Gambar halaman

On Sept. 24 they reached land at a small lake to the south of Kangersunek, a fjord where a large glacier issues; and, on the 26th, the reached the sea at the inner end of the Amerali fjord in 64° 12 north latitude, having passed over the inland ice about 260 miles. They were still 50 miles from the nearest inhabited place, Godthaab, and were obliged to build a boat of parts of their tent and sledges to reach it. Dr. Nansen believes that, so far at least as the southern part of Greenland is concerned, his expedition has disproved the theory of Dr. Nordenskiöld, who held that “it is in most cases a physical impossibility that the interior of a large continent should be completely covered with ice under the climatic circumstances that occur on our planet south of 80° latitude”; and that, as to the interior of Greenland, it is even easy to prove that the conditions for the forming of glaciers can not occur there if the surface of the land does not gradually and regularly rise from the east coast as well as the west coast toward the center. But such a shape, he says, has no continent, orographically known, on our earth. Greenland, he thinks, like Scandinavia in its orographical construction, consisting of mountain ranges and peaks separated by deep valleys and plains; and in such a country most of the rain and snow must fall in the neighborhood of the coasts, while only dry and warm winds reach the interior, so that there can not be moisture enough to form a glacier there. On the contrary, Dr. Nansen holds that his observations prove that this part of the interior is not only ice and snow clad, but has a mighty shield-shaped covering of snow and ice, under which mountains as well as valleys have quite disappeared, so that their configuration can not even |. traced. It rises regularly, though rapidly, from the east coast, reaching a height of 9,000 or 10,000 feet, is rather flat and even in the center, and then falls regularly toward the west coast. He does not believe that this conformation of the ice indicates a similar shape of the land—that is, a high central plateau o to the coasts, but that the interior is like that of Norway and of Scotland, the valleys being filled with ice of enormous thickness, and the even surface being due mainly to the action of the wind, filling up the depths with the loose dry snow and leveling and polishing the great field till it looks like the surface of a frozen ocean. The fact that snow falls nearly every day and that there is very little melting going on, seems to lead to the conclusion that the quantity is constantly increasing. But this does not seem to be the case, since if it were, the quantity of snow and ice on the coasts would be constantly increasing also, whereas the observations and measurements on the west coast for several years indicate that they keep about the same level. This fact Dr. Nansen explains on the theory that the pressure in this mass of ice and snow, forces the ice downward along the sloping sides of the mountains and through the valleys toward the sea, where it falls in ice streams or glaciers, and is melted or carried away in icebergs; moreover, much may be carried away in the form of water, since the melting-point of ice is lowered by pressure—a theory confirmed by the fact that even in the middle of the cold Greenland winter, rivers

run out under the glaciers at the margin of the inland ice. The careful observation of a snow and ice covering like that of Greenland is, in my opinion, of great o for the theory of the formation of valleys and fjords by the ice. The ability to excavate the ground underneath must be considerable in quantities of ice like those observed there. To me it seems indeed natural that the more we study Greenland, its coasts and its inland ice, the more convinced must we feel of the great ability of the ice to form fjords and valleys to a great extent. Indeed if we attentively study on one hand the fjords and valleys of Greenland, with their many evidences of glacial influence, and on the other hand the inland ice, we can be in no doubt whatever that these are in a near relation to each other; and if we from Greenland turn our eyes to Norway and Scotland, we must grant that there are here quite similar formations. In meteorological respects there are some observations of great interest. The very low temperature met with in the interior will be astonishing to most meteorologists; it does not seem to agree with the received meteorological laws, at all events, not at the first glance. The radiation of warmth from this immense snow field in such an altitude, where the air is consequently very thin, must evidently have a great influence in lowering the temperature. The interior of Greenland must indeed be the coldest place on earth hitherto known ; it must be a kind of cold pole from which the winds blow toward the coasts and the sea. I think that this low temperature may throw a good deal of light on the much discussed question, the cause of the . cold of the glacial period in Europe and North merica, which at that time were covered with an ice sheet similar to that we now see in Greenland. I think that the best way of solving the problems of the great ice age is to go and examine the places where similar conditions are now found; and no better place can be found than Greenland. From a study of the glacial phenomena of the west coast of Greenland, M. Charles Rabot, the explorer of Lapland, draws the following conclusions: First, from a comparison of the inland ice of Greenland with the glaciers of Lapland, of the type of the Svartis and the Jökulfjeld, it appears certain that the latter glaciers are inland ice in miniature, and that the Svartis and the Jökulfjeld are vestiges of the glacial period in Scandinavia, which have remained to the present day in consequence of particular circumstances. Second, that the great glacier of Jakobshavn has advanced in recent years; it is about 14 mile beyond where it was observed by Lieut. Hammer in 1878. Third, that the drift ice of the ice field, which lies along the southwest coast, only transports a very small quantity of materials. In crossing the ice field, sixty miles wide, only one out of the fifty or sixty pieces of ice observed was covered with débris of detritic origin. Guiana.-M. Georges Brousseau, in a letter to the Geographical Society of Paris, says that he finds the river Inini, in French Guiana, represented on existing maps as a small creek, to be in reality an important river, with an average breadth of from thirty-five to fifty yards, flowing through a deep channel. It could be ascended for more than twenty days by canoe in one or other of its chief branches. Mexico.—A gold district has recently been discovered in the northeast part of Lower California, 60 miles east of Ensenada. Beginning at the foot of the mountains, it extends for 50 miles or more to the northeast, about 4,500 feet above the sea. Placers are found in the lower

