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are “triumphs of hammer work,” so thin as to be quite elastic and flexible, but having thick rims. The potteries were partly of the Cypriot and partly of the Mycenean types and distinct in style from those of the Illahún settlement, but having the common feature with them of bearing incised characters that are neither hieroglyphic nor hieratic, but apparently very early Cypriot or Greek. The signs traced on the pottery of the twelfth dynasty are distinctly Cypriot, and Phoenician is found on the later pottery at Tell Gurob. At this place “the evidences of a foreign settlement are overwhelming.” The weights were of the Assyrian standards. Interments of an alien race with yellow hair and foreign names were detected in the cemetery. One of these cases bore the name An-Tursha, pointing to the Tursha nation who are mentioned in the oil. inscriptions as allies of the Achaeans and Libyans against Egypt. Domestic Relics of the Twelfth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Dynasties. – The smaller objects found in these villages were brought to London, and were exhibited to the public in the latter part of September, a separate apartment in the Oxford Mansion being allotted to the collection from either village. Among the objects in this exhibition which are figured in the illustration are, from Tell Kahun (twelfth dynasty, about 2600 or 2800 B. c.), a wooden statuette of a dancer or mummer, dressed only in a tail and a mask (see plate, p. 26, No. 1); Apair of ivory castanets found o this image (Nos. 2 and 3); the actual mask of the mummer (No.4), found in the next room. It was made of canvas and plaster, and was painted black, with Crescents o color around the eye-holes, and patches on the cheeks. These articles were probably part of the outfit of a professional dancer who occupied the apartments; a child's playball (No. 10); a toy boat (No. 5), and a hippopotamus (No. 9), chipped out of flint; a firestick, in the notches of which an upright stick was rotated to produce fire by friction (No. 6); a wooden spoon in the form of a shell supported by a serpent (No. 7); a sling, with the loop that was slipped over the finger (No. 8); a plummet (No. 11); a brick-mold (No. 12); a plasterer's float, (No. 14), cut out of a solid block of wood, and of precisely the form in use to-day; a woodenhoe (No. 13); a sickle, cut in two pieces and having three small flint saws cemented into a groove sunk in the edge of the wooden handle (No. 15); a figure of a boy playing on double pipes (No. 16); a name inscribed on a piece of wood (No. 17); other alphabetic si os. 18 and 19). Of the objects from Tell §. (eighteenth dynasty, about 1400 to 1500 B. c.), there are represented in the illustration a false-necked vase (No. 21); a figure in pottery (No. 20); a head carved in wood from a coffin of about 1300 B. c. (No. 22); and another similar head of a later period (No. 23). Many of these objects are represented by several specimens. The collection contains a large number of workmens' tools and other articles besides the objects illustrated, including chisels of bronze and flint; thirty or forty flintsaws; wooden cramps; wooden “off-set pegs,” employed for dressing stone facings; the indi. of an adze; bow drills; three cubit measures, one of which, a “short”
cubit—the first that has been found—consists of a massive piece of dark wood, beveled at one side and marked off into divisions of six ms; clay molds for casting bronze hatchets, knives, and the like; a collection of knife and hatchet blades and other tools, some of which had probably been cast in these very molds and afterward hammered; a bronze mirror, the plate having a diameter of eight and a half inches, mounted in a massive i. of solid ivory carved in the form of a lotus scepter; hoes of two shapes; five very clumsy, archaic-looking wooden rake-heads”; two grain scoops; articles of pottery, plain and blue-glazed: wooden-tooth combs; bronze needles; hair-pins of bone; strings of beads; spindles and whirls; fishermens' and weavers' furnishings; rope-ring cushions for supporting loads on the head; sandals in a considerable variety of styles; and a fragment of a black basalt statue in heroic size, as well as a colored portrait-head of the Pharaoh in bas-relief. The eighteenth dynasty is represented by }. ivory carvings, amulets, scarabs, and other small articles of value, sarcophagi, mummy-case lids carved into human forms, and funerary images from Tell Gurob and the cemetery at Hawāra, with the mummy case and skull of the (Etruscan) foreigner An Tursha. Completion of work at Bubastis.