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anza five distinct languages were met with among deman, situated about four hours' march from the the natives.
river we supposed to be the Ihuru. Here I was conThe land slopes from the plateau above the siderably ponplussed by the grievous discrepancy beNyanza to the Congo from 5,500 to 1,400 feet tween native accounts and my own
observations. The above the sea level. North and south of their and chronometer made it very evident that it could
natives called it the Ihuru river, and my instruments track through the grass land the surface was not be the lhuru we knew. Finally, after capturing much broken by cones or isolated summits or some dwarfs, we discovered that it was the right ridges. The highest points to the northward branch of the Ihuru river, called the Dui river, this were not more than 6,000 feet; but bearing 215 agreeing with my own views. We searched and found degrees magnetic, about 50 miles from the camp a place where we could build a bridge across. Mr. on the lake they saw a mountain, with snow. the work, and
in a few hours the Dui river was safely covered summit, towering to a height of 17,000 bridged and we passed from Indeman into a district or 18,000 feet above the sea.
entirely unvisited by the Manyuema. I have met with only three natives who have seen In this new land, between right and left members the lake toward the south. They agree that it is of the Thuru, the dwarfs called Wambutti were very large, but not so large as the Albert Nyanza. The numerous, and conflicts between our rear guard and Aruwimi becomes known as the Suhali about 100 miles these crafty little people occurred daily, not without above Yambuya. As it nears the Nepoko it is called harm to both parties. Such as we contrived to captthe Nevoa; beyond its confluence with the Nepoko iture we compelled to show the path, but invariably for is known as the No Welle; 300 miles from the Congo some reason they clung to east and east-northeast it is called the Itiri
, which is soon changed into the paths, whereas my route required a southeast direcIturi, which name it retains to its source. Ten min- tion because of the northing we had made in seeking utes'' march from the Ituri waters we saw the Nyanza, to cross the Dui river. Finally, we followed elephant like a mirror in its immense gulf.
and game tracks on a southeast course, but on Dec. 9 Mr. Stanley reorganized his force, gathering of a vast forest, at a spot indicated by my chart to be
we were compelled to halt for a forage in the middle those that were left of the rear column and such not more than two or three miles from the Thuru river, Manyuema as offered their services, and started which many of our people had seen while we resided on the return journey to the Albert lake. It at Fort Bodo. had been arranged that Emin and Mr. Jephson I sent 150 rifles back to a settlement that was 15 should start from the lake about July 26 with a miles back on the route we had come, while many sufficient escort to conduct the garrison of Fort Manyuema followers also undertook to follow them. Bodo to a new station to be built near Kavalli, During the absence of these foragers, which on the southwest side of the lake, thus relieving was inexplicably long, the camp was a scene of Stanley of the necessity for making another jour- hunger and misery. Mr. Bonney was accordney to Fort Bodo.
ingly left in charge of the camp, with a small On Oct. 30, having cast off the canoes, the land force, besides “twenty-six feeble sick wretches march began in carnest, and two days later we dis- already past all hope, unless food could be covered a large plantain plantation in charge of the brought to them within twenty-four hours," dwarfs. The people flung themselves on the plant- while the others set out to hunt for the missing ains to make as large a provision as possible for the foragers. dreaded wilderness ahead of us. The most enterprising always secured a fair share, and twelve hours later
In a cheery tone, though my heart was never heavwould be furnished with a week's provision of plant- ier, I told the forty-three hunger-bitten people that I ain flour. The feeble and indolent reveled for the was going back to hunt up the missing men ; probtime being on abundance of roasted fruit, but always ably I should meet them on the road, but f I did that neglected providing for the future, and thus became they would
be driven on the
run with food to them. victims to famine.