levels of the many cañons or gulches, and quartz very wonderful. The distances were immense. To lodes of a mineral character intersect the hills in the northwest we could see many ranges of hills with every direction. Whether it can be profitably huge glaciers between them. Most of these mountworked is still a question. Other minerals-sil- ains appeared less than 7,000 feet high, but there

were several very much higher, and I believe that we ver, copper, iron, lead, saltpetre, sulphur, etc.

saw Mount Wrangel, which Lieut. Allen states to be are found there also, according to report. about 17,500 feet bigh, the second highest mountain

Paraguay.--The return of an expedition to in North America. explore the Jejui River in Paraguay was re The Malaspina glacier appeared with its moraines ported in 1888. Capt. Sandalio Sosa, of the Ar- like a huge race-course, and the streaks of débris at gentine army, and Dr. de Bourgade, secretary of the west end of the course had fashioned themselves the Hydrologic Society of France, explored that filled up the whole space to the east as far as the river, the banks of the Igatimi, and the upper horizon. Mount Fairweather, distant 150 miles,

stood Paraná. They discovered two important tribu- up beyond. To the south we could distinguish the taries of the Igatimi, called the Ipytá and the sea and the mouth of the river. The greater part of Ihoby, which they explored. They visited the the Malaspina glacier and certainly nine tenths of the Guaira Fall, the height and volume of which white ice comes from between Mount St. Elias and they found to have been greatly exaggerated. Mount Cook. The ice coming from the south of Capt. Sosa says: “The Guaira Fall is not a single Elias is covered with débris, shale, and slate, for the perpendicular plunge of water; it is a tumult- most part such as we had been 'climbing up. This uous collection of rapids and great and little step is quite safe. Whole masses of rocks become

forination renders climbing very tiring work. No falls all plunging together into a single channel, dislodged and fall thundering down the mountainthrough which are forced 15,000 to 20,000 cubic side, and so thick was the cloud of dust which enmetres of water. The height of the precipice is veloped us on our descent that the last man had great 100 metres. This vast quantity so violently pre- difficulty

to see where to walk. There is a couloir cipitated sends up a mass of vapor visible at a about 3,000 feet in height, down which stones are farther height of more than 100 metres."

continually falling, owing to the rapid disintegration They found the natives well disposed. Some- pillar of dust ascends high into the air, giving the

of the mountain. They never cease falling, and a what farther down the stream than the Cainguás appearance, when seen from a distance, 'of steam or and the Guaranís they found a tribe heretofore smoke, and the wind plays upon the dust just as it unknown, the Apyteré, or inhabitants of the cen- plays upon the Staubbach and other high waterfalls, ter. These they regarded as the most advanced watting it to and fro, and sporting with it as it likes. of the tribes visited. They play upon simple As we approached the mountain from the Tyndall pipes and understand the potter's art.

