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cakes, birds, fruits, and the like. Each object construction of the temple and pyramid. Somehas its name engraved beside or above it, thus what similar structures have been found elsegiving a list of between seventy and eighty vari- where, as at Ghizeh. In some of the chambers eties of wines, poultry, cakes, etc., and the com- masons' tools were found, carpenters' tools in plete schedule of a royal funerary feast of the others, and plasterers' tools in others. “Thus, period. It is* remarked that the ducks, geese, for the first time, a complete, untouched, and and other birds are represented without legs. unincumbered settlement of the twelfth dynasty Except for a flake off from one corner, this is brought to light.” The decorations and furblock is perfectly preserved. The discovery of nishings, domestic objects, and manner of life of calcined fragments of quartz and mica, together the people of the remote age of the Usertesens with a lapis lazuli inlay carved in the form of a are illustrated by other objects discovered in false beard of the kind represented on the chins these chambers. A style of pottery, with incised of gods and Pharaohs, is regarded as evidence patterns in imitation of basket-work, found here that the destroyed mummy cases had been dec was hitherto unknown. Very many papyri of orated with mosaic ornamentation in fine stones. the period were found almost perfectly preserved. The chamber was filled with water to the depth Some of them were still rolled up and sealed with of three feet. After completing the examination clay impressions of scarabs of early patterns. of this pyramid Mr. Petrie began operations at One bears the seal of an officer of one of the the pyramid of Illahûn, which stands at the gate Amenemhats. Some of the material of these of the Fayoum, in the position commanding the papyri is described as being of " marvelous" spot that must have been occupied in ancient quality, and the texture as thin as “foreign note times by the locks by which the influx of the paper. Some new-born infants were found Nile into the lake was regulated. He had not buried under the floors of the chambers, in very succeeded in finding the entrance to the pyra- careless fashion. The cemetery of this town exmid chambers when the working season closed at tended for some distance around the base of the the end of May, but he made many other discov- pyramid, but the ancient graves had been pluneries of great interest. The ruins of the pyra- dered. The ground was also occupied as a cemmid chapel and the shattered remains of a shrine etery from the twenty-first to the twenty-fifth adjoining the pyramid yielded many fragments dynasties, but the later interments afforded little of the cartouches and “Ka-name" of Usertesen of historical or archæological value. The name II. The building, erected most probably by this of the town appears from seals attached to some king, had been pulled down in the time of Ram- of the papyri to have been Ha-Usertesen-Hotep, eses II and the granite removed to build a sanct- or, “the Votive Temple of Usertesen.” The site uary at Heracleopolis, leaving the place to be is now called Tell Kahun. identified by traces of the limestone boundary Village at Tell Gurob.- A few miles distant wall and a square

area of limestone chips. The from Illahûn, on the other side of the Bahr Yusûf, site had again been used as a Christian cemetery Mr. Petrie discovered the remains of another in the fifth and sixth centuries of our era. This town of the latter part of the eighteenth or early cemetery yielded numerous specimens of cloth- part of the nineteenth dynasty. It was suring in a fine state of preservation. Digging be- rounded by a wall, and outside of the wall was low the Christian graves and the bed of lime- the necropolis. The modern name of the place stone chips, Mr. Petrie discovered in a square is Tell Gurob; the ancient name has not been hole sunk in the bed-rock the foundation depos- ascertained. The earliest relics gave the names its of Usertesen II. The hole had been fitted of Thothmes III, Tutankhamen, and Horemheb, with two blocks of stone as stoppers, both of while the place had apparently ceased to be which were cut with rope-grooves for lowering occupied in the reign of Seti II, the son of them into place. Beneath them appeared a bed Menephthah (the Pharaoh of the Exodus). The of mixed sand and stone-flakes about a foot deep, cemetery, however, continued in use for a much and below this a mass of smashed pottery, four longer time, for mummies of the Ptolemaic age pairs of sandstone corn-rubbers, eight bronze were exhumed from it. The head cases of the knives with pointed blades, eight with ordinary later mummies were made of a cartonnage built blades, four small chisels, four large chisels, four up of papyri instead of the usual thicknesses of bar chisels, four axe-heads, four pieces of ore, linen, and the layers were easily separated, in and twelve strings of carnelian beads of a rich, good condition, by soaking: By this process, translucent red color. The threads connecting Mr. Petrie obtained a considerable number of the beads had rotted away, but the beads lay in Ptolemaic documents in pieces as large as one's lines. The use of the beads has not been deter- hand. Among them were fragments of royal mined. Mr. Petrie suggests that they may be decrees, beginning, “ King Ptolemy to bead-money-the earliest examples yet discov- greeting, etc.”; an ephemeris, or daily record of ered-or that some mystic meaning may have court affairs and regulations of the fourteenth attached to them.

