« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
biology, are now so widely divergent, the address said, that they threaten to completely separate. The work of the advanced school of physiology was the opening theme, and the processes of growth and of nutrition, the two great characteristics of life, were considered. he invisible mechanism of life is what the physiologist thirsts to know. The utter mystery surrounding the cell mechanism removes the danger of physiological studies leading students to regard material science as the sum of all knowledge. He distinguished between the work of physiologists and philosophers, and said that as one of the former, he felt more disposed to lend his aid to the philosopher in his study of the spiritual elements of existence. E. Geography.—Col. Sir F. W. de Winton reviewed the recent work of practical geographers, missionaries, chartered companies, and explorers. He said he should like to see a o, cal society in every large city of the British Empire, holding that geographical study is too much neglected. Commercial geography was being studied by other nations, and was enabling them to compete with England. This he urged as showing the necessity | its study if the prestige of England was to be maintained in the world of commerce. F. Economic Science and Statistics. – The president of this section, Prof. F. W. Edgeworth, on opening his address, referred to the Cambridge meeting of the association held twenty-five years ago. On that occasion, Jevons presented his “general mathematical theory of political economy,” received, as Jevons himself records, “without a word of interest of belief.” But in modern work the same mathematical view is taken of this science—one as fairly entitled to numerical treatment as is statistics. The relations of employer and employé were considered, and the various statements often promulgated were gone over. In theory, at least, it was tenable that there was an adjustment of contracts more beneficent than that which the mechanical play of competition tends to bring about. In concluding, the speaker stated that, compared with mathematical physics, the mathematical theory of political economy showed many deficiencies. G. Mechanical Science.--Mr. W. Anderson, o of the section, spoke upon the molecuar structure of matter. Mechanics, he said, were called upon to interest themselves more deeply than hitherto in the internal molecular structure of their materials of construction. The influence of light and electricity upon matter was treated in some detail, to: with exlosives and similar illustrations of the susceptiMility of matter to molecular change. The tempering of steel was cited, and used to show the o of theory to its explanation. . Anthropology. – Prof. Sir W. Turner reviewed the subject of heredity. Like tends to produce like was said by Galton. Yet heredity was never complete, the individual asserting itself through all inherited characteristics. Intimately connected with heredity is its opposite variability. Prof. Weismann's ingenious sugestions for reconcilement of the two was aluded to. The Darwinian theorv was reviewed and summarized as heredity modified and influenced by variability. The physical aspect of the
question by no means covers the whole ground of man's nature, for in him is recognized the presence of an element beyond and above his spiritual nature ; he is also endowed with a spiritual nature. The kind of evolution to be hoped for and striven for in man is the perfecting of this spiritual nature, so that the standard of the whole human race may be elevated and brought into more harmonious relations with that which is holy and divine. Reports of Committees.—A very large number of these were presented. The committee on earthquakes devoted their report to the earth|. in Japan, giving exact seismographical ata and general features of the more important. The committee on tidal observations in Canada reported nothing done owing to want of funds. The committee on magnetization of iron devoted their report principally to recalescence. The report of the committee on methods of teaching chemistry came to the conclusion that it was a mistake to attempt to do too much in elementary schools; that teaching there should be restricted to common things. The committee on the best method of establishing an international standard for the analysis of iron and steel reported progress, and hoped by the next meeting to have more to report on. The committees, of which a large number reported progress, generally were in a similar state. Places of Future Meetin of 1890 is to open Sept. 3 at Leeds, under the presidency of Sir F. A. Abel. The meeting of 1891 will be held at Cardiff, and that of 1892 probably at Edinburgh. Attendance, etc.—The attendance was 2,431. Public lectures, soirées, and excursions were a part of the proceedings. Prof. W. C. RobertsAusten gave a public lecture, Sept. 13th, on “The Hardening and Tempering of Steel.” Sir Benjamin Baker, on the succeeding day, lectured on “The Forth Bridge.” On Sept. 16 Mr. Walter Gardner gave a lecture on the subject of “How Plants maintain themselves in the Struggle for Existence.” Appropriations.—The grants awarded for scientific research distributed among the various sections aggregated the sum of £1,265. French.