glacier we had been under the impression that the United States.--An expedition to determine pillar of dust was smoke or steam due to volcanic the exact boundary between Alaska and the agency, and, although we had examined the phenom

enon through a powerful telescope, we continued of British possessions was sent out in June, 1889, the same opinion until we arrived close to it and disby the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- covered its true nature. The Tyndall glacier forms a vey, under the lead of J. E. McGrath. The very small part of the Guyot, but most of the motreaty of 1825 places the line at the summit of raine upon the latter descends from the southern the mountains or the watershed where the water- out of sight to the south. The Chaix hills are in the

slopes of Elias. The Guyot glacier stretches away shed is within a distance of ten leagues from shape of a great v. At the angle of the V are snow the coast; where it is not, the line is to run fields, connected with a short range of hills of a redparallel to the coast at a distance from it of ten dish sandstone. These run north and connect with leagues; and then follows the 141st meridian to St. Elias. On the west side of the Tyndall glacier the Arctic Ocean.

are several smaller glaciers descending from the

range • An attempt to ascend Mount St. Elias was of hills which flank the Tyndall on that side. The made in July, 1888, by a party under Mr. Harold hills are of gray sandstone, shale, and slate. ( poti W. Topham. They reached the upper rim of fossils of the Miocene, or perhaps Eocene, period on

these hills we found many seams of coal and sonne the so-called crater; the height reached was

their glaciers. Upon the east lateral moraine we 11,461 feet, and the summit towered, as they found hornblende, shale, amygdaloid, and some gran, judged, some 8,000 feet above. Mr. Topham ite. From where we were upon St. Elias we could saw no evidences of volcanic action, though a see that a branch of the Guyot glacier descends from cone of rock, shaped like a sugar-loaf, rising the northward of the peak and passes behind there from near the upper rim of the crater, resembles hills. This fact, coupled with that mentioned above. the lava cones of Kilauea in Hawaii. 'It is about that the greater part of the Malaspina glacier appears 80 feet high and 40 broad at the base, and is think that the mountain itself is not at the summit of

to come from northeast of Mount St. Elias, makes me composed of numerous stones of irregular shape, the watershed. This is interesting only to those who having flat, even surfaces and fitting into each are anxious to place Mount St. Elias in Canadian terother like mosaic work.

ritory, because the boundary, according to treaty, was The bottom of the crater is full

of ice, and upon its leagues, except where the summit of the watershed

to run parallel to the coast, at a distance of ten precipitous cliffs are a number of overhanging gla- came within that zone, in which case the watershed ciers, splashed, as it were, upon the rocks and de

was to be the frontier. tached from the snow fields above. This is characteristio of a number of glaciers in the neighborhood. The influence of forests on rainfall has been There they are, right on the rocks, with yawning the subject of a careful study by Prof. Henry crevices upon them broken up and ready to topple Gannett, of the Geological Survey. His investiover upon you. Perhaps in a few years they will gations have convinced him that the existence Elias bears evidence to the conclusion that the long of woodland has no connection as a cause with period of ice through which the land has been pass- the quantity of rainfall. The fact that forests ing is now coming to an end.

are generally found in places subject to heary The panorama obtained from the point reached was rainfall has led to the belief that, while the rain

fall, of course, promotes the growth of forest, of Oklahoma can be approached from the north, the forest has a reciprocal influence on the fall and for this reason it seems almost impossible to of rain. Maj. Powell says that if there is any prevent unlawful incursions. Altogether there influence on rainfall from the presence of wood- are 6,022,000 acres, for which the Government land it is so very slight as to be scarcely worth offers $1.25 an acre. If the Cherokees sell on considering as a climatic factor. He advocates these terms they will receive $7,527,700 which, a system of irrigation on the arid lands of the at even a low rate of interest, would yield them West, estimating that at least 150,000 square a larger revenue than they have received by leasmiles of the 1,300,000 of arid land in the United ing the land to the live-stock company that has States might be reclaimed. (See IRRIGATION, in controlled it for several years. It has been supthis volume.)