-Miss Edwards, as honorary secretary, represented at the annual meeting of the Egypt Exploration Fund, April 12, that the excavations at Bubastis had been completed with the close of the season of 1888–89. Every block of stone had been lifted and rolled; every bas-relief had been reproduced in paper casts; and every inscription copied. Even though the results had been negative rather than positive, it was a source of satisfaction that the task had been performed. The only large work of art found during the year had been a colossal group of two figures in red granite. Several inscriptions, however, had been recovered; as, for instance, part of a large tablet in praise of Rameses II; an inscription of Usertesen I, showing that the earliest temple built upon this site was still standing at the ginning of the twelfth dynasty; and two inscriptions which carry back the date of that earliest temple to 4000 B. c. (Mariette's chronology); namely, one containing the throne-name of Khafra (Chephren), the builder of the second pyramid, and one containing the so-called “banner-name” of Khufu (Cheops), the builder of the Great Pyramid. The history, therefore, of the famous temple of Bast is now found to extend from the time of Khufu to the time of Ptolemy Epiphanes II. Before leaving Tell Basta, M. Naville had made a tentative excavation . in a spot near the Great Temple, which has long been identified with the Temple of Thoth, decribed by Herodotus as “the Temple of Hermes.” This excavation disclosed only a few blocks bearing the names of Osorkon II and Rameses II, and a large tablet recording donations made to various temples. The monuments derived from these excavations have been brought to England and distributed to various museums in Europe and the United States, whose friends have interested themselves in the work of the Exploration Fund. The removal of these monuments from Egypt
instead of allowing them to remain there is excused by alleging that in the absence of adequate provision for protecting them they would be subject to certain destruction at the hands of the Arabs and travelers, and that they can not be regarded as safe till o under European care. Of the pieces, there have been given to the British Museum a column of the Egyptian “palm order,” in polished red olo with palm capital, shaft, and base complete—the shaft inscribed with hieroglyphic characters; the upper half of a colossal statue of a king in red granite— archaic style; three large fragments of a shrine in polished red granite, sculptured in very low relief—period of Nectanebo I (thirtieth dynasty); a large slab of red granite carved in bas-relief with portrait figures of King Osorkon II and his wife, Queen oama (twenty-second dynasty); and a colossal statue in polished black granite of the Hyksos King Apepi, in four pieces —“the finest piece of Egyptian portrait sculpture known.” To the Boston, Mass., Museum of Fine Arts were given a colossal Hathor-head capital in red granite, described as being very beautiful; the upper half of a colossal statue of a king in red granite, the companion to which was given to the British Museum; a colossal lotus-bud capital in two pieces, from the hypostyle hall of the temple; a red granite slab in basrelief from the festival hall of Osorkon II; and two bas-relief slabs in limestone, from the site of a temple to Hathor founded by Ptolemy Soter at Terraneh, the ancient Termuthis, the remains of which were discovered and excavated by Mr. F. Llewellen Griffith in 1888. These specimens date from the time of the fourth dynasty down to the twenty-second dynasty. †. lotus-bud capital is a fine example of the work of the twelfth dynasty. The sculptures from Terreneh represent the art of the Ptolemaic period “under its most engaging aspect.” Two of the tablets described by Prof. A. H. Sayce as having been discovered at Tel-el-Amarna in 1888, of the time of Amenophis IV, relate to a rebellion which occurred in southern Palestine. The descriptions of the cities and tribes enbodied in them make no mention of Israelites, and indicate that that people were then absent from the country. They must then have been already living in Egypt. This fact is regarded by p. John A. Paine as destructive to the chronology which makes the duration of the sojourn only two hundred and fifty years. he absence of representations of horsemen on the Egyptian monuments has been remarked, and has been interpreted by certain authors as signifying that the Egyptians possessed no mounted horsemen or army division of cavalry. But the title “Commander of the Cavalry” had already been found contemporary with the exodus and, now Mr. Petrie has published in his book on “Tanis” inscriptions which he found on two granite stelae in which Rameses II is described as “the very valorous upon horses” and “strong upon his horses.”