-The eighteenth annual meeting of the French Association for the Advancement of Science began on Aug. 8, 1889, in Paris, France. The first meeting was held in the large hall of the Palais de Sociétés Savantes. President's Address.-The president of the association was M. de Lacaze Duthiers, who spoke on “The Development of Zoëlogical Method.” He thanked the municipality of Paris for their invitation and their generous subvention, amounting to nearly $6,000, recently voted toward paying the expenses of the association. He described the origin of the society in 1871, when, one day in July, M. Wurtz, the eminent chemist, had a few friends meet at his house and outlined the plan of what the association has since become. He then began upon his proper theme of natural history. He described the state of the science a century ago, in the days of Linnaus and Buffon, the first an expositor of facts, the latter of theories. Cuvier made an important advance in taking into consideration the internal construction of beings, where hitherto
.—The meeting the external appearance had been everything. To-day we have gone beyond all this. e See to understand the mutual relations of beings, or their enchainment, to trace the relationships of descent and ascent. The speaker paid a high tribute to Darwin as the one who at least started the new school into activity and made Lamarck's ideas attain their true position. To curb the imagination, apt to yield too readily to the seductions of the modern zoölogy, experimental research is needed. Transformism and metamorphosis are to be studied. Various instances of such researches were given, and in an eloquent roration the year's work of the association and its standing in the scientific world were stated. The speaker was enthusiastically cheered. Treasurer's Report.—After his address, the treasurer's report was presented, showing in round numbers that the receipts for the year had been $18,800; expenditures, $17,400; total capital, $165,300. M. Girard has left the association $35,000 for the promotion of researches on prehistoric man. A report was presented and read of the meeting of 1888 at Oran, and the meeting adjourned to the École des Ponts et Chaussées, where the sections met. General Proceedings.-The French Association is subdivided into seventeen sections and sub-sections: 1 and 2, Mathematics and Astronomy; 3 and 4, Civil and Military Engineering and Navigation; 5, Physics; 6, Chemistry; 7, Meteorology; 8, Geology and Mineralogy; 9, Botany; 10, Zoëlogy, Anatomy, and Physiology; 11, Anthropology; 12, Medical Science; 13, Agriculture; 14, ão. 15, Political Economy; 16, Pedagogy; 17. Hygiene. A very large number of papers were read in these divisions. An additional feature of section work was the visiting of different industrial establishments and objects of specific interest. Thus sections 1 and 2 inspected the collection of calculating machines at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, under the guidance of M. Ed. Lucas. The new dirigible balloons invented by Commandant Renard, and the exhibition of the Minister of War, were inspected by sections 3 and 4. Section 6 inspected the exhibition of chemical products at the Exposition, M.M. De Clermont, Riche, Luilliot, Billandt, Istrati, and others, giving general explanations. Other equally interesting visits were made by this and the other sections—the Pasteur Institute, sewers of the city, gas works, etc., being objective points. On o Aug. 8 the splendid suite of rooms of the Municipality of Paris at the Hôtel de Ville was thrown open, some 8,000 guests in all, including the members of the association, the students, and others, being present by invitation. M. Yves Guyot, Minister of Public Works, with Mme. Guyot, received the members at the Ministry in the Boulevard St. Germain, on the evening of Aug. 9. On Aug. 11 St. Germainen-Laye and Meudon were visited, including the Observatory, under the directorship of M. Jaussen. On Aug. 12 General Tcheng - KiTong gave a lecture on the “Social Economy of China.” On Aug. 14 the association gave a banquet to its foreign members in the Eiffel Tower. On Aug. 16 the paper works at Essonne and the works of W. Decanville, contractor for the narrow-gauge railway in operation
on the grounds of the Exposition were visited. The meeting then ended. The secretary and vice-secretary of the association at this meeting were Prof. Gariel and Dr. Cartaz respectively. The meeting of 1890 is to be held at Limoges. ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOWERY. During 1889 the astronomical event that attracted most general attention was the total eclipse of the sun, on New Year's day, visible in California and the Western States. The average number of new asteroids and comets was discovered, among the latter being a comet of more than ordinary interest on account of its segmentation into several distinct nebulous masses. In regard to improvements in astronomical methods, the chief interest centers in the development of celestial photography. Valuable papers on the older or gravitational astronomy i. been published, while the popular appreciation of the science is shown by the multiplication of amateur astronomical societies, and by the increased endowment for astronomical research. American Observatories.