« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
H. W. M. Beauchamp, of Baldwinsville, N. Y.; I, J. R. Dodge, of Washington, D.C. Opening Proceedings. – The proceedings began on Aug. 27 by a meeting of the council at 12 M. at the Queen's Hotel. On Aug. 28 the proceedings proper began. The use of the buildings of the University of Toronto had been tendered to and was accepted by the association. The general session met at 10 A.M. in the Convocation Hall. In the absence of J. W. Powell, the retiring president, the chair was taken by James D. Dana, who, after calling the meeting to order, resigned the chair in favor of T.C. Mendenhall, the president-elect. Addresses of welcome were delivered by the chairman of the local reception committee, Charles Carpmael; G. W. Ross, Minister of Education of Ontario; Mayor Clarke, of Toronto; and Chancellor Mulock, of the University of Toronto. After further routine proceedings the general meeting adjourned, and the sections proceeded to organize. The address of the retiring president, J. W. Powell, was read in his absence by G. K. Gilbert in the evening of this day. Sections.—In the mathematical and astronomical section the vice-president, R. S. Woodward, spoke on “The Mathematical Theories of the Earth.” He touched upon the questions of the shape, size, constitution, distribution of mass, internal heat, rate of cooling, and crust movements of our sphere. Various theories of cosmogony, also received his attention. Other imrtant papers followed, one by E. S. Holden ing a timely report on the work done at the Lick Observatory with the great telescope since June, 1888. Other reports on the Lick Observatory and the new Dearborn Observatory were read. Charles Carpmael read a proposition that the association should address the government officials of Canada and the United States and of other countries in diplomatic relations with them in favor of establishing a universal day of twentyfour hours, ...i. standard meridians. In the physical section the vice-president, H. S. Carhart, spoke on “Theories of Electrical Action.” He began by reviewing the early work of electrical students, of comparatively little value until Faraday theorized and Clerk Maxwell applied mathematics to those theories. The electro-magnetic theory of light was spoken of with special reference to Hertz's recent and classic investigations. The luminiferous ether, he said, is hereafter to be an element in electrical investigations. H. Carrington Bolton spoke of his recent trip to the peninsula of Sinai and the results of his investigations of deposits of musical sand in that region. Lantern views were used to illustrate his remarks, and the lecture was repeated to a large audience in the evening. Electric measurements were treated of by Elisha Gray, who compared the relative accuracies of different systems. Other papers were by T.C. Mendenhall on “Globular Lightning,” being a plea for its actual existence, and by G. F. Barker on “Storage Batteries.” In the chemical section William L. Dudley, vice-president, spoke on the subject of “Amalgams.” Reviewing the work in this field by chemists, he spoke of its inadequacy and of the necessity for study. The proceedings in this section, in addition to the various papers, took the
form of several discussions. The advisability of forming a national association of chemistry was considered, and the question of doing so was submitted to ballot and defeated by a single vote. It was felt that its establishment might interfere with the importance of Section C of the association. The terminology of the science was also discussed, including the spelling and pronouncing of terms. As the fruit of another discussion a resolution was passed recommending the introduction of the metric system in medical and pharmaceutical practice. A member was also appointed to confer with the American committee on international standards. M. A. Scowell read a É. on the estimation of total nitrogen by Kjedahl's method, of interest to all agricultural chemists. Hoffman read a paper on food pre tions, especially those for infants, on which he estimated that ten million dollars were annually expended in the United States. The Government was urged to undertake the analysis of these foods, the healthfulness of many of which were doubtful. Harvey W. Wiley, chemist of the United States Department of Agriculture, in response thereto, agreed to undertake analyses of some of the products.
In the section of mechanical science and engineering, in which a change of vice-president and secretary occurred, several notable papers were read. Gustav Lindenthal spoke of his o: for bridging the Hudson river, N.Y., at the city of New York, with a gigantic suspension bridge of 2,800 feet span. É. million dollars was estimated as the cost of the structure, which should be made of steel. J. R. Dodge spoke on “Certain Aspects of Agriculture in the Arid Regions of the United States.” Seventy million acres, he said, could be made fertile by irrigation, so as to exceed in productiveness the lands of the rainy regions. Government aid for the work was asked for by the speaker. O. Chanute treated the subject of the “Preservation of Timber.” He estimated that in railroad-ties alone twenty-five million dollars are annually expended. He spoke of the relative efficacy of different kinds of preservatives.