A peculiar monument at Tell Nebesheh, described by Mr. Petrie in his “Tanis,” is a column of red syenite erected by Menephthah, about twelve feet high, sculptured on the shaft with scenes of adoration and offering, and the flat, plain top surmounted by a group of statuary consisting of the king kneeling, with a hawk behind him. Supposing this to have been one of a pair standing on opposite sides of an avenue, they might i. regarded as analogous to such structures as the pillars Jachin and Boaz of Solomon's temple and pillars of the temples of Hercules at Tyre and of Aphrodite at Persepolis. The theory of Mr. Cope Whitehouse that the Wady Raian once formed a continuous sheet of water, constituting the Lake Moeris of the ancients, is contradicted by Mr. Petrie in the account of his investigations at Hawāra, Biahmu, and Arsinoë. He says that the ground rises between the two depressions to a height of more than one hundred feet above the level of the Nile. Preservation of Egyptian Monuments.A society for the preservation of Egyptian monuments has been formed in England, with an executive committee including Sir Henry Layard, Mr. Petrie, and M. Le Page Renouf. The Egyptian Government, with which it will co-operate, has had a survey made of the structures that are most in danger from the infiltrations of the Nile and destructive human agencies, and a report on the feasibility and probable cost of making them safe. Provision will be made for the future inspection and guard of the ruins. Ruins of Thaumegas, Algeria. — The remarkable ruins at Timegad, the ancient Thaumegas, Algeria, which were visited by Sir Lambert Playfair in 1875, and have been described
by him and by Mr. Alexander Graham, and mentioned by French travelers, have recently been excavated by the Director of Historical Monuments of the district. Thaumegas was founded by Trajan as a recompense to the veterans of the Thirtieth Legion, and soon became the political capital of the district. The Triumphal Arch (Fig. 6) in the axis of the colonnade of the Forum, one of the most important monuments of the kind in Africa, is in the Corinthian order, and is built of sandstone, with the columns, capitals, and bases of the pilasters, the brackets, and entablature of white marble. The north façade of the Forum had a colonnade running its entire length along the road leading through the Triumphal Arch; the road is still deeply scored
red sandstone, weighing perhaps five or six tons. It must have come from a considerable distance, for no stones of similar character are found on the island. It is mortised into two pillars of conglomerate (possibly an eruptive
FIG. 7.--THEATER AT THAUMEGA8.
with the ruts made by chariot-wheels. Inscriptions, pedestals, and fragments of statuary lie scattered about in its interior; the most important of them have been restored to their places. The theatre (Fig. 7) was cut in the abrupt northern flank of a hill, the opposite side of which sloped gradually to the south. Among the other buildings brought to light are the capitol, with remains of very large columns, several basilicas, and a Byzantine fortress. The ruins are well preserved. Tonga Islands.-A drawing of a remarkable structure in the island of Colonga, of the Tonga group, has been made on the spot by Mr. Murdock, of the British corvette “Diamond,” and is
stone), likewise of great weight, one of which, which has been dug around, is planted to a depth of at least twelve feet. No date can be fixed for the erection of the monument. The natives profess to know nothing of its §"; ARGENTINE EPUBLIC, an independent republic of South America. (For area, population, etc., see “Annual Cyclopaedia” for 1883.) Government.—The Presidentis Dr. Juarez Celman, whose term of office will expire on Oct. 12, 1892; the Vice-President is Dr. Carlos Pellegrini. The Cabinet is comosed of the following ministers: nterior, Dr. N. Q. Costa; Foreign Affairs, Señor Zeballos; Finance, Dr. W. Pacheco ; Justice, Dr. F. Posse; War and Navy, Gen. E. Racedo. The Argentine Minister at Washington is Don Wiconte G. Quesada; the Consul at New York, Señor Adolfo G. Calvo. The American Minister at Buenos Ayres is Bayless W. Hanna; the Consul, Edward }. Baker. The Argentine Republic appointed three delegates to the American International Congress, viz., Don Roque Peña, Don Manuel Quintana, and the minister above named, Don Wiconte G. Quesada. Army and Navy. —Without counting the 400,000 men constituting the National Guard, the military force at the disposal of the Government consists of