year of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; letters, including An Ancient Village.-Adjoining the pyra- part of an epistle from a youth at college, telling mid temple,

and built square with it, were the his father how he was getting on and saying that remains of a town of the same period. It was he at last understood mensuration and could symmetrically laid out in parallef rows of store- draw a plan of a house; and a letter from one houses and chambers, the chambers being of the royal goose herds, saying that he could not planned to round numbers of cubic measure- supply twelve geese for King Ptolemy's festival. ments, as two by five, four by three, and the like. The bronzes, including knives, chisels, axe-heads, The whole was evidently planned at one time, and mirrors, etc., are described as being the finest in was in all likelihood designed for the architects, the way of domestic objects yet found in Egypt. artists, workmen, and officers employed in the Two inscribed shallow pans—votive offerings

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OBJECTS FROM TELL KAHUN (TWELFTH DYNASTY). 1, Wooden statuette of a dancer or mummer. 2, 3, Ivory castanets found with the image No. 1. 4, Mummer's mask. 5, Toy boat of flint. 6, Fire-stick. 7, Wooden spoon. 8, Sling. 9, Hippopotamus in flint. 10, Ball. 11, Plummet. 12, Brick-mold. 13, Wooden hoe. 14, Plasterer's float. 15, Sickle. 16, Boy playing on two pipes. 17, 18, 19, Alphabetic inscriptions.

OBJECTS FROM TELL GUROB (EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY). 20, Figure in pottery. 21, False-necked vase. 22, Carved head from coffin (in wood, 1300 B. C.). 23, Similar head of a later period.

are " triumphs of hammer work,” so thin as to cubit—the first that has been found—consists of be quite elastic and flexible, but having thick a massive piece of dark wood, beveled at one rims. The potteries were partly of the Cypriot side and marked off into divisions of six palms; and partly of the Mycenean types and distinct clay molds for casting bronze hatchets, knives, in style from those of the Ilahûn settlement, and the like ; a collection of knife and hatchet but having the common feature with them of blades and other tools, some of which had probbearing incised characters that are neither hiero- ably been cast in these very molds and afterglyphic nor hieratic, but apparently very early ward hammered; a bronze mirror, the plate Cypriot or Greek. The signs traced on the pot- having a diameter of eight and a half inches, tery of the twelfth dynasty are distinctly Cypri- mounted in a massive handle of solid ivory ot, and Phænician is found on the later pottery carved in the form of a lotus scepter; hoes of at Tell Gurob. At this place “the evidences of two shapes; “five very clumsy, archaic-looking a foreign settlement are overwhelming.” The wooden rake-heads”; two grain scoops; articles weights were of the Assyrian standards. Inter- of pottery, plain and blue-glazed ; wooden-tooth ments of an alien race with yellow hair and for- combs; bronze needles; hair-pins of bone; eign names were detected in the cemetery. One strings of beads; spindles and whirls; fisherof these cases bore the name An-Tursha, point- mens' and weavers' furnishings; rope-ring cushing to the Tursha nation who are mentioned in ions for supporting loads on the head; sandals the Egyptian inscriptions as allies of the Achæ- in a considerable variety of styles; and a fragans and Libyans against Egypt.