In the geological and geographical section C. A. White §. the vice-presidential address, on North American Mesozoic Rocks. The section had adjourned over Aug. 30 to enable its members to attend the meeting of the American Geological Society, presided over by James Hall, of Albany, N.Y., in the forenoon, and afterward by W. H. Winchell, of Minneapolis, Minn. Many papers were read in full or by title before the two gatherings.
In the biological section the vice-president, G. L. Goodale spoke on “Protoplasm, or Living Matter.” He treated of the investigations made upon cellular tissue from the year 1667 down to the present time. C. V. Riley, recentl honored by the French Government for his wor in entomology in the United States Departments of the Interior and of Agriculture, spoke of the intentional importation of insect parasites that would destroy insects injurious to plant-life. Botanical and other topics were treated by various s ers. The new botanical laboratory of Barnard College, New York, N.Y., was described by N. L. Britton, who contributed three other papers to this section.
In the anthropological section Garrick Mallery, in his vice-presidential address, touched on revelation and religion. He endeavored to show an analogy between the Indians of North America and the Israelites. . A large quantity of interesting matter was included in the work of this section, usually one of the best of the meeting's divisions. The famous serpent-mound in Adams County, Ohio, was spoken of by F. W. Putnam, the permanent secretary of the association. It has been purchased, with seventy-five acres of land, and is under the charge of the Peabody Museum. The aborigines of America and the Japanese were treated of by various speakers. H. Carrington Bolton utilized his experiences in the desert of Sinai by explaining in this section an Egyptian game, Seega, which he learned from the É. The discovery of a new group of languages in California was announced by H. W. Henshaw, of the United States Bureau of Ethnolo Another contribution from the Bureau of Ethnology was the paper by W. J. Hoffman, on “The Middlewiwin, or Grand Medicine Society of the Ojibwoo.” It is a regular secret society, and is of ethnological value as preserving many myths. The speaker has been promised full initiation into all the degrees.
In the section of economic science and statistics the vice-president, C. S. Hill, read an address on “Relations of the Canadian States and the United States.” He spoke of the advantages of annexation for Canada, and warmly pleaded for it. He declared there was no future for Canada except in being joined to the United States. His address, delivered in such a city as Toronto, occasioned much criticism. Mrs. Nellie S. Kedzie, of the Kansas State Agricultural College, spoke on the o: 44 o molds the Race.” It was an eminently practical discussion on food preparation and adjustment of diet to personal needs. . The importance of proper preparation of food was emphasized, and the teaching of cooking to the women of the land was declared to be of great importance. B. E. Fernow read a paper on “The National Interest in Material Resources.” Forestry and other sources of national wealth were treated. As an expert on forestry he took strong exception to J. W. Powell's recently enunciated ideas on the destruction of forests. The latter scientist has announced his belief that their destruction rather favored arid regions in the matter of water-supply. The speaker announced his outspoken disagreement with any advocacy of forest destruction. The paper was discussed at some length, and eventually a resolution was passed asking Congress to adopt some means for preserving #. Western forests.