—The Harvard Observatory has received from Miss C. W. Bruce, of New York, a gift of $50,000, to be applied to the construction and maintenance of a photographic telescope having an objective of about 24-inches aperture and a focal length of 11 feet. The compound lens, which will probably cost $20,000, is to be like that used by photographers, rather than like that of an astronomical telescope. Its small focal length, compared with its diameter, will give photographic images of much fainter stars than the latter. A telescope of the prolosed form having an aperture of 8 inches has en in constant use in Cambridge for four years, and is now in Peru photographing the southern sky; with it stars too faint to be seen with the 15-inch refractor have been photographed, and a corresponding advantage is anticipated from the increase of the aperture to 24 inches. Each photograph will be 13 inches square and will cover an area of the sky five degrees square, on the scale of one minute to a millimetre. It is proposed to construct the lens so that the front portion may form a photographic objective and may be reversible and adapted for either visual or photographic purposes. The telescope may then be used in three ways—for visual purposes as a telescope of 24inches aperture and 17 feet focal length, as a single photographic lens of the same dimensions, and as a photographic doublet covering a large field and having a focal length of 11 #. A prism covering the lens, for the examination of spectra, may be used in each case, making six instruments in one. Prof. Edward C. Pickering proposes to establish this instrument upon some high mountain, where the best meteorological conditions prevail, the work of reduction and discussion being done at Cambridge. The entire cost of the combination instrument and a small building for its protection is estimated at $35,000, leaving $15,000 for the attending expenses of reduction and publication (which would probably amount to $5,000 a year) sufficient to secure photographs of the entire northern sky. The work of the Naval Observatory at Washington has been a continuation of the routine the reduction of his work on the orbit of
of previous years, consisting of observations of double stars and satellites; observations for stellar parallax, with a series of drawings of Saturn by Prof. Asaph Hall; observations completing a catalogue of miscellaneous stars which has been in process of formation ever since the transit circle was mounted in 1866; observations of comets, asteroids, and occultations with the 9-inch equatorial; and the maintenance of the extensive time-service, the magnetic observations, and the testing of instruments for the naval service. Progress on the new buildings on the heights beyond Georgetown has been somewhat delayed, but the foundation walls of the main building and the greater part of the building for the 26-inch refractor were completed by the close of the year. The long disused observatory of Georgetown College, founded in 1846, and famous for the early labors of Secchi and Sestini, has been thor§ repaired under the supervision of the new director, Father J. G. Hagen, S.J., and important additions have been made to the equipment. For the present, observations are confined mainly to southern variables. At the Yale Observatory Dr. William L. Elkin has completed the heliometer measures for the triangulation of the region near the north pole, and a few observations of Iris, Victoria, and Sappho were obtained for the determination of the solar parallax in co-operation with the observatories at the Cape of Good Hope and at Leipsic. The heliometers at Bamberg and Göttingen will probably co-operate in the observations of Victoria and Sappho, and meridian observations at other observatories may also be obtained. Mr. Asaph Hall, Jr., has completed itan, his result being in very satisfactory agreement with the results of Bessel and Hermann Struve. The Cincinnati Observatory has a new meridian circle of 5% inches aperture, the objective being by Clark, and the mounting by Fauth & Co. The instrument does not differ materially from the Repsold type, and as far as Prof. J. G. Porter's investigations have gone, it compares well with the latter as an instrument of precision. The object-glass and micrometer ends are interchangeable; the cell of the object-glass is of steel, the lens being supported at three points. The telescope carries two circles of 24 inches diameter, one divided coarsely to half degrees, the other having two sets of graduations upon a silver band, both of them to five minutes of arc. The errors of graduation are found to be extremely small. At the Lick Observatory, Mr. J. M. Schaeberle has been observing fundamental stars with the meridian circle, Mr. Charles B. Hill has charge of the time service, and Mr. J. E. Keeler is engaged with the spectroscope. Mr. E. E. Barnard has been diligently at work upon the sun and nebulae with the 12-inch equatorial, and has made experiments in astronomical photography with the 36-inch. His discoveries of comets are reported elsewhere. Mr. S. W. Burnham has discovered and measured a number of faint double StarS. A still larger refractor than the Lick telescope has been projected—one of 40 inches aper
