Gambar halaman
PDF
ePub

versity of North Dakota, at Grand Forks. Nine rivate schools and colleges have normal classes. he enrollment of students at the University of Dakota in 1887 was 197, in 1888 it was 307, in 1889 it had reached 476. The entire appropriation of $35,000 for the last school year was expended. At the University of North Dakota the enrollment in 1887 was 75, in 1888 it was 98, in 1889 it was 199. Of these 199, 106 were in the preparatory department, 60 in the normal department, and 20 in the college proper. The Agricultural College at Brookings contained 250 pupils during 1889, or 22 more than for the previous year. Of this number, 126 are pursuing college studies. There were 17 graduates from this institution last year. Charities.—The number of patients at the Hospital for the Insane at Yankton, on July 1, 1888, was 164, and on July 1, 1889, it was 209. The entire building is capable of .."...i 360 patients. At the North Dakota Hospita there were, in October, 1888, 178 patients, and in October, 1889, 186. Prisons.—For the year ending June 3, the total amount expended by the Territory for the maintenance of the Dakota Penitentiary at Sioux Falls was $10,070.30. There were 92 inmates at the beginning of the year and 85 at its close. At the Bismarck Penitentiary, the number of prisoners at the latter date was about 60. The Reform School at Plankinton, first established in 1888, contained 33 pupils in October of this year, 24 boys and 9 girls. Militi. i. October, 1889, the organized militia of the Territory numbered 972 officers and men, divided into two regiments. An encam ment was held near Watertown, at which 75 officers and 578 enlisted men were present. Railroads.-The total mileage of each system in the Territory on Dec. 31, 1888, is shown by the following table:

Miles.

Black Hills and Fort Pierre Railway.................. 15 Burlington, Cedar Rapids, and Northern Railway..... 83 Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railway............ 1,215 Chicago and Northwestern Railway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.58 Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Omaha Railway... 87 Fremont, Elkhorn, and ol. Walley Railway . 123 Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railway ... 99 St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway . . . . . .... 1,191 Northern Pacific Railway. . . . . . ............ ... S37 Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway. ... 40 Illinois Central Railway ... ....... ... 15 Total in 1888.................................... 4,463

There was but little railroad building during

1889. Settlement.—The total area of public land filed upon during the year ending June 30 was 2,096,030 acres, against 1,838,142 during the year preceding. There were 9,098 final proofs, of which 3,306 were cash entries, 5,680 final homestead proofs, and 112 timber-culture proofs. Most of the present vacant land, 19,877,273 acres, lies in the Bismarck and Devil's Lake districts, North Dakota, and the Rapid City, South Dakota, the amount still open for settlement in the Bismarck district being 13,922,029 acres. The opening of the Sioux reservation will increase the unoccupied land to 30,000,000 acres. Agriculture.—The following table shows the acreage and estimated yield of the various crops for 1889 for the Territory at large, and for North