Address of the Retiring President.—The address of J. W. Powell, the retiring president, was read by G. K. Gilbert. It was entitled “On the Evolution of Music—from the Dance to the Symphony.” It was a long and eloquent treatment of the subject. He spoke of four germs of the fine arts—fetich carving the germ of statuary, tattooing the germ of painting, mythology the germ of the drama, and dancing the germ of music. The chain of thought was carried down from early days to Wagner. The music of the future was affirmed to be genuine; the address declared that Wagner and a few other great composers
had burst the bonds of musical dogmatism and sung their liberty in strains of transcendent music. The address abounded in poetry and sentiment, and was far from being a dry or abstruse document. One point of special interest was made to the effect that the ordinary laws of biotic elevation do not apply to man. His history is that of endeavors; there is no invariable survival of the fittest in the school of culture, neither is there to be found the law of adaptation to environment. Music was definitely declared to be the invention of mankind. General Proceedings.-Various excursions to places of interest were indulged in, the Niagara river and Muskoka lakes being §. Receptions and other attentions were tendered the body by the citizens of Toronto. Resolutions of thanks to the Canadians for their hospitable treatment were presented by Professor Clark and seconded by Professors Eastman, Morse, Putnam, and Goodale. Responses were made by Sir Daniel Wilson, Mr. oss, Professor Goldwin Smith, and Professor Carpmael. Attendance, Election of Fellows, etc.— The attendance of members and associates was good, 424 being registered; 73 fellows and 201 new members were elected. One hundred and ninety-nine papers were read. An announcement of an investment of $4,700 was made, whose income is to be devoted to encouraging scientific research. o the present year but $200 was appropriated—$150 to F. H. Morgan for investigations of the action of light in a magnetic field, and $50 to W. O. Atwater for the analysis of certain animal and vegetable compounds. Meeting of 1890.-The next annual meeting is to be held at Indianapolis, Ind., to begin on Aug. 19, 1890. The following officers were elected for that occasion : President, Prof. George L. Goodale, Harvard University ; Vice-Presidents: A, Mathematics and Astronomy, S. C. Chandler, Cambridge, Mass.; B, Physics, Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D.C.; C, Chemistry, R. B. Warder, Washington, D.C.; D, Mechanical Science and Engineering, James E. Denton, Hoboken, N. J.; E, Geolo and Geography, John. C. Branner, Little Rock, Ark. ; F, Biology, C. S. Minot, Boston, Mass.; H, Anthropology, Frank Baker, Washington, D. C.: I, Economic Science and Statistics, J. R. Dodge, Washington, D.C.; Permanent Secretary, F. W. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass., office, Salem, Mass.; General Secretary, H. Carrington Bolton, of New York; Secretary of the Council, James Loudon, Toronto; Secretaries of the Sections: A, Wooster W. Beman, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; B, W. Le Conte Stevens, Brooklyn, N.Y.; C, W. A. Noyes, Terra Haute, Ind. ; D, M. E. Cooley, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; E, Samuel Calvin, Iowa City, Iowa; F. John M. Coulter, Crawfordsville, Ind.; H. Joseph Jastrow, Madison, Wis.; I, S. Dana Horton, Pomeroy, Ohio; Treasurer, William Lilly, Mauch Chunk, Pa.; Auditors, Henry Wheatland, Salem, Mass.; Thomas Meehan, Germantown, Pa. Donation—At the closing meeting, on Sept. 3, a donation of $500 from a lady member was announced.
idents, etc., is as follows: President of the Association. Prof. W. H. Flower; Section Presidents: A, Mathematics and Physics, Capt. W. de W. Abney; B, Chemical Science, Sir J. Lowthian Bell; C, Geology, Prof. James Geike; D, Biol. Dr. J. S. Burdon-Sanderson; E, Geogray, Col. Sir F. W. de Winton; F, Economic Science and Statistics, Prof. F. W. Edgeworth; G, Mechanical Science, Mr. W. Anderson; H, Anthropology, Prof. Sir. W. Turner; local secretaries for the meeting, Prof. J. Phillips Bedson and Prof. J. H. Merivale. The Durham College of Medicine and St. George's Armory were used for the reception rooms, offices, lecture halls, etc. General Meeting.—The first general meetin opened at 8. P. M., Sept. 11. Sir Frederick J. Bramwell the president of the preceding year resigned his chair to Prof. Flower, who delivered the presidential address. The President’s Address. – Prof. W. H. Flower devoted his long address to the subject of museums. The general consideration of museums from the standpoints of utility, of history, and of their relations to the state were first taken up. Some eminently practical suggestions on the divisions of science followed. Thus anthropology should not be restricted to savage and ancient nations, but should include all mankind in its survey. Under natural history should be included the experimental sciences, in exhibits of their apparatus, as well as mineralogy, zoölogy, botany, and geology. The latter was defined as a mixture of sciences, the unfortunate separation of paleontology from biology being perpetuated in it. Then the practical question of how to establish a museum was considered, the curator and his staff being the life and soul of the institution. The ill effects of neglect and the necessity for the continual and tender care of specimens were graphically portrayed. The systematic arrangement and labeling of divisions, subdivisions, and specimens in museums for the public was described. A well-arranged educational museum may be described as a collection