ture, for the University of Southern California at Los Angeles, and a bill was introduced in Congress at the last session making provision for a refractor of five feet aperture, which was to be mounted at the United States Naval Observatory. . It is, understood that the glass for the 40-inch lens has been ordered by Clark, the sum of $200,000 being available for the contemplated observatory, sufficient, probably, to meet the cost of the instrument. The scheme for the five-foot lens never received any support from the Government astronomers. The disks for the 20-inch equatorial of the Chamberlin Observatory, Denver, have been cast by Mantois at Paris, and will be worked by Clark. The mounting is well under way at the shop of Fauth & Co., of Washington. An illustrated description of the new Dearborn Observatory, at Evanston, Ill., will be found in the “Sidereal Messenger” for October, 1889. The fiftieth anniversary of the dedication of: the Hopkins Observatory of Williams College was celebrated in 1888, a discourse upon “The Development of Astronomy in the United States” being delivered by Prof. Truman H. Safford. The Hopkins Observatory seems entitled to the honor of being the first permanent American observatory, having been projected about 1834, chiefly built in 1837, and dedicated on June 12, 1838. The University of North Carolina had built an observatory in 1831, and had provided an excellent instrumental equipment, but in 1838 the building was partially destroyed by fire, and little or no work was ever done with the instruments. Prof. Samuel P. Langley has devised an apparatus for eliminating personal equation, especially in the observation of sudden phenomena, such as the disappearance of a star when occulted by the moon. The principle of the method consists in associating a motion, real or o of the object with intervals of time, so that the top. position of the object at the instant of the occurrence of any phenomenon being noted, the time of the occurrence will be known. Experiments made with artificial stars, which were given an apparent rotary motion about the axis of the observing telescope by a suitably arranged revolving prism, show that it was quite possible for a comparatively inexperienced person to observe an occultation with a probable error of only one fortieth of a second. A valuable series of papers on personal equation has been contributed |. Dr. E. C. Sanford to the “American Journal of Psychology,” vol. ii. Dr. W. Wislicenus, of Strasburg Observatory, has published an interesting account of a series of investigations made to determine the absolute personal equation in transit observations, not only for the horizontal position of the telescope, but for all inclinations. In the form of meridian circles made by Repsold, a little mirror can be cemented to the inner surface of the object-glass so as to reflect toward the eye end a portion of the light from the cube of the instrument. By placing a small convex lens behind the ocular, an artificial star is obtained which is easily moved in the plane of the reticule with a velocity corresponding to any declination. Dr. Wislicenus concludes from his experiments with this apparatus that the incli
nation of the telescope has a considerable effect These are the Pleiades, the region around the upon the observer's personal equation,
pole, and a number of stars along the equator. Foreign Observatories. — The Astronomer His results are satisfactory, and it seems likely Royal reports that the routine work of the Green- that if the errors in the photograph plates themwich Observatory-the determination of the po- selves can be eliminated, the subsequent estimasitions of the sun, moon, planets, and a selected tion of a star's magnitude can in this way be list of fixed stars, and magnetical, meteorological, made at least as accurately as by the ordinary and solar observations- has been continued as in photometric methods. previous years. A new dome has been built for Dr. Elkin has compared Gould's reductions of à 13-inch photographic equatorial, Greenwich Lewis M. Rutherfurd's photographs of the Plebeing one of the observatories to take part in iades, taken over twenty years ago, with measthe international photographic chart of the ures made by the heliometers at Königsberg and heavens, and progress has been made by Sir New Haven. The smallness of the probable Howard Grubb in working the disks of the 28- errors Dr. Elkin regards as a convincing proof inch refractor which is to be on the Stokes- that in photography we have a means of investiPickering plan, adapted to photography as well gation for micrometric work at least equal to any as to eye observations—à useful result, accom- existing method as regards exactitude, and doubtplished by making the crown lens reversible in its less far surpassing them in ease of measurement cell to get rid of the spherical aberration which and output of work. In this conclusion he is is introduced by the separation of the lenses ne- strengthened by experiments made with the 36cessary for photographic correction. The ob- inch equatorial at the Lick Observatory, in conservations for a redetermination of the difference junction with Messrs. Burnham and Barnard. of longitude between Paris and Greenwich were International Astro-photographic Concompleted in the autumn of 1888.