posed that the Indians were strongly averse to The question of the influence of forests on the sale of their lands, but the results of the rerainfall has also been studied by Dr. R. von Len- cent elections show that there is a very strong denfeld, in connection with the climatic condi- sentiment in favor of accepting the offer made tions of Australia. His conclusion is that in by the Government. warm and dry countries, like the interior of In an enthusiastic description of Mount RaiAustralia, the removal of trees tends to increase nier, or Mount Tacoma, in “ Petermann's Mitthe rainfall and the humidity of the climate. teilungen,” under the title “The Rigi in the The soil is so hard and dry that the greater part Cascades of North America," Dr. Julius Röll of the fallen rain passes swiftly over it and falls says: into the lakes, many of which are connected with A few days later, on June 22, we ascended for the the ocean by subterranean streams, so that there second time, in fair, clear, weather, and from the first are no large lakes and rivers. When, however, peak could admire Mount Tacoma in all its grandeur the trees are taken away, according to Dr. Len

and beauty. I had often seen this noble mountaindenfeld, their deep-reaching roots no longer ab- its northern profile from Eagle Gorge, its northwestern sorb the rising moisture, so that it reaches the slope from Enumclaw and Tacoma, and its south west

ern side from the Park to Portland; now it presented roots of the grasses and herbs. The dead stems to our eyes its northern view. Its summit is divided, of the grasses decay and leave little vertical the left and higher peak from the right by a level cut channels in the ground, passing below into larger having in the midst a small wavelike elevation. It channels formerly taken up by the tree roots. might be a question whether the view from the northThis renders the soil porous.

west, from Mount Boldy near Enumclaw and from One effect of the westward movement of emi

Tacoma, showing but a single great peak, is not the gration is seen in the recent purchases of Indian

more beautiful. But this view from the north is lands to be thrown open to settlers. Oklahoma,

grander and more sublime, where the giant rises from

the billowy, snowy peaks of the Cascade range as an area of 3,120 square miles, situated in the from the waves of the sea. From their summits to heart of the Indian Territory, was opened to the peak rising about 4,400 metres on high, he is settlers in the spring of 1889. This region, wrapped in snow and ice ; only a little peak standing which is not laid down on many of the maps, is forward on the left or eastern slope half-way up the bounded on the north by the “ Cherokee strip,”

mountain shows dark with its rocky surface. Mount on the east by the Pawnees, Iowas, Kickapoos,

Cevedale in the Ortler group, the Silberhorn in the and Pottawatomies, south by the Chickasaw glockner, and other Alpine snow-clad summits are

Bernese Oberland, the Johannisberg on the Grossland, and west by the Cheyennes and Ara- not to be compared with this. I have never seen a pahoes. The Cimarron river forms part of its mountain to equal it, either in Switzerland or the western boundary and passes through its north Tyrol, in the Rockies or the Cascades, Mount Blanc ern part; the Canadian river bounds it on the and Monte Rosa not excepted. south, the "Indian meridian" forms the greater To the mountain from which this view was part of its eastern boundary, and the 98th meri- obtained Dr. Röll gave the name Mount Rigi. It dian of longitude more than three fourths of its lies in 121° 15' west longitude and 47° 22' north western. By various acts extending back to the latitude, is about 7,500 feet in height, and has time of the civil war, it has been withdrawn from three peaks rising one above another. He beIndian occupation and made public land ; but lieves that the magnificent view from this New heretofore the attempts of settlers to occupy World Mount Rigi will some time lead to the have resulted in failure. The bill allowing the building of a mountain railway to its summit. settlement of whites in Oklahoma passed Con An expedition sent out by the Minnesota Hisgress Feb. 1, 1889, and was signed by the Presi- torical Society to settle the disputed question as dent March 27, the opening being fixed for April to the real source of the Mississippi made a four 22, at noon. The scenes of that day are unparal- months' tour in the regions lying about its headleled in the annals of emigration. Encamped on waters, and returned with the report that neither the borders of the country, awaiting the stroke Itasca, Elk, nor Whipple lake is entitled to the of noon on the appointed day, were crowds of honor, but that the true source must be regarded speculators, adventurers, and genuine settlers, as two lakes, lying about a hundred feet higher prepared to spring upon the most desirable sites than Itasca and west from it. Meantime the and hold them against all later comers. The State Legislature had made a law that Elk lake consequent confusion was, however, well over in should be the name of the water sometimes a week's time; officers chosen by the settlers known as Lake Glazier, and that after Jan, 1, quickly inaugurated a reign of law. Guthrie, 1890, the use of all books and maps giving any chosen as the capital, reports 15,000 inhabitants. other name to that lake should be forbidden.