of descriptive labels illustrated by well-selected specimens. The smallest collections can thus be made useful. . The public museum must be on a different basis from the student's museum, the patrons of the latter class needing free access to specimens. The concluding portions of his paper were devoted to the outlook of the origi of species, the speaker announcing himself in ; accord with Darwinism. Sections.—A., Mathematical and Physical Science.—Capt. W. de W. Abney, the president of this section, naturally spoke of photography. his own standing in that branch of science giving his remarks a special value. . He began by saying that photography should be more thoroughly studied. Optics, chemistry, physics, mathematics, all were elements in its operations, yet out of twenty-five thousand photographers, scarcely one per cent. know or care anything about its theory. One hundred years ago the Swedish chemist Scheele made, perhaps, the first scientific experiment in photography, investigating the coloration of chloride of silver when exposed to the light. About fifty years ago Sir John Herschel, Robert Hunt, Becquerel, Draper, and others performed their classic experiments on the action of light on different bodies. The work of Carey Lea, of Philadelphia, on his photochloride of silver, and the parallel work of Hodgkinson were spoken of. The measure of success attained in photographing the solar spectrum in its natural colors was described, but true natural-color photography, the speaker believed, would never be commercially successful. He ended by a restatementof his opening remarks, in which he pleaded for more scientists to take up its study. B. Chemical Science.—Sir J. Lowthian Bell spoke upon chemistry in the technical and educational senses. The advantages reaped from chemistry by the iron manufacturers were forcibly portrayed. Under the chemist's guidance more advance had been made by iron-workers in the last thirty years than in the three previous centuries. He then took up the question of chemical and scientific education. He was disposed
to take issue with the idea of teaching the rudi
ments of science to all children, and expectin direct good to follow in practice. He advocate extending the knowledge possessed by the highly educated directors of the world's industrial establishments. The erection and maintenance of suitable colleges, he believed, should be in the hands of the nation at large. C. Geology.— Prof. James Geike, the president of this section, spoke of the recent work of Continental geologists. He summarized the results of their investigations of glacial accumulations of northern Europe. His address does not lend itself well to summarizing, but one especially interesting suggestion was made. It was to the effect that the meteorologist, by studying climatic changes, their causes, etc., would bear a part in of geological changes. He prophesied that the mystery of geological climates would ultimately be solved. D. Biology.—Dr. J. S. Burdon-Sanderson being absent through illness, his address, as president of the section, was read by the Rev. Canon Tristram, one of the vice-presidents. Morphology and physiology, the two great branches of biology, are now so widely divergent, the address said, that they threaten to completely separate. The work of the advanced school of physiology was the opening theme, and the processes of growth and of nutrition, the two great characteristics of life, were considered. he invisible mechanism of life is what the physiologist thirsts to know. The utter mystery surrounding the cell mechanism removes the danger of physiological studies leading students to regard material science as the sum of all knowledge. He distinguished between the work of physiologists and philosophers, and said that as one of the former, he felt more disposed to lend his aid to the philosopher in his study of the spiritual elements of existence. E. Geography.—Col. Sir F. W. de Winton reviewed the recent work of practical geographers, missionaries, chartered companies, and explorers. He said he should like to see a o, cal society in every large city of the British Empire, holding that geographical study is too much neglected. Commercial geography was being studied by other nations, and was enabling them to compete with England. This he urged as showing the necessity | its study if the prestige of England was to be maintained in the world of commerce. F. Economic Science and Statistics. – The president of this section, Prof. F. W. Edgeworth, on opening his address, referred to the Cambridge meeting of the association held twenty-five years ago. On that occasion, Jevons presented his “general mathematical theory of political economy,” received, as Jevons himself records, “without a word of interest of belief.” But in modern work the same mathematical view is taken of this science—one as fairly entitled to numerical treatment as is statistics. The relations of employer and employé were considered, and the various statements often promulgated were gone over. In theory, at least, it was tenable that there was an adjustment of contracts more beneficent than that which the mechanical play of competition tends to bring about. In concluding, the speaker stated that, compared with mathematical physics, the mathematical theory of political economy showed many deficiencies. G. Mechanical Science.