We traveled nine miles that afternoon, having passed After moving from this place ten days passed be- several dead people on the road, and early on the time we lost more men than we had lost between Bo- the pace was altered to a quick step, so that in twentyfore we reached another plantation, during which eighth day of their absence from camp met them nalya and Ugarrowwa's. The small-pox broke out six hours from leaving Stawahin camp we were back among the Manyuema and their followers, and the with a cheery abundance around, gruel and porridge mortality was terrible. Our Zanzibaris escaped this pest, however, owing to the vaccination they had un- boiling, bananas boiling, plantains roasting, and some dergone on board the “Madura."
meat simmering in pots for soup. This has been the We were now about four days' march above the nearest approach to absolute starvation in all my Afconfluence of the Ihuru and Ituri rivers and within rican experience. Twenty-one persons succumbed in
this dreadful camp. about a mile from the Ihuru. As there was no possibility of crossing this violent and large tributary of Having a presentiment that the garrison had the Ituri or Aruwimi, we had to follow its right bank not been removed from Fort Bodo, Stanley until a crossing could be discovered. Four days later we stumbled across the principal he found the 51 of the 59 he had left there, not
crossed the Ihuru and proceeded thither, when village of a district called Andikumu, surrounded by the finest plantation of bananas and plantains we had
a word having been received from Emin or yet seen, which all the Manyuema's habit of spoliation Mr. Jephson. The whole force therefore set and destruction had been unable to destroy. Then out for Kavalli ; 124 were left in camp on the our people, after severe starvation during fourteen Ituri, and the others pushed forward, hearing days, gorged themselves to such excess that it con- nothing from Lake Albert till they reached tributed greatly to lessen our numbers. Every twen- Gaviras, where they were met by messengers tieth individual suffered some complaint which en- bearing letters, informing them that a rebeltirely incapacitated him from duty. The lhuru river lion had broken out at Dufflé, and Emin and was about four miles south-southeast from this place, flowing from east-northeast, and about 60 yards broad Jephson had been made prisoners. Plans had and deep owing to the heavy rains.
been made to entrap and rob Stanley on his arFrom Andikumu, a six days' march northerly, rival. In the midst of the rebellion a force of brought us to another flourishing settlement called In. Mahdists arrived at Lado, and their general sent
up three Peacock dervishes to demand the in- turbed state for some time, and that the pasha's stant surrender of the country. The rebels seized greatest trouble arose, not from the outside, but and threw them into prison, and decided on from internal discontent. Mr. Jephson added : war. The Mahdists captured Regaf, killing some Before closing my report I must bear witness to the and making many prisoners, and causing gen- fact that in my frequent conversations with all sorts eral consternation. This attack caused the peo- and conditions of the pasha's people I heard, with ple to change their minds about Stanley, to whom hardly any exceptions, only praise of his justice and they began to look to get them out of their diffi- generosity to his people, but I have heard it suggested culties. The Mahdists took Kirri and Muggi, that he did not hold his people with a sufficiently
firm hand. and besieged Dufflé, but were repulsed by the 500 soldiers, and obliged to fall back to Regaf But Stanley found to his consternation that and send to Khartoum for re-enforcements. The Emin still had scruples about leaving his provpasha was still unwilling to leave his people, ince. He said he thought Selim and the Egyptrusting that the invasion would put an end to tians would return to his standard, and it looked the rebellion. On this point Stanley says: like desertion to leave his people at the Mahdi's
If you will bear in mind that on Aug. 17, 1888, afte mercy; Stanley called a council of war, and suber a march of 600 miles to hunt up the rear column, I mitted the situation to his officers. They unanimet only a miserable remnant of it, wrecked by the mously recommended that the expedition move irresolution of its officers, neglect of their promises, on for Zanzibar on April 10, with such persons and indifference to their written orders, you will read- as chose to accompany it. This was the answer ily understand why, after another march of 700 miles, returned to Emin, and when April 10 arrived I was a little put out when I discovered that, instead the expedition moved. Emin and about 400 of performing their promise of conducting the garri followers decided
to go with it. The very next son of Fort Bodo to the Nyanza, Mr. Jephson and Emin Pasha had allowed themselves to be made pris- day Stanley was taken severely
ill, and his death oners on about the very day they were expected by was seriously feared, but Dr. Parke pulled him the garrison of Fort Bodo to reach
them. It could not through, and a month later the journey was rebe pleasant reading to find that, instead of being able sumed. to relieve Emin Pasha, I was more than likely, by the tenor of these letters, to lose one of my own offi
Then little by little I gathered strength and orcers, and to add to the number of the Europeans in dered the march for home. Discovery after
discovery that unlucky Equatorial Province. However, a per- of Ruwenzori, the Cloud King” or “ Rain Creator," sonal interview with Mr. Jephson was necessary, in the Semliki river, the Albert Edward Nyanza, the the first place, to understand" fairly or fully the state Plains of Usongora, the salt lakes of Kative, the new of affairs.