Interest now centers in the efforts of the Gov Venezuela.-Lake Valencia in Venezuela is ernment to acquire what is known as the Chero- remarkable for the rapid rate at which its waters kee Strip in the Indian Territory. It is through are receding. A recent examination by Herr E. this land only that the recently opened territory von Hesse-Wartegg brings out some facts con

cerning it. In Humboldt's time it was thirtyfive miles long; it is now but thirty miles and a half. The town of Valencia was built in the ear 1555 at a distance of a half-mile from the ke shore; in Humboldt's time it was three miles and a half distant, and now it is nearly five miles away. Herr von Hesse-Wartegg noticed on the islands he visited in the lake a well-defined old shore line, about ten feet above the present level of the lake; and his observations led him to conclude that the lake may have been at that level as lately as during the last century. There are twenty-two islands, of which only three are peopled. The inhabitants believe that the water of the lake, which is turbid and contains a quantity of organic matter, tends to induce disease, and they do not drink it. A part of the diminution in the quantity of water in the lake is attributed to the gradual destruction by the cattle breeders of the forests that formerly covered all the valleys around the lake, thus reducing the supply from the tributary streams, of which there are fourteen—not twenty-two, as by former reports. GEORGIA, a Southern State, one of the original thirteen, ratified the Constitution Jan. 2, 1788; area, 59,475 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 1,542,180: capital, Atlanta. Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, John B. Gordon, Democrat; Secretary of State, Nathan C. Barnett; Treasurer, R. U. Hardeman : Comptroller-General, William A. Wright; AttorneyGeneral, Clifford Anderson ; Commissioner of Agriculture, J.T. Henderson; State School Commissioner, James S. Hook; Railroad Commissioners, Alexander S. Irwin, Campbell Wallace, L. N. Trammell; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, L. E. Bleckley; Associate Justices, M. H. Blanford and T. J. Simmons. Finances.—On Jan. 1 the 6-per-cent. State bonds of 1877, amounting to $2,141,000, became due and were ". by issuing 44-per-cent. bonds to the value of $1,900,000, the balance of $241,000 being paid in cash. This transaction reduced the total State debt from $8,752,305 to $8,511,305. The balance at the beginning of the fiscal year 1888–89 was $231,351.52. The tax levy for 1889 was fixed at 4 mills, of which 2.7 mills are levied for State expenses, 3 mill for schools, and the remainder for the State Capitol, the sinking fund, and other purposes. The total tax for 1888 was 3.5 mills. The assessed valuation of the State for 1889 is about $380,000,000, of which $34,219,457 is the valuation of railroad property. The total valuation for 1888 was $357,167,458. Legislative Session.—The adjourned session of the Legislature began on July 3, and continued through Nov. 9. It was one of the longest sessions in the history of the State. The legislation accomplished was largely local and special, including 64 bank and 66 railroad charters. Much time was consumed in determining whether the lessees of the State road, otherwise known as the Western and Atlantic Railroad, should receive credit for betterments made thereon by them, and in deciding upon what terms a new lease of the road should be made. There was a prolonged disagreement between the two Houses upon the latter subject. The existing lease, which

will expire on Dec. 1, 1890, has brought an annual rental of $300,000 to the State. A committee appointed by the Legislature of 1887 reported at the November session that the value of betterments made by the lessees was $750,889.74, while the claim made by the lessees themselves at this session o to more than $887,000. The Legislature finally refused to allow an

claim for improvements o o to the o giving the lessees only the rolling stock held by them above the amount received at the beginning of the lease, to which no claim could well be made by the State. The terms of the new lease were fixed, and July 1, 1890, was appointed as the time for opening bids, the terms of the rental to be advertised for four weeks preceding. The Governor was instructed not to accept any bid that offered the State less than $35,000 a month for a lease of twenty years, or less than $40,000 a month for a lease of thirty years, or less than $45,000 a month for a lease of fifty years. The annual appropriation heretofore made to Atlanta University, which had not been paid for two years in consequenee of the act of 1887 forbidding its payment so long as the university should adhere to co-education of the races, was made payable hereafter to Morris Brown College, a colored institution of Fulton County. The college will receive this year the undrawn appropriation of $16,000, and $8,000 annually hereafter. An amendment to the State Constitution was proposed, authorizing the Legislature to aid, by pensions or otherwise, the widows of Confederate soldiers who died in the service or have since died from wounds received in the service. The amendment is framed to a