ment of a black basalt statue in heroic size, as Domestic Relics of the Twelfth, Eigh- well as a colored portrait-head of the Pharaoh teenth, and Nineteenth Dynasties. The in bas-relief. The eighteenth dynasty is represmaller objects found in these villages were sented by jewelry, ivory carvings, amulets, scarbrought to London, and were exhibited to the abs, and other small articles of value, sarcophagi, public in the latter part of September, a sepa- mummy-case lids carved into human forms, rate apartment in the Oxford Mansion being al- and funerary images from Tell Gurob and the lotted to the collection from either village. cemetery at Hawára, with the mummy case and Among the objects in this exhibition which are skull of the Etruscan) foreigner An Tursha. figured in the illustration are, from Tell Kahun Completion of work at Bubastis.--Miss (twelfth dynasty, about 2600 or 2800 B. C.), a Edwards, as honorary secretary, represented at the wooden statuette of a dancer or mummer, dressed annual meeting of the Egypt Exploration Fund, only in a tail and a mask (see plate, p. 26, No. 1); April 12, that the excavations at Bubastis had a pair of ivory castanets found with this image been completed with the close of the season of (Nos. 2 and 3); the actual mask of the mummer 1888–89. Every block of stone had been lifted (No. 4), found in the next room. It was made of and rolled; every bas-relief had been reproduced canvas and plaster, and was painted black, with in paper casts; and every inscription copied. crescents of color around the eye-holes, and Even though the results had been negative patches on the cheeks. These articles were prob- rather than positive, it was a source of satisfacably part of the outfit of a professional dancer tion that the task had been performed. The who occupied the apartments; a child's play- only large work of art found during the year ball (No. 10); a toy boat (No. 5), and a hippo- had been a colossal group of two figures in red potamus (No. 9), chipped out of flint; a fire- granite. Several inscriptions, however, had been stick, in the notches of which an upright stick recovered ; as, for instance, part of a large tablet. was rotated to produce fire by friction No. 6); a in praise of Rameses II; an inscription of wooden spoon in the form of a shell supported Usertesen I, showing that the earliest temple by a serpent (No. 7); a sling, with the loop that built upon this site was still standing at the bewas slipped over the finger (No. 8); a plummet ginning of the twelfth dynasty; and two inscrip(No. 11); a brick-mold (No. 12); à plasterer's tions which carry back the date of that earliest float, (No. 14), cut out of a solid block of wood, temple to 4000 B. c. (Mariette's chronology); and of precisely the form in use to-day; a wood- namely, one containing the throne-name of en hoe (No. 13); a sickle, cut in two pieces and Khafra (Chephren), the builder of the second having three small flint saws cemented into a pyramid, and one containing the so-called “bangroove sunk in the edge of the wooden handle ner-name" of Khufu (Cheops), the builder of (No. 15); a figure of a boy playing on double the Great Pyramid. The history, therefore, of pipes (No. 16); name inscribed on a piece of the famous temple of Bast is now found to wood (No. 11); other alphabetic signs (Nos. 18 extend from the time of Khufu to the time of and 19). Of the objects from Tell Gurob (eight- Ptolemy Epiphanes II. Before leaving Tell Baseenth dynasty, about 1400 to 1500 B. C.), there ta, M. Naville had made a tentative excavation are represented in the illustration a false-necked in a spot near the Great Temple, which has long yase (No. 21); a figure in pottery (No. 20); a been identified with the Temple of Thoth, dehead carved in wood from a coffin of about 1300 cribed by Herodotus as “the Temple of Hermes.” B. C. (No. 22); and another similar head of a This excavation disclosed only a few blocks bearlater period (No. 23). Many of these objects ing the names of Osorkon II and Rameses II, are represented by several specimens. The col- and a large tablet recording donations made to lection contains a large number of workmens' various temples. tools and other articles besides the objects illus The monuments derived from these excavatrated, including chisels of bronze and flint; tions have been brought to England and distribthirty or forty flint saws; wooden cramps; wood- uted to various museums in Europe and the en “off-set pegs,” employed for dressing stone United States, whose friends have interested facings; the handle of an adze; bow drills; themselves in the work of the Exploration Fund. three cubit measures, one of which, a “short” The removal of these monuments from Egypt