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

The farm acreage in 1885, according to the census of that year, was 16,842,412, of which 6,560,758 acres were under cultivation. The cultivated area in 1887 was about 9,000,000 acres, and was more than 10,000,000 acres in 1889. In the older sections of Dakota mixed farming is yearly becoming more general. Stock raising is a rapidly growing industry. In 1880 there were 41,670 horses, 2,703 mules, 40,572 milch cows, 100,243 head of cattle, 30,244 sheep, and 63,394 hogs, of a total value of $6,463,274, in the Territory. In 1889 there were 264,781 horses, valued at $20,659,590; 16,850 mules, valued at $1,596,324; 239,057 milch cows, valued at $6,693,596; 813,878 oxen and other cattle, valued at $16,619,318; 242,117 ". valued at $609,747; 453,875 hogs, valued at $3,248,386, the total value being $49,426,961. Mining.—Gold and silver mining in the Black Hills has been confined almost exclusively to Lawrence County, and the output of bullion is credited to four leading mines. The following figures will show the estimated output for the successive years since 1877: In 1877, $2,000,000; in 1878–79, $6,000,000; in 1880, $5,000,000; in 1881, 4,070,000; in 1882, $3,475,000; in 1883, $3,350,000; in 1884, $3,450,000; in 1885, $3,300000; in 1886, $3,125,000; in 1887, $3.150,000; in 1888, $3,150,000. Recent developments in the Southern and Central Hills indicate that producing mines will soon be added in that neighborhood. Banks.-There are in Dakota 346 banks, with an aggregate paid-up capital of $9,130,600, and having a surplus of $1,321,790. Among these are 59 national banks, with a capital of $3,800,000 and surplus of $923,700, and 207 private and State banks, with a capital of $5,330,600 and surplus of 398,090. Of these, 24 national banks, with a capital of $1,540,000 and surplus of $379,000, and 48 private and State banks, with a capital of $1,151,500 and surplus of $55,100, are in North Dakota; and 35 national banks, with a §'. of $2,260,000 and surplus of $554,700, and 159 private and State banks, with a capital of $4,179,100 and surplus of $342,990, in South Dakota. Local deposits |. been steadily of Artesian Wells.-The artesian wells of Dakota are among the wonders of the world. The great well in the Place Herbert, at Paris, discharges 1,000 gallons a minute, but there are wells in Dakota that throw out 3,000 gallons a minute. The artesian-well district lies in the valley of the James or Dakota river, flowing wells being found all the way from Yankton, in the extreme south, to Jamestown, North Dakota. At Yankton, two 6-inch wells, 600 feet deep, with a pressure of 56 pounds to the square inch, furnish power for water works and fire protection, run an electric-light plant, tow-mill, feedmill, furniture manufactory, and several printing establishments. One well at Huron with a ...'. of over 200 pounds to the square inch, epth 863 feet, and 6-inch pipe, runs the water works and motors for printing houses and other establishments. Two wells at Aberdeen, 900 feet deep, with a pressure of 200 pounds to the square inch, furnish the power for water works and a pumping o system. The Jamestown well is 1,576 feet deep, with a pressure of 100 pounds to the square inch. A system of water works is maintained as at other places, without expense of fuel or engineer. The Sioux Reservation.—Notwithstanding the failure of the commissioners, appointed under the act of 1888, to accomplish their object, Congress, early in 1889, passed another act designed to procure the opening of this great reservation to settlement. The terms of the new bill are more favorable to the Indians than those of the former act. They are to receive $1.25 an acre for all their land disposed of by the United States to actual settlers within three years after the act becomes operative, 75 cents for all lands sold in the two years subsequent, and 50 cents per acre for the remaining land. The former act gave them a uniform rate of 50 cents an acre. The area of land opened for settlement is about the same in each instance. The quantity of land to be allotted to heads of families of the Sioux nation on their respective diminished reservation, whenever they take their lands in severalty, is double the quantity previously provided. The allotments in severalty are not to be compulsory. Under this act, the President appointed Ex-Governor Charles A. Foster, of Ohio, Hon. William Warner, of Missouri, and Gen. George A. Cook, as commissioners to secure the consent of the Indian tribes interested. They reached the reservation early in June, and visited each of the agencies, completing their work early in August. They were finally successful in securing the consent of the necessary three fourths of all the Indians. It is therefore only a question of time when 11,000,000 acres of the reservation will be open to settlement, and the two parts of the new State of South Dakota heretofore separated will be united by a band of new settlements. The area of the reservation is 26,751,105 acres. County Indebtedness.-The summary of the county indebtedness in Dakota, as returned to the Territorial statistican, shows the total bonded indebtedness to be $2,648,905 and the amounts of warrants outstanding $759,749, or a total indebtedness of $3,408,654. The total indebtedness of Aurora County is $35,400; of Barnes County, $81,331: Beadle, $67,940; Benson, $23,740: Billings, $1,151 ; Bon Homme, $27,500; Bottineau, $16,445; Brookings, $8,057; Brown, $1,500: Brulé, $17,029: Buffalo, $7,064; Burleigh, $129,600; Campbell, $14,555; Butte, $22,433: Cass, $219,000; Cavalier, $1,600; Charles Mix, $12,900; Clark, $22,526 ; Clay, $5,500;