the regular army, having a strength of 6,567 men, 3.245 i. foot, 2,571 horse, and 751 artillery. The navy consists of 2 armored vessels, 4 cruisers, 4 gun-boats, 7 torpedoboats, 4 steam transports, 3 avisos, 7 other steamers and 6 sailing-vessels; together 38 vessels, mounting jointly 73 guns; registering 16,612 tons, with 13,055 horsepower, and manned by 1,966 sailors. Railroads. – On Dec. 31, 1887, the number of kilometres in running order was 6,669; a year later it was 7,255, showing an increase of 586 kilometres. In 1887 the amount of capital invested therein was $205,183,298; in 1888 it had risen to $220,746,247, showing an increase of $15,562,949. The number of assengers forwarded in 1887 was 7,969,00; in 1888 it reached 9,671,233. The transportation of merchandise rose from 3,444,560,933 kilogrammes in 1887 to 4,010,285,431 in 1888. The net earnings amounted to $22,290,069, in 1887, and to
reproduced in Fig. 8. The massiveness of the structure and its position in an island where the natives are still in a nearly primitive condition and ignorant of the execution of great architectural works, give it great interest. The horizontal beam on the top of the pile is a piece of very fine
$26,526,707 in 1888. While the running expenses of the Southern Railroad only absorbed 45 per cent. of the gross earnings, those of the Eastern Railroad took 99% per cent. Postal and Telegraph Service.—The President, in his me e submitted to Congress, on May 12, 1889, remarked: “The dispatch of letters, postal cards, and packages, through the postoffices of the republic, during the fiscal year just terminated, has exceeded by 42 per cent. that of 1887–88, and of telegrams by 6 per cent. In spite of the reduction of postage, and in consequence of the suppression of free letters and messages, the post-office receipts have been 17 per cent. greater, and those of the telegraph office 62 per cent. greater than in 1887–88. There were laid 5,359 kilometres of new teleraph lines, and 3,529 additional ones contracted or or in course of construction. To facilitate cable communication with Europe, a contract has been made to lay a cable between Buenos Ayres and Lisbon.” Finances.—On Jan. 1, 1889, the Argentine Re: public, provinces, and cities were owing, abroad and at home, the following amounts of money:
The National Government and provinces, taken together, had since 1821 issued $697,844,381 tokens of indebtedness, and had redeemed up to Dec. 31, 1888, $157,223,855 thereof, leaving a total outstanding debt of $540,620,526. The budget of the National Government for 1888 estimated the income at $53,743, 800, and the outlay at $51,086,536; the budget estimate for 1889 fixed the former at $60,224,000 and the latter at $60,028,680; while that for 1890 estimated the two items at $57,380,000 and $55,473,762. On July 11, 1889, the Government had to its credit, in national and provincial banks, $41,520,000 in
per money, $24,070,000 in gold; in Europe, §oo.
In 1885 the gold premium averaged at Buenos Ayres 37 per cent.; in 1886, 384; in 1887, 35}; and in 1888, 48. In 1889 the spirit of speculation had forced up the premium till, in September, it reached 125 per cent., but it receded to 116 on Nov. 15.
Commerce.—In 1887 there entered Argentine ports 5,694 sailing-vessels, with a tonnage of 1,010,731 tons, and 6,607 steamers registering 3,460.870 tons. The foreign trade of the Argentine Republic for five years has been, in merchandise only:
Years. Imports. Exports.
----- ..................... $94,056,000 $68,029,000 ---------------------------- "o "o, - - ........ o. o. 116,292,000 83,827.000 127,607,860 99,556,377 § o 37,483,985 33,938,042 §issois gosso
išss, first quart 1889, first quarter........... Increase during the quarter......
The wool shipments in 1879 were 238,634 bales; in 1888, 318,124.
The Cattle Trade.—The cattle industry of the republic was so languishing in 1888 that a law was passed offering a guarantee of 5 per cent. for ten years on the capital employed in the business of exporting fresh or preserved beef. Several establishments were preparing to take advantage of the guarantee provided by the Government, and are going into business on a large scale, with special steamers fitted up for the traffic, and warehouses in England and France. Stall-fed cattle are unknown in the country, and all bullocks are taken directly off the grass, the meat, of course, being soft and watery. Argentines have yet to learn that dry food is absolutely necessary in order to prepare fresh meat for distant foreign markets.
