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fall, of course, promotes the growth of forest, the forest has a reciprocal influence on the fall of rain. Maj. Powell says that if there is any influence on rainfall from the presence of woodland it is so very slight as to be scarcely worth considering as a climatic factor. He advocates a system of irrigation on the arid lands of the West, estimating that at least 150,000 square miles of the 1,300,000 of arid land in the United States might be reclaimed. (See IRRIGATION, in this volume.) The question of the influence of forests on rainfall also been studied by Dr. R. von Lendenfeld, in connection with the climatic conditions of Australia. His conclusion is that in warm and dry countries, like the interior of Australia, the removal of trees tends to increase the rainfall and the humidity of the climate. The soil is so hard and dry that the greater part of the fallen rain passes swiftly over it and falls into the lakes, many of which are connected with the ocean by subterranean streams, so that there are no large lakes and rivers. When, however, the trees are taken away, according to Dr. Lendenfeld, their deep-reaching roots no longer absorb the rising moisture, so that it reaches the roots of the grasses and herbs. The dead stems of the grasses decay and leave little vertical channels in the floo, passing below into larger channels formerly taken up by the tree roots. This renders the soil porous. One effect of the westward movement of emition is seen in the recent purchases of Indian nds to be thrown open to settlers. Oklahoma, an area of 3,120 square miles, situated in the heart of the Indian Territory, was opened to settlers in the spring of 1889. This region, which is not laid down on many of the maps, is bounded on the north by the “Cherokee strip,” on the east by the Pawnees, Iowas, Kickapoos, and Pottawatomies, south by the Chickasaw land, and west by the Cheyennes and Arapahoes. The Cimarron river forms part of its western boundary and passes through its northern part; the Canadian river bounds it on the south, the “Indian meridian’” forms the greater #. of its eastern boundary, and the 98th meriian of longitude more than three fourths of its western. By various acts extending back to the time of the civil war, it has been withdrawn from Indian occupation and made public land; but heretofore the attempts of settlers to occupy have resulted in failure. The bill allowing the settlement of whites in Oklahoma passed Conress Feb. 1, 1889, and was signed by the Presii. March 27, the opening being fixed for April 22, at noon. The scenes of that day are unparalleled in the annals of emigration. Encamped on the borders of the country, awaiting the stroke of noon on the appointed day, were crowds of speculators, adventurers, and genuine settlers, pre d to spring upon the most desirable sites and hold them against all later comers. The consequent confusion was, however, well over in a. .. time; officers chosen by the settlers o inaugurated a reign of law. Guthrie, chosen as the capital, reports 15,000 inhabitants. Interest now centers in the efforts of the Government to acquire what is known as the Cherokee Strip in the Indian Territory. It is through this land only that the recently opened territory
of Oklahoma can be approached from the north, and for this reason it seems almost impossible to prevent unlawful incursions. . Altogether there are 6,022,000 acres, for which the Government offers $1.25 an acre. If the Cherokees sell on these terms they will receive $7,527,700 which, at even a low rate of interest, would yield them a o revenue than they have received by leasing the land to the live-stock company that has controlled it for several years. It has been supposed that the Indians were strongly averse to the sale of their lands, but the results of the recent elections show that there is a very strong sentiment in favor of accepting the offer made by the Government. In an enthusiastic description of Mount Rainier, or Mount Tacoma, in “Petermann's Mitteilungen,” under the title “The Rigi in the C es of North America,” Dr. Julius Röll says: A few days later, on June 22, we ascended for the second time, in fair, clear, weather, and from the first peak could admire Mount Tacoma'in all its grandeur and beauty. I had often seen this noble mountain— its northern profile from Eagle Gorge, its northwestern slope from Enumclaw and Tacoma, and its southwestern side from the Park to Portland: now it presented to our eyes its northern view. Its summit is divided, the left and higher peak from the right by a level cut having in the midst a small wavelike elevation. It might be a question whether the view from the northwest, from Mount Boldy near Enumclaw and from Tacoma, showing but a single great peak, is not the more beautiful. But this view from the north is nder and more sublime, where the giant rises from e billowy, snowy peaks of the Cascade range as from the waves of the sea. From their summits to the peak, rising about 4,400 metres on high, he is wrapped in snow and ice; only a little standing forward on the left or eastern slope half-way up the mountain