On Feb. 6, 1888, Mr. Jephson arrived in the after- peoples, Wakonju of the Great Monntains, the dwellnoon at our camp at Kavalli on the plateau. I was ers of the rich forest region, the Awamba, the finestartled' to hear Mr. Jephson, in plain, undoubting the Lake Albert Edward tribe, and the shepherd race words, say: "Sentiment is the pasha's worst enemy; of the eastern uplands, the Wanyankori, besides the self." This is a summary of what Mr. Jephson had Wanya-ruwamba, and the Wazinja, until at last we learned during nine months from May 28, 1888, to settlement,
and we knew that we had reached the
came to a church' whose cross dominated a Christian Feb. 6, 1889. 1 gathered sufficiently from Mr. Jeph- outskirts of blessed civilization. son's verbal report to conclude that during nine months neither the pasha, Signor Casati, nor any man
The route I had adopted was one which skirted the in the province had arrived nearer any other conclu- Balegga mountains, at a distance of 40 miles or there sion than that which was told us ten months before: abouts from the Nyanza. The first day was a fairish thus : The pasha.-If my people go, I go. If they path, but the three following
days tried our Egyptians stay, I stay. Signor Casati.-If the governor goes, 1 sorely, because of the ups and downs and the breaks go. If the governor stays, I stay. The faithful. If of cane grass. On arriving at the southern end of the pasha goes, we go. If the pasha stays, we stay.
these mountains we were made aware that our march But the condition of affairs gave Stanley the had made a bold push, and had annexed a respecta
was not to be uninterrupted, for the King of Unyoro hope that he might at last receive definite answer. ble extent of country on the left side of the Semliki He sent orders for the men left behind in camp river, which embraced all the open grass land be to be brought on to Kavalli, that the expedition tween the Semliki river and the forest region. Thus, might be concentrated and ready for any emer- without making an immense détour through the for how he could best be aided. It was suggested Rega and his Warasura. This latter name is given to gency, and sent dispatches to the pasha asking est, which would have been fatal to most of the Egypthat the simplest plan would be for him to seize the Wanyoro by all natives who have come in cona steamer and bring the refugees to Stanley's tact with them. The first day's encounter was deold camp on the lake.
cidedly in our favor, and the effect of it cleared the On Feb. 13 the surprising news was received territory as far as the Semliki river free of the Wathat Emin Pasha was at anchor below the rasura. camp, having arrived with two steamer-loads the threshold of a region which promised to be very
Meantime we had become aware that we were on of people desirous of leaving
the country. They interesting, for daily as we advanced to the southward were to return for another company as soon the great snowy range which had so suddenly arrested as the first should be provided for. It was our attention and excited our intense interest (on May found that the rebel soldiers had been led to Re- 1, 1888) grew larger and bolder into view. It extended gaf to attempt its recapture from the Mahdists, a long distance to the southwest, which would ineviand had been defeated; among the killed were tably take us some distance of our course unless a some of the pasha's worst enemies. The soldiers pass could be discovered to shorten the distance to were panic-stricken, and declared they would not skirmish with Kabba Rega's raiders, we stood on the
the countries south. At Buhobo, where we had the fight unless Emin were set at liberty, and this summit of the hilly range which bounds the Senliki accordingly had been done. It was learned from valley on its northwest and southwest sides. On the Mr. Jephson that the province had been in a dis- opposite side rose Ruwenzori, the Snow mountain,
and in its enormous eastern flank, which dipped down confident that the height is between the figures stated gradually until it fell into the level, and was seem above. ingly joined with the table land of Unyoro. The It took us nineteen marches to reach the southwest humpy western flank dipped down suddenly, as it angle of the range, the Semliki valley being below us on seemed to us, into lands that we knew not by name our right, which, if the tedious mist had permitted, as yet. Between these opposing barriers spread the would have been exposed in every detail. That part of Semliki valley, so like a lake at its eastern extremity the valley traversed by us is generally known by the that one of our officers exclaimed that it was the lake, name of Awamba, while the habitable portion of the and the female followers of the Egyptians set up a shrill range is principally denominated Ukonju. The huts lululus on seeing their own lake, the Albert Nyanza, of these natives, the Bakonju, are seen as high as 8,000 again. With the naked eye it did appear like the feet above the sea. lake, but a field glass revealed that it was a level Almost all our officers had at one time a keen desire grassy plain, white with the ripeness of its grass. to distinguish themselves as the climbers of these AfThose who have read Sir Samuel Baker's “ Albert rican Alps, but, unfortunately, they were in a very unNyanza” will rernember the passage wherein he states fit state for such a work. The pasha only managed that to the southwest the Nyanza stretches " illimita to get 1,000 feet