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

his attention, and almost immediately he began his researches in that branch of medical science. In 1851 he presented his essay “On the Corpus Luteum of Menstruation and Pregnancy” (Philadelphia, 1851) to the American Medical Association, and gained its prize. This led to his appointment to the chair of physiology, in the medical department of the University of Buffalo, where he was the first to teach that branch by illustrations from living animals. In 1854 he accepted a similar professorship at the Vermont Medical College, in Woodstock, which he filled for two years. In 1859 he was called to the Long Island College Hospital, which had then just begun its career as a medical school, and he held the chair of physiology there until 1861. In

[graphic]

April, 1861, he went to Washington as surgeon of the Seventh Regiment of the New York National Guards, and in August was made brigadesurgeon of volunteers. He continued in active service, holding various places, until his resignation in March, 1864. During the winter of 1854–55 he delivered a course of lectures on physiology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons *. York city, temporarily taking the place of Dr. Alonzo Clark. He was elected to that chair in 1855, which he held until 1883, when he was made emeritus professor, and advanced to the presidency of the college, which connection he retained until his death. Dr. Dalton was a member of the American Medical Association, the New York State Medical Society, the County Medical Society, the New York Society of Neurology and Electrology, the New York Hui. Society, and the Medical Journal Association of New York City. In 1876 he was delegate from the American Medical Association to the International Medical Congress in Philadelphia, and presided over the section on Biology. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1864, and in 1874–77 he was vice-president of the New York Academy of Medicine. The degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Columbia in 1887. His researches were chiefly in the direction of physiology, in which branch of science he was a recognized leader. These include “Some Account of the Proteus Anguinus” (1853), “On the Constitution and Physiology of the Bile ”(1857), “Anatomy of the Placenta” (1858), “Sugar Formation in the Liver” (1871), “On the Spectrum of Bile” (1874), “A New Method of Determining the Position of Absorption Bands in the Spectrum of Colored Organic Bands" (1874), “Exerimental Production of Anaesthesia by Cereral Compression ” (1876), and “Report on the Corpus Luteum” (1878). Besides many contributions to medical journals and to cyclopædias, he published “Introductory Address delivered at the College of Physicians and Surgeons” (New York, 1855); A Treatise of Human Physiology ” (Philadelphia, 1859; 7th ed., 1882); “Vivisection, What it is, and What it has accomplished ” (New York, 1867); “A Treatise on Physiology and Hygiene for Schools, Families, and Colleges” (1868); “The Investigation of Abortion in Cows” (Albany, 1868); “Trichina Spiralis, a Lecture” (New York, 1869); “Spontaneous Generation” (1872); “Galen and Paracelsus ” (1873): “The Origin and Propagation of Disease '' (1874); “Experimentation on Animals as a Means of Knowledge in Physiology, Pathology, and Practical Medicine " (1875); “Doctrines of the Circulation” (1884): “Topographical Anatomy of the Brain " (Philadelphia, 1885); and “History of the College of o: sicians and Surgeons of New York" (New York, 1888). DAMIEN DE WEUSTER, JOSEPH, the leper-priest, born near Louvain, Belgium, Jan. 3, 1840; died at Kalawao, Molokai, Hawaiian Islands, April 15, 1889. At nineteen years of age, Damien, a theological student at the university, having received minor orders, and belonging to the Society of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary (Society of Picpus), offered himself as a missionary in place of his brother, who

was prevented by fever from going to HonoluluDamien's offer was accepted, although he was under age, and a week later he was on his way. Arriving in the Sandwich Islands he was ordained, and performed the ordinary missionary labor of a Catholic priest until 1873. In that year he was present at the dedication of a chapel

Joseph DAMien de VEUSTER.