gress.—The work of the Permanent Committee Prof. Piazzi Smyth has resigned the appoint- of the International Photographic Congress, orments (which he has held since 1846) of Regius ganized at Paris in 1887, has been prosecuted Professor of Practical Astronomy in the Uni- with vigor. The general plan of the undertakversity of Edinburgh and Astronomer Royal for ing, the object of which is to provide a photoScotland, and he has been succeeded by Dr. graphic map of the whole sky which shall inRalph Copeland, of Dunecht. The Dunsink clude stars as faint as the fourteenth magnitude, Observatory has a new reflecting telescope of 15 has been described in the “ Annual Cyclopædia inches aperture the gift of Isaac Roberts, which for 1887. Since that time four numbers of a is to be applied to photographic researches upon “Bulletin ” have been published, under the austellar parallax, a field of investigation which has spices of the Institut de France, containing reparticularly engaged the attention of Prof. C. ports of preliminary experiments and correspondPritchard at Oxford. Prof. Pritchard reports ence relating to the details of the work. At the that preparations for taking part in the interna- meeting of the Permanent Committee in Septional scheme for photographing the heavens are tember, 1889, it was decided to adopt a field 20 well a-lvanced.
square for the photographic plates. The quesCambridge University, England, has received tion of the reproduction of the plates and of the a most valuable acquisition to its instrumental publication of the map was left open, but it is equipment in a 25-inch refractor, the gift of probable that one or more bureaus will be estabMr. Newall.
lished for measuring the negatives obtained at At Paris the most important addition to the observatories not provided with special apparatus instruments is the apparatus devised by M. Loewy for the purpose, and photographic copies of all for the investigation of the constants of aberra- plates will be preserved in selected places in tion and refraction; a new determination of the case of accident to the original negatives. A latitude is in progress, and the Henry brothers series of standard plates will be prepared by the continue their experiments in celestial photog- Paris Observatory, and the time of exposure raphy.
must be adjusted so as to compare properly with A new observatory, with a 104-inch Repsold these standards. refractor and 4:8-inch Repsold meridian circle, Thus far no observatory in the United States has been established at Vienna by Herr von is upon the list in the assignment of zones. A Kuffner, and an admirably equipped observatory, bill was introduced in Congress for the purpose founded by Dr. Carl Rameis, has been built at of enabling the United States Naval Observatory Bamberg. It is reported that the Pope has de- to undertake a share of the work, but none of cided to establish a new observatory at the Vati- the private observatories have signified their incan, which will probably cost $200,000.
tention of co-operating. This is partly due withAn observatory has been founded at Tokio, out doubt to the considerable expense involved, Japan, under the direction of H. Terao, by com- but it is also due to the fact that there is in the bining the astronomical departments of the old minds of some astronomers most competent to marine observatory, the observatory of the Min- judge, a doubt as to whether the best form of istry of the Interior, and that of the imperial telescope has been selected by the Congress; university. The principal instruments are a 57- moreover, the main difficulty seems to lie not in inch transit, 5-inch meridian circle, and equato- obtaining the photographs, but in reproducing rials of 7-inches and 8-inches aperture.
and measuring them, and in converting the measAstronomical Photography.-Prof. Picker- ures into right ascension and declination, so that ing has published a research upon the brightness they may be of practical value. of stars as determined photographically, taking Among the papers of interest in the fourth part up the examination of three regions of the sky of the " Bulletin” referred to, is one by Dr. H. for the formation of preliminary standards. C. Vogel, describing the photographic refract
or recently constructed for the observatory at A = 266-7o and D= + 31.0°. This point is still Potsdam by the Repsolds. This instrument has in the constellation Hercules, and the mean vetwo objectives ; eye-piece and plate-holder are locity is found to be fifteen miles a second. in the same tube, conforming to the resolutions Eclipses of 1889.-During 1889 the ephemof the Congress in 1887, but the peculiarity is in eris shows three eclipses of the sun-Jan. 1, the form of mounting, which is quite different June 27, and Dec. 21—the first and last total, from both the English and the French forms. The the second annular; and two eclipses of the pillar that supports the polar axis is not upright, moon-Jan. 16 and July 12. The solar eclipse but L-shaped, the lower part being inclined near- of January, the last total solar eclipse visible in ly in the plane of the equator, the upper almost the United States in this century, was very at right angles to this, extending toward the north successfully observed in California and Nevada, pole and inclosing the polar axis. The support and a somewhat detailed account of the observapossesses very great stability, and its form per- tions is given below. The eclipse of the moon mits an uninterrupted motion of the telescope on Jan. 16 was observed at Lick Observatory, in all positions.