shows dark with its ; surface. ount Cevedale in the Ortler É. the Silberhorn in the Bernese Oberland, the Johannisberg on the Grossglockner, and other Alpine snow-clad summits are not to be compared with this... I have never seen a mountain to equal it, either in Switzerland or the Tyrol, in the kies or the Cascades, Mount Blanc and Monte Rosa not excepted. To the mountain from which this view was obtained Dr. Röll gave the name Mount Rigi. It lies in 121° 15' west longitude and 47° 22' north latitude, is about 7,500 feet in height, and has three peaks rising one above another. He believes that the magnificent view from this New World Mount Rigi will some time lead to the building of a mountain o to its summit. An expedition sent out by the Minnesota Historical Society to settle the disputed question as to the real source of the Mississippi made a four months' tour in the regions lying about its headwaters, and returned with the report that neither Itasca, Elk, nor Whipple lake is entitled to the honor, but that the true source must be regarded as two lakes, lying about a hundred feet higher than Itasca and west from it. Meantime the State Legislature had made a law that Elk lake should be the name of the water sometimes known as Lake Glazier, and that after Jan. 1, 1890, the use of all books and maps giving any other name to that lake should be forbidden. Wenezuela.-Lake Valencia in Venezuela is remarkable for the rapid rate at which its waters are '#."& A recent examination by Herr E. von Hesse-Wartegg brings out some facts concerning it. In Humboldt's time it was thirtyfive miles long; it is now but thirty miles and a half. The town of Valencia was built in the ear 1555 at a distance of a half-mile from the ke shore; in Humboldt's time it was three miles and a half distant, and now it is nearly five miles away. Herr von Hesse-Wartegg noticed on the islands he visited in the lake a well-defined old shore line, about ten feet above the present level of the lake; and his observations led him to conclude that the lake may have been at that level as lately as during the last century. There are twenty-two islands, of which only three are peopled. The inhabitants believe that the water of the lake, which is turbid and contains a quantity of organic matter, tends to induce disease, and they do not drink it. A part of the diminution in the quantity of water in the lake is attributed to the gradual destruction by the cattle breeders of the forests that formerly covered all the valleys around the lake, thus reducing the supply from the tributary streams, of which there are fourteen—not twenty-two, as by former reports. GEORGIA, a Southern State, one of the original thirteen, ratified the Constitution Jan. 2, 1788; area, 59,475 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 1,542,180: capital, Atlanta. Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, John B. Gordon, Democrat; Secretary of State, Nathan C. Barnett; Treasurer, R. U. Hardeman : Comptroller-General, William A. Wright; AttorneyGeneral, Clifford Anderson ; Commissioner of Agriculture, J.T. Henderson; State School Commissioner, James S. Hook; Railroad Commissioners, Alexander S. Irwin, Campbell Wallace, L. N. Trammell; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, L. E. Bleckley; Associate Justices, M. H. Blanford and T. J. Simmons. Finances.—On Jan. 1 the 6-per-cent. State bonds of 1877, amounting to $2,141,000, became due and were ". by issuing 44-per-cent. bonds to the value of $1,900,000, the balance of $241,000 being paid in cash. This transaction reduced the total State debt from $8,752,305 to $8,511,305. The balance at the beginning of the fiscal year 1888–89 was $231,351.52. The tax levy for 1889 was fixed at 4 mills, of which 2.7 mills are levied for State expenses, 3 mill for schools, and the remainder for the State Capitol, the sinking fund, and other purposes. The total tax for 1888 was 3.5 mills. The assessed valuation of the State for 1889 is about $380,000,000, of which $34,219,457 is the valuation of railroad property. The total valuation for 1888 was $357,167,458. Legislative Session.—The adjourned session of the Legislature began on July 3, and continued through Nov. 9. It was one of the longest sessions in the history of the State. The legislation accomplished was largely local and special, including 64 bank and 66 railroad charters. Much time was consumed in determining whether the lessees of the State road, otherwise known as the Western and Atlantic Railroad, should receive credit for betterments made thereon by them, and in deciding upon what terms a new lease of the road should be made. There was a prolonged disagreement between the two Houses upon the latter subject. The existing lease, which
will expire on Dec. 1, 1890, has brought an annual rental of $300,000 to the State. A committee appointed by the Legislature of 1887 reported at the November session that the value of betterments made by the lessees was $750,889.74, while the claim made by the lessees themselves at this session o to more than $887,000. The Legislature finally refused to allow an