The Sociedad Rural Argentina made, in the spring of 1889, an experimental shipment of live cattle by steamer to Havre, some of the animals weighing 850 kilogrammes. The calculation of
The average weight has gradually risen from forty pounds to forty-five. There were, in 1888, 22,869,385 head of horned cattle, 4,398,283 horses, and 70,458,665 sheep, having a total value of $369,561,607. Horses.—Buenos Ayres and the surrounding pampas have been for some years past a paradise for horse fanciers and breeders. At his last sale of pedigree horses, Mr. Remmis, who set out from Ireland twenty-five years ago to begin horseculture there, got an average of $4,500 apiece, in gold, the entire sale realizing between $100,000 and $150,000. Carriage-horses, if sizable and fairly well matched, command $5,000 in gold a air. Some of these South American horses have | one well across country in Ireland and Engand. Cotton and Wool Manufacture.—Early in 1889 the Provincial Senate of Buenos Ayres passed a bill authorizing the incorporation of a cotton and wool $oś at La Plata, with a capital of $5,000,000, the province guaranteeing interest on the capital for ten years. Agriculture.—The number of hectares (of
24 acres) under cultivation in 1888 was 2,359,958,
distributed as follows among the various ucts: Indian corn, 832,601; wheat, o: alfalfa, 379,816; barley and oats, 36,659: linseed, 117,237; vines, 26,931; sugar-cane, 21,053, other products, 121,502. Education.—In 1869 the number of pupils attending school in the republic was 82,671; in 1883 they had increased to 146,325, and in 1887 to 227,450, of which number 142,471 were in the interior #. the remainder in the capital, where 27,715 pupils attended the public schools, 12.200 the normal schools, 11,106 private schools, 30,960 private schools in the province of Buenos Ayres, and 2,998 children were taught in the public schools of the national territory. The number of teachers was 6,421. In 1885 there were 2,352 schools all told; in 1886, 2,726; in 1887, 3,028. Immigration.—The number of immigrants landed in 1888 was 180,993, against 142,786 in 1887. During the first seven months of 1889 157,681 arrived. It was estimated that the total number of immigrants for 1889 might attain the figure of 370,000. Arbitration.—One of the causes of the trouble between the Argentine Republic and Brazil has been the dispute about the boundary line.
A treaty was †: on Sept. 7, in which it was agreed to settle the question by arbitration. It was further agreed that, in case the two contracting parties should not come to a direct agreement within ninety days from the signing of the treaty, the whole matter should be submitted to the President of the United States, and by him settled. ARIZONA, a Territory of the United States, organized in 1863; area, 113,020 square miles: population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 40,441; capital, Prescott, until Feb. 4, 1890; thereafter, Phenix. (See article PHENIx, in CITIES, AMERICAN, in this volume). Government.—The following were the Territorial officers during the year: Governor, C. Meyer Zulick, Democrat, succeeded in March by Louis A. Wolfley, Republican; Secretary, James A. Bayard, succeeded by Nathan O. hy; Treasurer, C. B. Foster, succeeded by J ..";- #. Smith; Auditor, John J. Hawkins, succeeded by Thomas Hughes; Attorney-General, John A. Rush, succeeded by Clark Churchill; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Charles M. Strauss, succeeded by George W. o ; Commissioner of Immigration, #. . Farish, succeeded by John A. Black; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, James H. Wright; Associate Justices, William W. Porter (succeeded by Joseph H. Kibbey) and William H. Barnes. All the above-named officers, except the Secretary and the judges, are appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the Legislative Council. Appointments made by the Governor when the Legislature is not in session are valid without such confirmation until the next meeting of the Legislature. By virtue of this law, Treasurer Foster. Auditor Hawkins, and other Democratic officials, had already been in office nearly two years under appointment by Gov. Zulick, when the Legislature of 1889 met. The Council, being Republican, refused to confirm them, whereupon the Governor declined to make further nominations until the session of the Legislature had reached the sixty-day limit. He then, on March 22, renominated the former officials. But meanwhile the Republican members of the Legislature had continued both houses in session beyond sixty days, and until President Harrison had appointed a Republican successor to Gov. Zulick. #. new Governor recognized the hold-over session, and sent in to the Council several nominations which were confirmed. Among the nominees were John Y. T. Smith, to be Territorial Treasurer, and Thomas Hughes, to be Territorial Auditor. The Democrats claimed that the session had expired, by force of law, on March 21, at the end of sixty days after assembling; that the appointments made by Gov. Zulick on March 22 must stand until confirmed or rejected by the next Legislature in 1891; and that the appointees of #. Wolfley had no standing. Accordingly, the Democratic officials refused to surrender their offices to the Republican claimants. Suits were brought by the latter, and the dispute over the Treasurer's office was determined on May 15 by Judge Porter, of the Supreme Court, who rendered a decision in favor of Smith, the Republican contestant, on the ground that, as the Territorial law did not fix the term of office of the Treasurer, it must