--Mr. W. Anderson, o of the section, spoke upon the molecuar structure of matter. Mechanics, he said, were called upon to interest themselves more deeply than hitherto in the internal molecular structure of their materials of construction. The influence of light and electricity upon matter was treated in some detail, to: with exlosives and similar illustrations of the susceptiMility of matter to molecular change. The tempering of steel was cited, and used to show the o of theory to its explanation. . Anthropology. – Prof. Sir W. Turner reviewed the subject of heredity. Like tends to produce like was said by Galton. Yet heredity was never complete, the individual asserting itself through all inherited characteristics. Intimately connected with heredity is its opposite variability. Prof. Weismann's ingenious sugestions for reconcilement of the two was aluded to. The Darwinian theorv was reviewed and summarized as heredity modified and influenced by variability. The physical aspect of the
question by no means covers the whole ground of man's nature, for in him is recognized the presence of an element beyond and above his spiritual nature ; he is also endowed with a spiritual nature. The kind of evolution to be hoped for and striven for in man is the perfecting of this spiritual nature, so that the standard of the whole human race may be elevated and brought into more harmonious relations with that which is holy and divine. Reports of Committees.—A very large number of these were presented. The committee on earthquakes devoted their report to the earth|. in Japan, giving exact seismographical ata and general features of the more important. The committee on tidal observations in Canada reported nothing done owing to want of funds. The committee on magnetization of iron devoted their report principally to recalescence. The report of the committee on methods of teaching chemistry came to the conclusion that it was a mistake to attempt to do too much in elementary schools; that teaching there should be restricted to common things. The committee on the best method of establishing an international standard for the analysis of iron and steel reported progress, and hoped by the next meeting to have more to report on. The committees, of which a large number reported progress, generally were in a similar state. Places of Future Meetin of 1890 is to open Sept. 3 at Leeds, under the presidency of Sir F. A. Abel. The meeting of 1891 will be held at Cardiff, and that of 1892 probably at Edinburgh. Attendance, etc.—The attendance was 2,431. Public lectures, soirées, and excursions were a part of the proceedings. Prof. W. C. RobertsAusten gave a public lecture, Sept. 13th, on “The Hardening and Tempering of Steel.” Sir Benjamin Baker, on the succeeding day, lectured on “The Forth Bridge.” On Sept. 16 Mr. Walter Gardner gave a lecture on the subject of “How Plants maintain themselves in the Struggle for Existence.” Appropriations.—The grants awarded for scientific research distributed among the various sections aggregated the sum of £1,265. French.-The eighteenth annual meeting of the French Association for the Advancement of Science began on Aug. 8, 1889, in Paris, France. The first meeting was held in the large hall of the Palais de Sociétés Savantes. President's Address.-The president of the association was M. de Lacaze Duthiers, who spoke on “The Development of Zoëlogical Method.” He thanked the municipality of Paris for their invitation and their generous subvention, amounting to nearly $6,000, recently voted toward paying the expenses of the association. He described the origin of the society in 1871, when, one day in July, M. Wurtz, the eminent chemist, had a few friends meet at his house and outlined the plan of what the association has since become. He then began upon his proper theme of natural history. He described the state of the science a century ago, in the days of Linnaus and Buffon, the first an expositor of facts, the latter of theories. Cuvier made an important advance in taking into consideration the internal construction of beings, where hitherto
.—The meeting the external appearance had been everything. To-day we have gone beyond all this. e See to understand the mutual relations of beings, or their enchainment, to trace the relationships of descent and ascent. The speaker paid a high tribute to Darwin as the one who at least started the new school into activity and made Lamarck's ideas attain their true position. To curb the imagination, apt to yield too readily to the seductions of the modern zoölogy, experimental research is needed. Transformism and metamorphosis are to be studied. Various instances of such researches were given, and in an eloquent roration the year's work of the association and its standing in the scientific world were stated. The speaker was enthusiastically cheered. Treasurer's Report.—After his address, the treasurer's report was presented, showing in round numbers that the receipts for the year had been $18,800; expenditures, $17,400; total capital, $165,300. M. Girard has left the association $35,000 for the promotion of researches on prehistoric man. A report was presented and read of the meeting of 1888 at Oran, and the meeting adjourned to the École des Ponts et Chaussées, where the sections met. General Proceedings.