claim for improvements o o to the o giving the lessees only the rolling stock held by them above the amount received at the beginning of the lease, to which no claim could well be made by the State. The terms of the new lease were fixed, and July 1, 1890, was appointed as the time for opening bids, the terms of the rental to be advertised for four weeks preceding. The Governor was instructed not to accept any bid that offered the State less than $35,000 a month for a lease of twenty years, or less than $40,000 a month for a lease of thirty years, or less than $45,000 a month for a lease of fifty years. The annual appropriation heretofore made to Atlanta University, which had not been paid for two years in consequenee of the act of 1887 forbidding its payment so long as the university should adhere to co-education of the races, was made payable hereafter to Morris Brown College, a colored institution of Fulton County. The college will receive this year the undrawn appropriation of $16,000, and $8,000 annually hereafter. An amendment to the State Constitution was proposed, authorizing the Legislature to aid, by pensions or otherwise, the widows of Confederate soldiers who died in the service or have since died from wounds received in the service. The amendment is framed to a
ply only to such persons as were married at the time of such service and have remained unmarried since the death of their husbands. Another important act established a college for the instruction of white girls, to be called the Georgia Industrial College, and to be governed in connection with the State University, forming one of the departments thereof. The institution was located at Milledgeville, and $35,000 were appropriated for buildings. The office of State Geologist was revived, and provision was made for a geological, mineralogical, and physical survey of the State. The hours of labor in cotton and woolen mills and in other manufacturing establishments were limited to eleven hours in each day. This is one of the first attempts made by the State to regulate the employment of labor. The Railroad Commissioners were empowered to fix joint through rates for railroads in the State. Another act provides for the taxation of railroads by counties, the proceeds to be used for county expenses. Several important changes were made in the revenue law. The act taxing sleeping-cars was amended so as to apply to all companies that transport sleeping-cars in the State. The amount was graduated according to the number of miles of railroad. The tax of $25 on sewing-machine agents was repealed, and a tax of $200 annually, and $5 for each agent in the State, was imposed on all sewing-machine companies, to be paid before they can do business in the State. The measure known as the fertilizer-inspection bill reduces the fee for inspecting from fifty cents to ten cents a ton. As the proceeds of this tax, after paying the expenses of in
per to sell or dispose of crops in certain cases, and to make certain acts of the landlord indictable. To organize the board of trustees of the State Unversity. The bill provides that the old board be abolished and a new one created, composed of one member from each congressional district, two from the city of Athens, and four from the State at large, all to be appointed by the Governor, who is himself to be erofficio a member. Prohibiting the furnishing of minors with cigarettes. Providing for a new board of trustees for the lunatic asylum at Milledgeville. The salary is reduced from $300 to $150 per annum. To admit white female students into all the branch colleges of the State University. To authorize and encourage the construction of telegraph lines in the State. To require railroads and other common carriers promptly to settle claims for overcharges of freight. To prevent the exemption from taxation by any
make a coast survey and physical examination of the waters of Georgia, and prepare charts showing the natural oyster-beds, and productive and unproductive areas. To require persons or corporations employing females in manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishments to provide suitable seats for them and permit their use. To organize and incorporate the First Regiment of Georgia cavalry. To authorize the Governor to lease the Indian Spring reserve. To prohibit cock-fighting or betting thereon. To create the office of State Bank Examiner. To make it a misdemeanor to publish any advertisement of a lottery, gift enterprise, or other scheme forbidden by law, or the result of the drawing or distribution of gifts or prizes, either by newspaper, written or printed posters, dodgers, or circulars. To authorize the Governor to sell the city lot and old Capitol building in the city of Atlanta, and all of its appurtenances in Marietta Street, at ublic sale. To define the rights of landlords to declare the effects of certain contracts, to make it penal for any crop
county of any manufacturing industry or enterprise, or any property of any kind not now .g. by law. Providing for the sale of the Okefenokee Swamp. Providing that liens or mortgages, judgments, etc., shall take effect from the time they are entered on record, and not from the date of execution.
Education.—The following statistics show the condition of the public schools for the school year ending in November, 1888, as compared with that of the year preceding:
items. 1887. 1888. White schools... 5,088 4,375 Colored schools ....... 2,512 1,987 White children in State..................... 292,624 Colored children in State.......l.............. 267,657 White pupils enrolled ... ...... 208,865 200,786 Colored pupils enrolled ....... 183,429 120,390 Total pupils enrolled ......... 842,294 821,176 Average attendance ... ....... 226,290 217,896 Amount paid to teachers....... $544.so $662'ssion Total expenditures for schools. 3751,66248 is89,005 21
The total amount raised by the State for schools for 1887, and known as the State school fund, was $493,509.52, and for 1888 about $520,000. The remainder of the total expenditures for each year was paid from funds raised by local taxation. The State school fund is derived from the half rental of the Westward Atlantic Railroad, amounting to $150,000 annually; from poll taxes, amounting to about $190,000 annually; from the liquor tax, yielding $60,060.27 in 1887, and $65,392.20 in iš. from fees for inspecting fertilizers, yielding $75,284 in 1887 and $94,115.18 in 1888; from hire of convicts, yielding $17,184.37 in 1887 and $18,867.77 in 1888; and from tax on shows and other sources. The act of the Legislature this year in reducing the fertilizer fees will deprive the fund of about $80,000 annually; but the act of 1888 making a special appropriation of $165,000 for schools in 1889, and of $330,000 in 1890, and granting them also the revenue derived from the State tax on all property above the valuation of $360,000,000, will more than compensate for the loss. The State University, at Athens, enrolled during the school year 1888 214 students. The institution is well supported, but needs to establish a higher standard of admission in order to perform the work that naturally belongs to it. There is a permanent fund amounting to $465,202.17, the income of which is available for the support of the institution. The annual expense of maintenance is about $31,000. The Insane.—At the State Lunatic Asylum there were under treatment, in October, 496 white men, 584 white women, 202 colored men, and 225 colored women: a total of 1,507. During the year preceding 515 new patients were received. The whole number treated during the year was 1,901, and the average number of patients was 1,448, or 108 more than for the year 1888. The whole number treated, 1,901, was 155 more than in any previous year. About 75 per cent of the patients are employed at light labor about the asylum. A remarkable fact is the increase of insanity among negroes. In 1860 there were only 44 insane ne in Georgia. It is also a curious fact that the increase of consumption among them has been in direct proportion with the increase of insanity. Militia. — The State militia numbers 4,566 officers and men. An act passed by the Legislature this year provides that there shall be annual encampments of one week of all the military forces of the State, the time to be designated b the Governor, the camp to be chosen ; an o visory board, and the expenses to be paid by the Commonwealth. A sum is set apart to be applied to target practice, and the bill is so framed that bids may be received by the advisory board from places that may wish the encampment. There was appropriated the sum of $7.200 to carry out the provisions of the act. Heretofore no pecuniary aid has been granted by the State to the militia since the civil war. State Capitol.—It was found late in 1888 that the State Capitol could not be completed at the end of the year, as contemplated by the act providing for its construction, and in December the Legislature extended the time to April 1, 1890. Some contracts were made by the commissioners for extras, which brought
their total expenditures for the building up to $999,881.57. The total original o for the building was $1,000,000, all of which was rai by taxation. Much praise was accorded the commissioners for completing the work within the terms of the original appropriation. The building, which covers 63,425 square feet, or about one and a half acre, was accepted and delivered to the State on March 20.
Railroads.-The number of miles of railroad in the State on June 30 is 4,420, of which 71 miles have been constructed since September, 1888. In June 122 miles were in course of construction. The following statistics cover the year ending June 30:
Private railroads in operation in Georgia—miles. 550 Assessed value of all roads. . $34,219,457
Taxes paid annually ....... $135,877
tablished in 1840, is derived from the Evangelical Church of Germany. It holds the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the only and infallible rule of faith and life, and accepts the symbolical books of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, including the Augsburg Confession, Luther's Catechism, and the Heidelberg Catechism, so far as they agree with one another, as a correct interpretation of them....According to its latest numerical returns, it has 643 ministers, serving 842 congregations, connected with which are 50,000 families and about twice as many regular attendants at church; parochial schools maintained by 370 congregations; 629 Sunday-schools, with 6,142 teachers and 60,258 pupils; a college at Elmhurst, near Chicago, Ill., and a theological seminary, near St. Louis, Mo.; two orphanages near St. Louis, and at Lincoln, Neb., and a third one to be established in Texas. The voluntary contributions during the last three years amounted to $177,752. The Synod publishes a weekly general religious newspaper, a monthly theological review, and four special papers (missionary and for Sunday-schools and children). Besides maintaining home missions it supports a mission to the heathen in India. The Triennial General Conference of the Synod was held in Evansville, Ind., Aug. 21 to 29. The Rev. J. Zimmerman, of Burlington, Iowa, presided. The body is distinctively one of o: people, and has encouraged the use of the German language in its official acts and preaching and other religious services; but the increasing use of the English language among its membership having made a change of attitude on this subject expedient, resolutions were adopted de"claring that while the Evangelical Synod of North America is German and intends to remain such as long as God permits, it earnestly asks all its ministers and congreations to establish and maintain German-Engish parochial schools wherever it is feasible, in order to stop the anglicizing process going on everywhere. In those places, however, where the establishment of such parochial schools is impracticable, and English catéchetical instruction and English preaching can not be avoided without losing our young people, our ministers should not delay such instruction and preaching, but should keep our children, in our Church, even if this can only be done by giving up the German language.
In order, however, to evade as much as possible the inconvenience necessarily arising from a mixture of languages, the anglicized members shall, as soon as practicable, be gathered in purely English congregations, and as such shall be served apart from the German congregations.
As soon as nine English con o have sprung up they shall constitute an English evangelical synod separated from the German, but standing in a filial relation to it.