in the island of Maui, and heard the bishop express a regret that he was unable to send a priest to Molokai, the leper settlement. He at once volunteered to go to the place, and in company with the bishop and the French consul set sail in a boat, loaded with cattle for Kaulapapa, the port of the leper colony. At a public meeting of the eight hundred lepers, half of whom were Catholics, the bishop said, “Since you have written me so often that you have no priest, I leave you one for a little time,” and returned at once to the vessel. Father Damien did not accompany him to the shore, but entered upon his new mission, in full assurance that he must finally contract the disease, so loathsome that it has been said, “corruption could go no further, nor flesh suffer deeper dishonor, this side of the grave.” Three varieties of leprosy are known— that mentioned in the Bible, where the whole body becomes white and scaly, but no further inconvenience results; the anaesthetic, in which feeling is lost, and a sloughing off of the extremities progresses unfelt; and the tubercular, a more virulent type. The two last are generally combined. The following is a description by an eye witness: When leprosy is fully developed, it is characterized by the presence of dusky red or livid tubercles of dif: ferent sizes, upon the face, lips, nose, eye-brows, and ears, and the extremities of the body. The skin of the tuberculated face is at the same time thickened, wrinkled, and shining, and the features are very atly distorted. . The hair of the eye-brows, eyeashes, and beard falls off; the eyes are often injected, and the conjunctiva swelled, the pupil of the eye contracts, giving the * a weird, cat-like expression; the voice becomes hoarse and nasal ; the sense o smell is impaired or lost, and that of touch or common sensation is strangely altered. The tuberculated parts, which are in the first instance sometimes supersensitive, latterly in the course of the disease become paralyzed, or anaesthetic. As the malady progresses, the tubercles soften and open, ulcerations of similar mucous tubercles appear in the nose and throat, rendering

[graphic]

the breath exceedingly offensive; tubercular masses, or leprous tubercles, as shown by dissection, begin to form internally upon various mucous membranes, and on the surface of the kidneys, lungs, etc. Cracks, fissures, and circular ulcers appear on the fingers, toes, and extremities, and joint after joint drops of by a kind of spontaneous gangrene. Sometimes the ". and sometimes the lower extremities are specially afflicted by this mortification and mutilation of parts. It is a singular and a fortunate fact that the leper suffers but little pain until almost his final hour. Leprosy exists in countries the most opposin

in climate. At various times it has been !...i in all parts of the world. In Great Britain, one hundred and ten leper-houses existed from the twelfth to the sixteenth century. For extermination of the disease, segregation of the afflicted is the only remedy. In 1865 this measure was resolved upon by the Hawaiian Government, a plague of leprosy having broken out in the islands five years before. Isolated cases were previously known. The law was enforced with difficulty, but everywhere with success, and it is still in force. More than eight hundred lepers are confined at the prison-hospital of Molokai, and maintained at government expense. The situation precludes all chance of escape. At the base of .. three thousand feet high, at the northern extremity of the island, juts out a peninsula three miles long and one mile wide, and here are the two leper villages of Kalawao and Kaulapapa, the crater of an extinct volcano being between. The whole is described as “a crust over the water, with a broken bubble in the midst.” Two hundred acres of arable land, fenced in at foot of the mountains, are cultivated by lepers, and there is an excellent range for stock. The climate in winter is cold and damp, both which conditions are inimical to leprosy. The first victims removed to the spot, torn from their homes and for the most part strangers to one another, were sheltered in miserable huts, built by themselves. To construct these, the native groves had been cut down, and branches of castor-oil trees were used. They were covered with leaves of ki and sugar-cane, and in the best instances with pili grass. Here men, women, and children were huddled together, without regard to sex or age. The weaker ones were dying at a rate of about ten a week. The stronger ones, abandoned to the excesses of despair, spent their time in playing cards, ran about naked, intoxicated with ki-root beer, and renewed the infamous hula or pagan dances. For some weeks after his arrival. Father Damien had no shelter save the single pandanus tree preserved in the churchyard. After a time the white residents at Honolulu, chiefly Protestants, sent him some lumber and a purse of one hundred and twenty dollars, with which he built a house. Henceforward, as he labored among the lepers, he reiterated appeals to the government for aid, which finally were listened to, and a change was brought about. For himself, he dressed the sores of the dying, consoled their last agonies, and in many instances dug their graves. A south wind, which blew down some of the huts, caused a sanitary condition that resulted in the shipping of lumber from which decent houses were built. Many of these were put up by the priest himself, assisted by his leper boys. A school of forty of these was under his own par