-The French Association is subdivided into seventeen sections and sub-sections: 1 and 2, Mathematics and Astronomy; 3 and 4, Civil and Military Engineering and Navigation; 5, Physics; 6, Chemistry; 7, Meteorology; 8, Geology and Mineralogy; 9, Botany; 10, Zoëlogy, Anatomy, and Physiology; 11, Anthropology; 12, Medical Science; 13, Agriculture; 14, ão. 15, Political Economy; 16, Pedagogy; 17. Hygiene. A very large number of papers were read in these divisions. An additional feature of section work was the visiting of different industrial establishments and objects of specific interest. Thus sections 1 and 2 inspected the collection of calculating machines at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, under the guidance of M. Ed. Lucas. The new dirigible balloons invented by Commandant Renard, and the exhibition of the Minister of War, were inspected by sections 3 and 4. Section 6 inspected the exhibition of chemical products at the Exposition, M.M. De Clermont, Riche, Luilliot, Billandt, Istrati, and others, giving general explanations. Other equally interesting visits were made by this and the other sections—the Pasteur Institute, sewers of the city, gas works, etc., being objective points. On o Aug. 8 the splendid suite of rooms of the Municipality of Paris at the Hôtel de Ville was thrown open, some 8,000 guests in all, including the members of the association, the students, and others, being present by invitation. M. Yves Guyot, Minister of Public Works, with Mme. Guyot, received the members at the Ministry in the Boulevard St. Germain, on the evening of Aug. 9. On Aug. 11 St. Germainen-Laye and Meudon were visited, including the Observatory, under the directorship of M. Jaussen. On Aug. 12 General Tcheng - KiTong gave a lecture on the “Social Economy of China.” On Aug. 14 the association gave a banquet to its foreign members in the Eiffel Tower. On Aug. 16 the paper works at Essonne and the works of W. Decanville, contractor for the narrow-gauge railway in operation
on the grounds of the Exposition were visited. The meeting then ended. The secretary and vice-secretary of the association at this meeting were Prof. Gariel and Dr. Cartaz respectively. The meeting of 1890 is to be held at Limoges. ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOWERY. During 1889 the astronomical event that attracted most general attention was the total eclipse of the sun, on New Year's day, visible in California and the Western States. The average number of new asteroids and comets was discovered, among the latter being a comet of more than ordinary interest on account of its segmentation into several distinct nebulous masses. In regard to improvements in astronomical methods, the chief interest centers in the development of celestial photography. Valuable papers on the older or gravitational astronomy i. been published, while the popular appreciation of the science is shown by the multiplication of amateur astronomical societies, and by the increased endowment for astronomical research. American Observatories.—The Harvard Observatory has received from Miss C. W. Bruce, of New York, a gift of $50,000, to be applied to the construction and maintenance of a photographic telescope having an objective of about 24-inches aperture and a focal length of 11 feet. The compound lens, which will probably cost $20,000, is to be like that used by photographers, rather than like that of an astronomical telescope. Its small focal length, compared with its diameter, will give photographic images of much fainter stars than the latter. A telescope of the prolosed form having an aperture of 8 inches has en in constant use in Cambridge for four years, and is now in Peru photographing the southern sky; with it stars too faint to be seen with the 15-inch refractor have been photographed, and a corresponding advantage is anticipated from the increase of the aperture to 24 inches. Each photograph will be 13 inches square and will cover an area of the sky five degrees square, on the scale of one minute to a millimetre. It is proposed to construct the lens so that the front portion may form a photographic objective and may be reversible and adapted for either visual or photographic purposes. The telescope may then be used in three ways—for visual purposes as a telescope of 24inches aperture and 17 feet focal length, as a single photographic lens of the same dimensions, and as a photographic doublet covering a large field and having a focal length of 11 #. A prism covering the lens, for the examination of spectra, may be used in each case, making six instruments in one. Prof. Edward C. Pickering proposes to establish this instrument upon some high mountain, where the best meteorological conditions prevail, the work of reduction and discussion being done at Cambridge. The entire cost of the combination instrument and a small building for its protection is estimated at $35,000, leaving $15,000 for the attending expenses of reduction and publication (which would probably amount to $5,000 a year) sufficient to secure photographs of the entire northern sky. The work of the Naval Observatory at Washington has been a continuation of the routine