higher than our camp. Lieut. bly." He might be well in error at such a distance, Stairs reached the height of 10,677 feet above the sea, when our own people, with the plane scarcely four but had the mortification to find two deep gulfs miles away, mistook the plain for the Nyanza. As between him and the $nowy mount proper. He the plain recedes southwesterly the bushes become brought, however, a good collection of plants, among thicker, finally acacias appear in their forests, and be- which were giant heather, blackberries, and' bilberyond these, again, the dead black thickness of an ries. The pasha was in his 'element among these impenetrable tropical forest; but the plain, as far as plants, and has classified them. the eye could command, continued to lie ten to twelve The first day we had disentangled ourselves of the miles wide between these mountain barriers, and forest proper and its outskirts of struggling bush, we through the center of it, sometimes inclining toward looked down from the grassy shelf below Ruwenzori the southeast mountains, sometimes to the southwest- range and saw a grassy plains, level, seemingly, as a ern range, the Semliki river pours its waters toward bowling-green, the very duplicate of that which is the Albert Nyanza.
seen at the extremity of the Albert Nyanza, extendin two marches from Buhoho we stood upon its ing southerly from the forests of the Semliki valley. banks, and alas for Mason Bey and Gessi Pasha, had We then knew that we were not far from the Souththey but halted their steamers for half an hour to ex ern lake, discovered by me in 1877. amine this river, they would have seen sufficient to Under guidance of the Wakonju, I sent Lieut. Stairs excite much geographical interest, for the river is a to examine the river said to flow from the Southern powerful stream from eighty to one hundred yards Nyanza. He returned next day reporting it to be the wide, averaging nine feet depth from side to side, and Semliki river narrowed down to a stream 42 yards having a current of from three and a half knots to wide and about 10 feet deep, flowing, as the canoefour knots, in size about equal to two thirds of the men on its banks said, to the Nyanza Utuku, or NyVictoria Nile.
anza of Unyoro, the Albert Nyanza. Besides native As we were crossing this river the Warasura at- reports he had other corroborative evidences to prove tacked us from the rear with a well-directed volley, it to be the Semliki. but fortunately the distance was too great. They On the second march from the confines of Awamba were chased for some miles, but, fleet as grayhounds, we entered Usongora, a grassy region as opposite in they fled, so there was no casualties to report on ei appearance from the perpetual spring of Ukonju as ther side.
a droughty land could well be. This country bounds We entered the Awamba country on the eastern the Southern Nyanza on its northern and northshore of the Semliki, and our marches for several days western side. afterward were through plantain plantations which Three days later, while driving the Warasura beflourished in the clearings made in this truly African fore us, or rather as they were self-driven by their forest. Finally we struck the open again immedi. own fears, we entered soon after its evacuation the ately under Ruwenzori itself. Much, however, as we important town of Kative, the headquarters of the had flattered ourselves that we should see some mar- raiders. It is situated between an arm of the Southvelous scenery, the Snow mountain was very coy, ern Nyanza and a salt lake about two miles long and and hard to see. On most days it loomed impending three quarters of a mile wide, which consists of a over us like a tropical storm cloud ready to dissolve pure brine of a pinky color, and deposits salt in solid in rain and ruin on us. Near sunset a peak or two cakes of salt crystals. This was the property of the here, a crest there, a ridge beyond, white with snow, Wasongora, but the value of its possession has atshot into view, jagged clouds whirling and eddying tracted the cupidity of Kabba Rega, who reaps a conround them, and then the darkness of night. Often siderable revenue from it. Toro, Aukori, Mpororo, at sunrise, too, Ruwenzori would appear fresh, clean, Ruanda, Ukonju, and many other countries demand brightly pure; profound blue voids above and around the salt for consumption, and the fortunate possessor it; every line and dent, knoll, and turret-like crag of this inexhaustible treasure of salt reaps all that deeply marked and clearly visible; but presently all is desirable of property in Africa in exchange, with would be buried under mass upon mass of mist until no more trouble than the defense of it. the immense mountain was no more visible than if we Our road from Kative lay east and northeast to were thousands of miles away. And then, also, the round the bay-like extension of the Nyanza, lying Snow mountain, being set deeply in the range, the between Usongora and Unyampaka, and it happened nearer we approached the base of the range the less to be the same taken by the main body of the we saw of it, for nigher ridges obtruded themselves Warasura in their basty retreat from the salt lake. and barred the view. Still we have obtained three On entering Uhaiyana, which is to the south of remarkable views--one from the Nyanza Plain, an Toro and in the uplands, we had passed the northother from Kavalli, and a third from the South ern head of the Nyanza, or Beatrice gulf, and the Point.
route to the south was open, not, however, without In altitude above the sea I should estimate it to be another encounter with the Warasura. between 18,000 and 19,000 feet. We can not trust our A few days later we entered Unyampaka, which I triangulations, for the angles are too small. When we had visited in January, 1876. Ríngi, the king, dewere in positions to ascertain it correctly the incon- clined to enter into the cause of Unyoro, and allowed stant mountain gathered his cloudy blankets around us to feed on his bananas unquestioned. After folhim and hid himself from view; but a clear view lowing the lake shore until it turned too far to the from the loftiest summit down to the lowest reach of southwest, we struck for the lofty uplands of Aukori, snow, obtained from a place called Karimi, makes me by the natives of whom we were well received-pre
VOL. XXIX.--23 A
ceded as we had been by the reports of our good within 155 miles of Lake Tanganyika. The area deeds in relieving the salt lake of the presence of of the extension is 26,900 square miles. the universally obnoxious Warasura,
One of the most significant of recent African If you draw a straight line from the Nyanza to the discoveries is that of a new lake, about 300 miles Uzinja shores of the Victoria lake it would represent northeast of Victoria Nyanza, in the Galla counpretty fairly our course through Aukori, Karagwe, and Úhaiya to Uzinja. Aukori was open to us be try. The discoverer is the Hungarian traveler, cause we had driven the Wanyoro from the salt lake. Count Samu Teleki. It was called Basso-Norak, The story was an open sesame; there also existed a but has been renamed Lake Rudolf. It is 162 wholesome fear of an expedition which had done miles long and about 20 broad. It is supposed that which all the power of Aukori could hot have to be the one known from reports of the natives is the policy of the Wanyanba, and because the Wa. as Lake Samburu, and lies in a nearly north and ganda were too much engrossed with their civil war south direction between 2° 18' and 4° 42' north to interfere with our passage. Uhaiya admitted our latitude. The region about its shores is dry, and entrance without cavis, out of respect to our num
the vegetation scanty. A few Gallas on the banks bers, and because we were well introduced by the of the lake and its tributaries live by fishing. Wanyanbu, and the Wakwiya guided us in like man M. Borelli, on comparing his discoveries, espeder to be welcomed by the Wazinja.. Nothing hap- cially with regard to the River Omo, with those pened during the long journey from the Albert lake of Count Teleki and Lieut. von Höhnel, conto cause us any regret that we had taken this straight cludes that the lake is the same that he located course, but we have suffered from an unprecedented number of fevers. We have had as many as 150 southward as receiving the waters of the River cases in one day. Aukori is so beswept with cold Omo, which has been generally known as Lake winds that the expedition wilted under them. Sea- Samburu. As a matter of fact, the lake receives soned veterans like the pasha and Capt. Casati were on the north a river named Niannam, which M. prostrated time after time, and both were reduced to Borelli maintains is his Omo; it also receives excessive weakness like ourselves. Our blacks, re- another, named Bass, not seen by the other exgardless of their tribes, tumbled headlong into the long grass to sleep their fever fits off. Some after plorers. The mountains they saw on the north a short illness died; the daily fatigues of the march, northeast, named Aro, are those called Ara or an ulcer, a fit of fever, a touch of bowel complaintAro by him. The Samburu, Basso-Norak, and caused the Egyptians 'to hide in any cover along Prince Rudolf are one and the same lake, rethe route, and, being unperceived by the rear guard ceiving the Omo and having no outlet, according of the expedition, were left to the doubtful treat- to MM. Teleki and Höhnel, who say it is about ment of natives with whose language they were ut 1,970 feet above sea level, while the Victoria terly ignorant. In the month of July we lost 141 Nyanza
is 3,800 feet. of their number in this manner. Out of respect to the first British prince, who has
Count Teleki ascended Mount Kenia to a height shown an interest in African geography, we have of 15,000 feet on his journey northward. Mt. named the Southern Nyanza, to distinguish it from Kilimandjaro, which was ascended to a great the other two Nyanzas, the Albert Edward Nyanza. height by Dr. Meyer, was ascended again this It is not a very large lake. Compared to the Vic- year by Herr Otto Ehlers. He describes the icetoria, the Tanganyika, and the Nyassa, it is small, but wall, the foot of which was reached by Dr. Meyer its importance and interest lie in the fact that it is (see Annual Cyclopædia" for 1887, p. 304), as the receiver of all the streams at the extremity of the southwestern, or left, Nile basins, and discharges being the edge of a cap of névé, which covers the those waters by one river-the Semliki-into the Ål. summit, and has been partly cleared on the north bert Nyanza, in like manner as Lake Victoria re
side by the action of wind and radiation, but on ceives all streams from the extremity of the south- the south side forms apparently a glacier issuing eastern, or right, Nile basin, and pours those waters from the crater-trough at the summit. by the Victoria Nile into the Albert Nyanza. These From the missionaries in eastern equatorial two Niles, amalgamating in Lake Albert, leave this Africa it is learned that the revolution in Uganda under the well-known name of White Nile.
of October, 1888, which deposed Mwanga and exIt is thus evident that the geographical results pelled the missionaries from the country, has of this memorable expedition are of equal im- continued to disturb the land at intervals ever portance to the results in any other direction. since, and that disaffection is increasing among Mr. Stanley has been enabled to solve some im- the people as the result of Arab influence at the portant puzzles in African geography. He was Court of Uganda. the discoverer of the Congo, and now he has The sources of the Zambesi have to some extent been able to discover one of the remotest sources been explored by F. S. Arnot, a missionary, who of the Nile and lay down the water-parting be- traveled across the country from Bihé and Bentween the two great rivers. From Yambuya to guella to the Garenganze country, where are the the Albert Nyanza, and thence to Msalalal, he Katangacopper-mines and thecave-men described has laid down an immense stretch of what is by Livingstone. Avoiding the routes taken byothessentially new country, filled in its great phys- er travelers, he found that the Zambesi does not ical features, and collected far more precise in- come from the Dilolo lake, but receives the main formation about the varied tribes of people than part of its waters from an eastern arm, the Liba. ever he had before. The Ruwenzori or Ruwen- which has its source in a mountain probably idenjura mountains Mr. Stanley believes to be the tical with Livingstone's Mount Kaomba. 'From long-lost and wandering - Mountains of the Kwanza to the Lukoleshe, a tributary of the Moon" of the old geographers, which were vari- Lualaba, stretches the high table-land, and chains ously put down on the maps.
of low hills form the watershed between the var One of the latest discoveries was that of an ous rivers. The sovereignty of Msiri extends extension of the Victoria Nyanza toward the from the Lualaba to the Luapula, and to the southwest. Its utmost southerly reach is to Mochinga mountains on the south ; but his influ2° 48° south latitude, thus bringing the lake to ence reaches beyond these borders, including the
territory on the Meru lake that belonged in Livingstone's time to the powerful Casembe. Mr. Arnot has been furnished with means for prosecuting his work still farther; and the Royal Geographical Society intrusted to him the proceeds of the Murchison Grant for 1889, to be used in procuring a suitable present for Chitambo, chief of the Ilala country, in consideration of the assistance given by him to those who had charge of the work of carrying Livingstone's body and effects to the coast. The Lomami, one of the great southern tributaries of the Congo, was explored for some distance by Rev. Mr. Grenfell; but its upper reaches were not visited until the last year. Mr. Alexander Delcommune, a Belgian, ascended it in a steamer from its mouth below Stanley Falls up to about the fourth degree of south latitude. The natives told him that he was here but three days’ journey from Nyangwe. It is possible that this is the same river seen by Cameron and crossed by Wissmann at six degrees south latitude. The discovery will prove of practical importance if it provides an easy route to Nyangwe, avoiding the obstruction of the Congo at Stanley Falls. The survey for the Congo railroad is completed, and the work of building is begun. The road will connect Matadi, the head of navigation on the lower river, with Stanley Pool, above which point are navigable waterways aggregating 6,000 miles. In order to avoid the mountainous lands which extend almost unbrokenly along the river in this cataract region, it was found necessary to lay the route for the most part about thirty miles south of the river. Much interest is manifested in the efforts to Fo an end to the slave-trade that is carried on y the Arabs who go through Central Africa with their caravans, ostensibly to buy ivory, but really to capture slaves. As another means of carrying civilization into the heart of the Dark Continent and abolishing the horrible trade in slaves, a project is on foot to make a highway through Africa, from 200 to 400 miles inland from the eastern coast. This line would begin at Guakim, on the Red Sea, and run inland by wagon-road to Berber on the Nile, then by steamers up that river, then by portages to the Victoria Nyanza and Lake Tanganyika and the Upper Zambesi. In time railroads could be substituted for wagon-roads, and connection made with the west coast by way of the Congo. It is believed that this line could be effectively policed and the slave-trade broken up. Great excitement has prevailed in England and in Portugal over a dispute between the two governments in regard to their claims to territory in southeastern Africa. (See CAPE Colony, page 107.) A few months ago Mr. Holmwood, the British Consul-General at Zanzibar, visited Kilima-Njaro at the request of Lord Salisbury to inspect the region that has been placed under British influence. He reported after his return that in his opinion these elevated inland regions are well worth possessing. On the plateau east and north of the great mountain he says the thermometer ranges from 58° to 70°, and very rarely rises to 80°. This region is separated from the coast by a wide desert tract, and most of the products
which Holmwood and others think would thrive on the plateaus would be of little value until easy communication is established with the sea. The route from the Indian Ocean to Victoria Nyanza through the country the British will attempt to develop is 200 miles shorter than any other. The explorations of Lieut. Van Gèle on the Mobangi, the great northern tributary of the Congo, leave no doubt that it is identical with the Welle Makua, whose course and destination has long been one of the problems of African geography. Lieut. Van Gèle, traveling from the west, reached a point only one degree from that reached by Dr. Junker on the Welle traveling eastward, both being in latitude 4° 20' north. M. Camille Douls, whose explorations in the Sahara have been chronicled in previous volumes of this work, set out in June, 1888, with the object of crossing the desert and reaching Timbuctoo. He is reported to have been murdered by his guides in the Sahara between the oases of Alouef and Akabli. He was born at Bordes, in Aveyron, in 1864. Arctic.—It is reported that a new island was found in the Arctic Ocean by Capt. E. H. Johannesen in the summer of 1887. It is east of Spitzbergen in lat. 80° 10' N. and long. 32° 3. E., and is a table-land 2,100 feet high. i. called it New Island. It is believed to be the same as Hvide, seen by Capt. Kjeldsen and by Capt. Sörensen in August, 1884. This discovery confirms the existence of an archipelago extending from Spitzbergen to Franz Josef Land; such an archipelago would prevent the polar ice from descending into Barento Sea, and consequently would have a great influence on the climate of the north of Europe. Australia.-Reporting an expedition to examine the region of the Upper Gascoyne and Ashburton rivers in West Australia, Ernest Favene says that several large rivers tributary to the Ashburton were discovered, and were named the Cunningham, the Jackson, and the James. They run through a magnificent pastoral country, which will soon become o for sheepruns. He says: “We found the physical features of the country different entirely from the conjectural ones on some of the Western Australian maps, the supposed course of the Upper Ashburton being from 20 to 30 miles out of position by the observations taken by Mr. Cuthbertson. The geological formation of the Ashburton is against the likelihood of any valuable mineral deposits being discovered in the future; on the |. of the Gascoyne, however, there is every prospect of the country repaying a careful search for gold. There is a good underground supply of water on the Gascoyne, at a depth of from 12 to 15 feet. The aborigines of this part are of a peculiarly degraded type, being greatly below the average of the natives of the northern and eastern coasts in intelligence.” Bolivia.-The Gran Chaco, that great inland tract of country lying between 29° south latitude and the Tropic of Capricorn, and belonging to Argentina so and Paraguay, has never been fully explored. It has two great rivers flowing into the Paraguay—the Pilcomayo and the Bermejo, and at various times many attempts have been made to explore and open up these rivers as a natural highway from this great interior to the Atlantic coast. The latest one re