The resolutions also authorize provision to be made for the training of theological students in English; the appointment in the theological seminary of a fourth professor who is proficient in that language; the publication of an English catechism; and the translation of the constitution of the Synod into the English language. The president of the Synod, in order that he might devote his whole time and energy to the presidential work, was relieved from the duty of serving a congregation; and the districts were invited to consider whether his term of office should not in the future be indefinite. The duties of the president were defined to be: To supervise the Synod with all its institutions; to watch its literary activity and engage in it himself as much as possible; to superintend and guide its home and foreign missions; and to further the welfare of the Synod through preaching and lecturing on special occasions. The erection of a memorial church at Spires, Germany, in commemoration of the Protestation of 1529, was approved and commended to ministers and conregations as a proper object for contributions. Measures were taken for establishing a special institute for training parochial teachers at Hoyleton, Ill. Two new districts were formed by division of the Kansas district, making the number of districts subject to the Synod fifteen. GERMANY., an empire in central Europe founded on treaties concluded in November, 1870, between the North German Confederation and the Grand Duchies of Baden and Hesse and Kingdoms of Bavaria and Würtemberg, ratifications being exchanged on Jan. 29, 1871. By decree of April 16, 1871, the Constitution of the Empire took the place of these treaties, entering into force on May 4, 1871. The confederation of states forming the empire is invested with sovereign imperial authority, which is exercised by the King of Prussia, as hereditary German Emperor, and a Bundesrath or Federal Council, comsed of representatives of the federated states, imited in certain functions by the powers delegated to the Reichstag or Parliament, a body elected by universal suffrage. The Emperor has the power to declare war, if defensive, to make peace, and to enter into treaties. A declaration of war, if not defensive, must have the approval of the Bundesrath. The assent of the Reichstag is required for legislative measures framed in the oil. and taxation and expenditure are submitted to the popular assembly for discussion and approval. The Bundesrath has 58 members, nominated by the governments of the individual states for each session. The Reichstag consists of 397 members. From 1890 the legislative period will be five instead of three years, as here
tofore. All laws passed by the Bundesrath and Reichstag must be signed by the Emperor and countersigned by the Chancellor of the Empire. The Chancellor presides over the sittings of the Bundesrath, while the Reichstag elects its own president. The reigning Emperor is Wilhelm II, born Jan. 27, 1859, who succeeded his father, Friedrich III, as King of Prussia and German Emperor on June 15, 1888. The heir apparent is the Emperor's eldest son, Friedrich Wi.i. born May 26, 1884. The Chancellor of the Empire is Prince Otto von Bismarck-Schönhausen, born April 1, 1815, who has filled the office since the establishment of the empire. The Imperial Ministers or Secretaries of State act independently of each other under the supervision of the Chancellor. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs is Count Herbert von Bismarck-Schönhausen, son of the Chancellor. The Secretary of State for the Interior is Herr von Bötticher, who acts as representative of the Chancellor. The Chief of the Imperial Admiralty was Count von Monts, who died in January, 1889, and was succeeded by ViceAdmiral von der Goltz. When the admiralty was divided into a civil and military department, Baron von der Goltz, with the rank of admiral, became commanding admiral of the navy, and Rear-Admiral Heusner took charge of the Marine Office. The Minister of Justice is Herr von Puttkamer: Secretary of the Treasury, Baron von Maltzahn: President of the Railroad Office, Herr Maybach: President of the Court of Audit, Herr von Stünzmer : Chief of the Post-Office, I)r. von Stephan : President of the Administration of the Invalid Funds, Dr. Michaelis: President of the Debt Commission, Herr Meinecke. Area and Population.—The German Empire has an area of 211,196 square miles. The population on Dec. 1, 1885, when the last census was taken, was 46,855,704, compared with 45,234,061 in 1880 and 42,727,360 in 1875. Prussia, with an area of 137,066 square miles, had 28,318,470 inhabitants. Bavaria, 29,375 square miles in extent, had a population of 5,420,199. Würtemberg comes next in size, with an area of 7,530 square miles, but the o was only 1,995,185, and that of Baden, with an area of 5,824 square miles, was 1,601,225, while Saxony, with an area of 5,795 square miles, had 3,182.003 population. The imperial province of ...}. raine, 5,580 square miles, had a population of 1,564,355. The twenty minor states — grandduchies, duchies, principalities, and free.gities— which with the Kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, and Würtemberg, and the Grand Duchy of Baden, form the German Empire, are Mecklenburg-Schwerin, population 575,152 : Hesse, 956,611 : Oldenburg, 341,525: Brunswick, 372,452; Saxe-Weimar, 313,946: Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 98,371 : Saxe-Meiningen, 214,884; Anhalt, 248,166; Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 198.829 : Saxe-Altenburg, 161,400; Waldeck. 56,575 : Lippe, 123,212: Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. 83,836: Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, 73.606: Reuss-Schleiz. 110,598: Schaumburg-Lippe, 37,204: Reuss-Greiz. 55,904; Hamburg, 518,620; Lübeck, 67,658; Bremen, 165,628. The number of marriages in Germany was 372,326 in 1886, against 368,619 in 1885; the number