ticular direction. The supply of water had been scarce, and that used was brought by the lepers on their backs for a considerable distance. This was remedied by piping from a natural reservoir, seventy-two by fifty-five feet. Food and clothing were procured with greater ease by the establishment of a store. An allowance of six dollars a year is granted to each leper, to be expended here for purchase of clothes, and one thousand dollars of the government appropriation was invested to lay in the first stock of this store, which has since maintained itself. By intercession of Father Damien, clothes were also sent to the lepers by charitable persons. Prior to 1878 he acted as medical adviser to half the settlement, but after that date regular physicians were appointed by the Government. Father Damien's influence accomplished at last the suppression of horrible practices, where local ... had failed. The making of ki-root beer was prohibited, and the prohibition was enforced. Father Damien in person assisting to execute the law. By threats and persuasions the native utensils for distilling were seized; but it was not until the brave priest became one of themselves, and was able to address his congregations as “we lepers,” that opposition to his efforts ceased. Marriages were allowed among lepers, and, by Father Damien's advice, those married to lepers were permitted to accompany them to the settlement. Healthy conditions of living ameliorated the type of the disease, though no cure has yet been discovered. In 1881 Bishop Hermann visited Molokai, to confer upon Father Damien the degree of Knight Commander of the Order of Kalakaua I. Of the decoration the priest remarked to Charles Warren Stoddard in 1883, “It is not for this I am here.” Queen Kapiolani also visited the island in 1884, and in the same year a fair was held for the benefit of the lepers. The villages at this time presented a thriving appearance. A subscription of fifteen hundred dollars was raised by Henry Labouchere, through his paper, and forwarded to Father Damien by Cardinal Manning, and five thousand dollars were sent to him by the Rev. Hugh B. Chapman, an English Episcopal clergyman. For a time after his arrival at Molokai, Father Damien was treated with great rigor by the government, permission being refused him to leave the island to visit a brother priest, for the purpose of confession. The sheriff of Molokai had orders to arrest him, should he make such an attempt; but six months later a formal permit was granted, which, however, he seldom used. With the aid of the lepers he enlarged and painted the clapel, decorating it also within, and the sacramental vessels of gold were sent to him by the Superior of St. Roche, in Paris. In the church of Kaulapapa, where he held services also on the same days, he was assisted at first for a time by Father Albert, a missionary priest from Tahiti. After eleven years of constant intercourse with lepers, during which he had buried sixteen hundred, although he cooked his own food. the first appearance of the disease manifested itself in Father I)amien's left foot in 1884. Following the usual course, it developed slowly, disfigured his hands and face; but he was cheerful and continued his usual occupations. “People pity me, and think me unfortunate,” he said, “but I think myself the happiest of missionaries.” In December, 1888, he was visited by E. Clifford, an Englishman, Treasurer of the Church Army, an Episcopal institution, who desired to try upon him gurjun oil, an Indian specific for leprosy, which afforded, temporary relief. At this time he was described by Mr. Clifford as “forty-nine years old, a thick-set, strongly built man, with black, curly hair and short gray beard. His countenance must have been handsome, with a full, well-curved mouth, and a short, straight nose; but he is now disfigured with leprosy.” On Jan. 28, 1889, he wrote to this friend, “Au revoir au ciel,” and three weeks before his death he repeated his delight that he should “ celebrate Easter in Heaven.” On March 28th, he was finally prostrated; and though not an ascetic, refused steadily comforts that could not be shared by those under his charge. The concentration of the disease in his throat and lungs caused extreme suffering, and he himself recognized signs of the end. The house was besieged by his affectionate people, who were with disliculty restrained from the room. The evening before his death, which took place at midnight, he took leave of all and blessed them, especially the children. His last days were attended by a brother priest, and a devoted lay-brother. By his own request, he was buried beneath the pandanus tree that had sheltered him sixteen years before. Shortly after his death there was an outbreak of intemperance among the lepers, the making of ki-root beer being resumed. In March, 1886, by request of the Hawaiian Government, Father Damien wrote a short account of his work, to accompany the report of the Board of Health. It was throughout a plea for further amelioration of the lepers' condition. The motive of his life is modestly expressed in the opening words: “By special providence of Our Divine Lord, who during his public life showed a particular symrathy for the lepers, my way was traced toward Calawao in May, A. D. 1873.”