but nothing of interest was noted. Dr. Arthur The seven instruments the construction of Auwers and Dr. David Gill, at the Cape of Good which was given to Messrs. Henry and Gautier Hope, obtained measures of cusps with the are finished. The three destined for the observa- heliometer during the annular eclipse of June tories of Bordeaux, Toulouse, and Algiers have 27. Of the partial eclipse of the moon on July been delivered, and the four for La Plata, San- 12 nothing of interest is reported. For observtiago, Rio de Janeiro, and San Fernando are also ing the total solar eclipse on Dec. 21, three finished and in course of shipment. These seven stations are available—the southwest corner of observatories, with that of Paris, will be ready the island of Trinidad, where totality will last to commence work in the first half of the coming for 1m 46s, the sun's altitude being 12° ; Cayenne year. Another paper of great interest is contrib- on the coast of French Guiana, totality 2m 3*, uted to the same number of the “ Bulletin " by altitude 24°; and a point on the western coast of Herr Reuz, of the Pulkowa Observatory, who has Africa about 100 miles south of St. Paul de used a negative by the Henrys for determining Loanda, totality there lasting 3m 12°, with the the places of the stars occulted by the moon on sun at an altitude of 46°. It is all the more deJan. 28, 1888; he finds that they compare satis- sirable to make the most of this eclipse, as an. factorily with such meridian observations as are other total eclipse of the sun will not occur till available.
April, 1893. À party has therefore been sent The committee- Messrs. J. Janssen and A. A. out by the United States Government to the Common-to whom was referred the question of western coast of Africa, and a party from Lick organizing and co-ordinating the work of those Observatory will occupy a station at Cayenne. interested in various branches of astronomical Other stations will be occupied by parties from photography other than the chart of the sky, is- England and the Continent. sued in June, 1889, a circular to astronomers The Total Solar Eclipse of Jan. 1, 1889. calling a meeting at Paris on the 22d of August. –The event of chief astronomical interest in This meeting was subsequently postponed to 1889 was the total eclipse of the sun, which ocSept. 20. The circular referred to the desirabil- curred on New Year's day. The moon's shadow ity of obtaining a complete photographic record first touched the earth at a point not far from of solar phenomena ; photographs of the solar the Aleutian Islands, and passed southeast and spectrum; a systematic description of the lunar then northeast, striking the mainland at Point surface by photography on a large scale; photo- Arena, Cal., where totality began at 1.30 P. M., graphs of planets and their satellites, both de- and lasted 'two minutes. The line of central scriptive and for the purpose of measurements; eclipse then crossed California, Nevada, Idaho, photographs of meteors, comets, and particularly Wyoming, Montana, and Dakota, and finally left of nebulæ, clusters, and of stellar spectra. the earth at a point about in the center of Mani
Motion of the Solar System in Space.- toba, the duration of totality diminishing as the An important contribution to our knowledge of shadow moved east from Point Arena. In Calithe motion of the sun with its attendant planets fornia the average width of the belt of totality through space is given by Dr. Ludwig Struve in was about 96 miles, in Nevada 90, Idaho 82, a paper published in the memoirs of the St. Pe- and Montana 66 miles. The partial phases of tersburg Academy. Dr. Struve takes as the ba- the eclipse were visible over the greater part of sis of his investigation the proper motions of over North America, the first contact being observed 2,500 stars derived from a comparison of the at Washington, a few minutes before sunset. Pulkowa catalogues of 1855 with Auwers's re Ample preparations were made for utilizing reduction of Bradley, 1755. He finds that the to the utmost the less than two minutes of solar system is moving toward a point in the totality. Carefully prepared suggestions and constellation Hercules, the co-ordinates of which instructions were issued by Lick Observatory are right ascension 273-3°, declination + 27-3°, and by Prof. David P. Todd, of Amherst, for the amount of the motion in one hundred years enlisting the interest of as many amateur asbeing 4:36", as seen from an average sixth-mag- tronomers and photographers as possible, and, nitude star. The actual velocity corresponding as the weather was generally favorable, the reto this is about thirteen miles a second. By sult was a great number of sketches, photocombining his result with those of other investi- graphs, and miscellaneous observations. The gators, Dr. Struve adopts as the most trustwor- most thoroughly equipped party in the field was thy co-ordinates of the sun's "goal,” to use a that from Harvard Observatory, under charge term introduced by Prof. Herbert A. Newton of William H. Pickering, at Willows, Cal. This in connection with the motions of meteors, party alone secured between 50 and 60 photo