instead of allowing them to remain there is excused by alleging that in the absence of adequate provision for protecting them they would be subject to certain destruction at the hands of the Arabs and travelers, and that they can not be regarded as safe till o under European care. Of the pieces, there have been given to the British Museum a column of the Egyptian “palm order,” in polished red olo with palm capital, shaft, and base complete—the shaft inscribed with hieroglyphic characters; the upper half of a colossal statue of a king in red granite— archaic style; three large fragments of a shrine in polished red granite, sculptured in very low relief—period of Nectanebo I (thirtieth dynasty); a large slab of red granite carved in bas-relief with portrait figures of King Osorkon II and his wife, Queen oama (twenty-second dynasty); and a colossal statue in polished black granite of the Hyksos King Apepi, in four pieces —“the finest piece of Egyptian portrait sculpture known.” To the Boston, Mass., Museum of Fine Arts were given a colossal Hathor-head capital in red granite, described as being very beautiful; the upper half of a colossal statue of a king in red granite, the companion to which was given to the British Museum; a colossal lotus-bud capital in two pieces, from the hypostyle hall of the temple; a red granite slab in basrelief from the festival hall of Osorkon II; and two bas-relief slabs in limestone, from the site of a temple to Hathor founded by Ptolemy Soter at Terraneh, the ancient Termuthis, the remains of which were discovered and excavated by Mr. F. Llewellen Griffith in 1888. These specimens date from the time of the fourth dynasty down to the twenty-second dynasty. †. lotus-bud capital is a fine example of the work of the twelfth dynasty. The sculptures from Terreneh represent the art of the Ptolemaic period “under its most engaging aspect.” Two of the tablets described by Prof. A. H. Sayce as having been discovered at Tel-el-Amarna in 1888, of the time of Amenophis IV, relate to a rebellion which occurred in southern Palestine. The descriptions of the cities and tribes enbodied in them make no mention of Israelites, and indicate that that people were then absent from the country. They must then have been already living in Egypt. This fact is regarded by p. John A. Paine as destructive to the chronology which makes the duration of the sojourn only two hundred and fifty years. he absence of representations of horsemen on the Egyptian monuments has been remarked, and has been interpreted by certain authors as signifying that the Egyptians possessed no mounted horsemen or army division of cavalry. But the title “Commander of the Cavalry” had already been found contemporary with the exodus and, now Mr. Petrie has published in his book on “Tanis” inscriptions which he found on two granite stelae in which Rameses II is described as “the very valorous upon horses” and “strong upon his horses.”

A peculiar monument at Tell Nebesheh, described by Mr. Petrie in his “Tanis,” is a column of red syenite erected by Menephthah, about twelve feet high, sculptured on the shaft with scenes of adoration and offering, and the flat, plain top surmounted by a group of statuary consisting of the king kneeling, with a hawk behind him. Supposing this to have been one of a pair standing on opposite sides of an avenue, they might i. regarded as analogous to such structures as the pillars Jachin and Boaz of Solomon's temple and pillars of the temples of Hercules at Tyre and of Aphrodite at Persepolis. The theory of Mr. Cope Whitehouse that the Wady Raian once formed a continuous sheet of water, constituting the Lake Moeris of the ancients, is contradicted by Mr. Petrie in the account of his investigations at Hawāra, Biahmu, and Arsinoë. He says that the ground rises between the two depressions to a height of more than one hundred feet above the level of the Nile. Preservation of Egyptian Monuments.A society for the preservation of Egyptian monuments has been formed in England, with an executive committee including Sir Henry Layard, Mr. Petrie, and M. Le Page Renouf. The Egyptian Government, with which it will co-operate, has had a survey made of the structures that are most in danger from the infiltrations of the Nile and destructive human agencies, and a report on the feasibility and probable cost of making them safe. Provision will be made for the future inspection and guard of the ruins. Ruins of Thaumegas, Algeria. — The remarkable ruins at Timegad, the ancient Thaumegas, Algeria, which were visited by Sir Lambert Playfair in 1875, and have been described

FIG. 6.-TRIUMPHAL ARCH AT THAUMEGAs.

by him and by Mr. Alexander Graham, and mentioned by French travelers, have recently been excavated by the Director of Historical Monuments of the district. Thaumegas was founded by Trajan as a recompense to the veterans of the Thirtieth Legion, and soon became the political capital of the district. The Triumphal Arch (Fig. 6) in the axis of the colonnade of the Forum, one of the most important monuments of the kind in Africa, is in the Corinthian order, and is built of sandstone, with the columns, capitals, and bases of the pilasters, the brackets, and en

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tablature of white marble. The north façade red sandstone, weighing perhaps five or six tons. of the Forum had a colonnade running its entire It must have come from a considerable distance, length along the road leading through the Tri- for no stones of similar character are found on umphal Arch; the road is still deeply scored the island. It is mortised into two pillars of con

glomerate (possibly an eruptive stone), likewise of great weight, one of which, which has been dug around, is planted to a depth of at least twelve feet. No date can be fixed for the erection of the monument. The natives profess to know nothing of its history.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, an independent republic of South America. (For area, population, etc., see " Annual Cyclopædia " for 1883.)

Government. The President is Dr. Juarez Celman, whose term of office will expire on Oct. 12, 1892; the Vice-President is Dr. Carlos Pellegrini. The Cabinet is composed of the following ministers :

Interior, Dr. N. Q. Costa; Foreign FIG. 7.-THEATER AT THAUMEGAS.

Affairs, Señor Zeballos; Finance,

Dr. W. Pacheco; Justice, Dr. F. with the ruts made by chariot-wheels. Inscrip- Posse; War and Navy, Gen. E. Racedo. The tions, pedestals, and fragments of statuary lie Argentine Minister'at Washington is Don Viscattered about in its interior; the most impor-conte G. Quesada ; the Consul at New York, tant of them have been restored to their places. Señor Adolfo G. Calvo. The American Minister The theatre (Fig. 7) was cut in the abrupt north- at Buenos Ayres is Bayless W. Hanna; the Conern flank of a hill, the opposite side of which sul, Edward L. Baker. The Argentine Republic sloped gradually to the south. Among the other appointed three delegates

to the American Interbuildings brought to light are the capitol, with national Congress, viz., Don Roque Peña, Don remains of very large columns, several basilicas, Manuel Quintana, and the minister above named, and a Byzantine fortress. The ruins are well pre- Don Viconte G. Quesada. served.

Army and Navy. - Without counting the Tonga Islands.-A drawing of a remarkable 400,000 men constituting the National Guard, the structure in the island of Colonga, of the Tonga military force at the disposal of the Government group, has been made on the spot by Mr. Mur- consists of the regular army, having a strength of dock, of the British corvette “ Diamond,” and is 6,567 men, 3.245 being foot, 2,571 horse, and 751

artillery. The navy consists of 2 armored vessels, 4 cruisers, 4 gun-boats, 7 torpedoboats, 4 steam transports, 3 avisos, 7 other steamers and 6 sailing-vessels; together 38 vessels, mounting jointly 73 guns; registering 16,612 tons, with 13,055 horsepower, and manned by 1,966 sailors.

Railroads. - On Dec. 31, 1887, the number of kilometres in running order was 6,669; a year later it was 7,255, showing an increase of 586 kilometres. In 1887 the amount of capital invested therein was $205,183,298; in 1888 it had risen to $220,746,247, showing an increase of $15,562,949. The number of passengers forwarded in 1887 was 7,969,800; in 1888 it reached 9,671,233. The transportation of merchandise rose from 3,444,560,933 kilogrammes in 1887 to 4,010,285,431 in 1888. The net earnings amounted to $22,290,069, in 1887, and to

$26,526,707 in 1888. While the running FIG. 8.-PREHISTORIC MONUMENT ON THE ISLAND OF COLONGA. (From a drawing by Mr. Murdock, R. N.)

expenses of the Southern Railroad only

absorbed 45 per cent of the gross earnreproduced in Fig. 8. The massiveness of the ings, those of the Eastern Railroad took 994 per structure and its position in an island where the cent. natives are still in a nearly primitive condition Postal and Telegraph Service.-The Presiand ignorant of the execution of great architect- dent, in his message submitted to Congress, on ural works, give it great interest. The horizontal May 12, 1889, remarked: “ The dispatch of letters, beam on the top of the pile is a piece of very fine postal cards, and packages, through the post

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