The settlement of Molokai is the only one of its kind in the world, and from the accession of King Kalakaua has been treated by the government with liberal generosity. Father Conrardi, who went to become an assistant of Father Damien in 1886, and from that time shared his home, is a native of Oregon. Father Wendolin resides at Kaulapapa, and three Franciscan Sisters are in care of a hospital. Two are from Syracuse, N. Y. One of the two lay-brothers at work in the settlement is an American also. A memorial fund has been organized in England, to erect a monument to Father Damien at his grave in Molokai, to endow a ward in a London hospital for the study of leprosy, and to make inquiry into the condition of the disease in India, where there are two hundred and fifty thousand lepers. The average death-rate of lepers at Molokai is one hundred and fifty yearly, and the hospital proper contains eighty patients. The length of life on the island, after removal, is usually four years. Nine tenths of the people are engaged in active occupation. There is a branch hospital at Honolulu for determination of cases, and shipments of lepers are made weekly to Molokai. The natives manifest no fears of the disease. Occasional visits are allowed to the island. See “The Lepers of Molokai,” by Charles Warren Stoddard (Notre Dame, Ind., 1885; en

larged and illustrated ed., with selections from Damien's letters, 1890); “Life and Letters of Father Damien,” edited with an introduction by his brother, Father Pamphile (London, 1889); and “Father Damien : a Journey from Cashmere to his Home in Hawaii," by Edward Clifford (London, 1889). DAVIS, JEFFERSON, an American statesman, born in Todd County, Ky., June 3, 1808; died in New Orleans, La., Dec. 6, 1889. His father was Samuel Davis, who served in the Georgia cavalry during the War of Independence, and during the boy's infancy removed to Wilkinson County, Miss. The son was appointed by President Monroe to a cadetship at West Point, where he was graduated in 1828, standing No. 23 in a class of thirty-three members. Not one of his classmates became distinguished. Of the eleven members of the class (including Mr. Davis) who were living when the civil war began in 1861, two were in the National military service and three in the Confederate. A short time before his death, Mr. Davis dictated a brief and fragmentary autobiography, which was published in “Belford's Magazine” for January, 1890. By permission, we copy a large portion of it here: “I was born June 3, 1808, in Christian County, Ky., in that part of it which, by a subsequent division, is now in Todd County. At this place has since risen the village of Fairview, and on the exact spot where I was born has been constructed the Baptist church of the place. My father, Samuel |. was a native of Georgia, and served in the War of the Revolution, first in the “mounted gun-men,” and afterward as captain of infantry at the siege of Savannah. During my infancy my father removed to Wilkinson County, Miss. After passing through the County Academy, I entered Transvaal College, Kentucky, at the age of sixteen, and was advanced as far as the senior class when I was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, which I entered in September, 1824. I graduated in 1828, and then, in accordance with the custom of cadets, entered active service with the rank of lieutenant, serving as an officer of infantry on the Northwest frontier until 1833, when, a regiment of dragoons having been created, I was transferred to it. After a successful campaign against the Indians, I resigned from the army, in 1835, being anxious to fulfill a long-existing engagement with a daughter of Col. Zachary Taylor, whom I married, not after a romantic elopement, as has so often been stated, but at the house of her aunt and in the presence of many of her relatives, at a place near Louisville, Ky. Then l became a cotton-planter in Warren County, Miss. It was my misfortune, early in my married life, to lose my wife; and for many years thereafter I lived in great seclusion on the plantation in the swamps of the Mississippi. In 1843 I for the first time took part in |. political life of the country. Next year I was chosen one of the presidential electors at large of the State; and in the succeeding year was elected to Congress, taking my seat in the House of Representatives in December, 1845. The proposition to terminate the joint occupancy of Oregon, and the reformation of the tariff, were the two questions arousing most public attention at

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »