bullets, The Common Budget.—The budget of the like those adopted in France for the Lebel rifle, Delegations for common expenses amounted in are coated with a thin nickle-washed envelope 1888 to 135,910,000 florins. The budget esti- of steel to preserve the shape and penetrating mates for 1889 call for 139,157,324 florins, of power when striking a solid substance. The which 39,698,314 florins represent the surplus smokeless-powder that has been adopted in Gerfrom customs, 96,518,566 florins are assessed on many was the invention of an Austrian chemist. the two parts of the empire, and the remainder Although a powder that burns without much represents receipts of the various ministries. Of smoke is necessary for the effective use of a the expenditure the two chief items are 121,- magazine rifle, this powder, while adapted for 131,004 florins for the army and 11,318,227 skirmishing and picket-firing, can not be used florins for the navy. The budget for 1890 by large bodies of infantry in close line of batamounts to only 129,351,708 florins, of which tle, as was shown in the Austrian autumn ma113,960,160 florins are ordinary and 15,391,548 næuvres of 1889, when a large number of soldiers florins extraordinary expenditure. The customs were overcome by the powerful fumes, and many receipts are estimated at 39,953,850 florins, leav- were fatally asphyxiated. ing a sum of 89,397,858 florins to be provided The Navy.-The navy is under the supreme out of Austria and Hungary for common re- command of the chief of the naval department quirements. The extraordinary army expendi- of the Ministry of War. The naval forces conture amounts to 15,358,948 florins, and includes sisted in 1888 of 11 iron-clads, 8 corvette cruisnew accoutrements for the infantry, repeating ers, 8 torpedo cruisers, 12 coast guards, 9 transcarbines for the cavalry, and additional fortifica- ports, 2 monitors, and 42 torpedo boats. The tions in Galicia, costing 2,674,000 florins. cruiser, " Custoza," the turret ship “ Tegethoff,"
The Army.-- The military forces of the dual and the " Erzherzog Albrecht" are the most monarchy are divided into the active army, the powerful of the older vessels. The “ Kronreserve, the Landwehr, and the Landsturm. The prinz Rudolf,” a central citadel barbette ship, active army and its reserve are under the control launched in July, 1887, carries 3 48-ton Krupp of the common Minister of War, while the terri- guns. “The Stephanie," a belted barbette ship, torial armies of the two monarchies are con- armed with 2 48-ton guns, was launched in trolled by the Ministers of National Defense. April, 1887, Three of the torpedo vessels have atThe peace footing of the standing army in 1888 tained a speed of 19 knots when fully equipped was 301,042 officers and men of all arms. There for cruising. The navy is recruited both by are 102 regiments of regular infantry, number- conscription and enlistment. A Seewehr of the ing 178,778 men; 1 regiment of Tyrolean Jägers coast population, corresponding to the Landand 32 battalions of Jägers, numbering 18,529 wehr, was organized in 1888. The term of servmen in all; 41 regiments of cavalry, with 47,091 ice in the navy is the same as in the army, men; 14 regiments of field artillery, numbering Austria.- The Cisleithan Monarchy is official23,493 men; and 12 battalions of fortress artil- ly known as the kingdoms and provinces replery, with 7,181 men; besides technical artillery, resented in the Reichsrath. It is composed of engineers, pioneers, a railway and telegraph regi- seventeen states possessing separate Diets, which ment, train, staff, and medical and other estab- exercise a large measure of home rule. The lishments. The Austrian Landwehr on the peace Provincial Diets are composed of bishops of the footing numbered 4,452 officers and men; the Roman and Greek Churches, heads of universiHungarian Honved, 11,125; Austrian gendar- ties, and representatives of land-owners, of towns, merie, 10,510. On the war footing the standing of boards of trade and industry, and of rural army numbers 905,618; the Austrian Landwehr, communes. These bodies are competent to legis234,926; the Honved, 167,360. The number of late on matters of local administration, the promen liable to serve the Landsturm is more motion of agriculture, charities, and public works, than 4,000,000. There are 816 field-guns in and to levy taxes for these purposes and for peace, and in war 1,748. The number of horses the maintenance of schools and churches. The in time of peace is 50,362, and in war can be in- Reichsrath consists of two chambers. The House creased to 217,000.
of Lords is composed of 20 archdukes, 66 terriThe common budget for 1890 continues a torial nobles, 10 archbishops, 7 prince-bishops, number of infantry and cavalry regiments above and 109 life members. The House of Deputies their peace strength, and provides for 14 new contains 353 members, of whom 85 are elected batteries of heavy artillery and an additional by land-owners, 116 by urban constituencies, 21 by railway battalion. The Austrian infantry is chambers of commerce and trade guilds, and 131 rapidly being equipped with the Mannlicher re- by rural constituencies. Bohemia has 92 reprepeating rifle of eight millimetres caliber, which is sentatives; Galicia, 63; Lower Austria, 37; Mothat of the French magazine rifle. The model ravia, 36; Styria, 23; Tyrol, 18; Upper Austria, of the Mannlicher rifle, which was adopted 17; the coast provinces of Gorizia, Istria, and by the Austrian Government in 1888, has also Trieste, 12; Carniola, 10; Silesia, 10; Carinthia.