ply only to such persons as were married at the time of such service and have remained unmarried since the death of their husbands. Another important act established a college for the instruction of white girls, to be called the Georgia Industrial College, and to be governed in connection with the State University, forming one of the departments thereof. The institution was located at Milledgeville, and $35,000 were appropriated for buildings. The office of State Geologist was revived, and provision was made for a geological, mineralogical, and physical survey of the State. The hours of labor in cotton and woolen mills and in other manufacturing establishments were limited to eleven hours in each day. This is one of the first attempts made by the State to regulate the employment of labor. The Railroad Commissioners were empowered to fix joint through rates for railroads in the State. Another act provides for the taxation of railroads by counties, the proceeds to be used for county expenses. Several important changes were made in the revenue law. The act taxing sleeping-cars was amended so as to apply to all companies that transport sleeping-cars in the State. The amount was graduated according to the number of miles of railroad. The tax of $25 on sewing-machine agents was repealed, and a tax of $200 annually, and $5 for each agent in the State, was imposed on all sewing-machine companies, to be paid before they can do business in the State. The measure known as the fertilizer-inspection bill reduces the fee for inspecting from fifty cents to ten cents a ton. As the proceeds of this tax, after paying the expenses of in

spection, were devoted to the support of public per to sell or dispose of crops in certain cases, and to schools, this reduction will deprive the school make certain acts of the landlord indictable. fund of about $80,000 annually. Other acts of versity. The bill provides that the old board be abol

To organize the board of trustees of the State Unthe session were as follow:

ished and a new one created, composed of one memAppropriating $1,000 to complete the roster of Geor- ber from each congressional district, two from the city gia troops in the Confederate service.

of Athens, and four from the State at large, all to be To facilitate legal process on lessee railroad compa- appointed by the Governor, who is himself to be exnies.

officio a member. To create a commission to survey Savannah river Prohibiting the furnishing of minors with cigarettes. in the counties of Richmond, Columbia, Elbert, and Providing for a new board of trustees for the luFannin, to ascertain if the passage of fish is obstructed, natic asylum at Milledgeville. The salary is reduced and if so at Augusta, to require the city to provide from $300 to $150 per annum. proper fishways, especially for shad.

To admit white female students into all the branch To provide for the probate of Georgia wills. colleges of the State University.

To require the assignees of insolvent debtors to give To authorize and encourage the construction of telbonds.

egraph lines in the State. Providing for a commission of three, to be appoint To require railroads and other common carriers ed by the Governor, to examine the oyster industry, promptly to settle claims for overcharges of freight.

A resolution asking the Federal Government to To prevent the exemption from taxation by any


THE NEW STATE HOUSE, ATLANTA, GA. make a coast survey and physical examination of the county of any manufacturing industry or enterprise, waters of Georgia, and prepare charts showing the natu or any property of any kind not now exempt by law. ral oyster-beds, and productive and unproductive areas. Providing for the sale of the Okefenokee Swamp.

To require persons or corporations employing fe Providing that liens or mortgages, judgments, etc., males in manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile shall take effect from the time they are entered on recestablishments to provide suitable seats for them and ord, and not from the date of execution. permit their use. To organize and incorporate the First Regiment of the condition of the public schools for the school

Education. The following statistics show Georgia cavalry.

To authorize the Governor to lease the Indian Spring year ending in November, 1888, as compared with reserve.

that of the year preceding: To prohibit cock-fighting or betting thereon. To create the office of State Bank Examiner.


1887. 1888. To make it a misdemeanor to publish any advertisement of a lottery, gift enterprise, or other scheme

White schools.


4,375 forbidden by law, or the result of the drawing or dis



292,624 tribution of gifts or prizes, either by newspaper, writ- Colored children in State

267,657 ten or printed posters, dodgers, or circulars.

White pupils enrolled ..

208,865 200,786 To authorize the Governor to sell the city lot and colored pupils enrolled

183,429 120,390 old Capitol building in the city of Atlanta, and all of Total pupils enrolled

842,294 821,176 its appurtenances in Marietta Street, at public sale. Average attendance.

226,290 217,896 To define the rights of landlords to declare the ef Amount paid to teachers $644,199 23 $662,817 40 fects of certain contracts, to make it penal for any crop

Total expenditures for schools $751,662 48 $869,005 21

Colored schools
White children in State

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »