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terra-cotta, found at Coere, in 1874, and lately uired by the British Museum, are assigned o: A. S. Murray to a date of about 500 B. c. Mr. Murray traces in them a combined influence of Corinth, of the Greeks who were settled in the Delta of Egypt and the Greeks in Asia Minor, and ultimately an influence reaching westward from Assyria. The last is noticed especially in certain conventional matters, such as the drawing of profiles of the eye and of the knee-bones; not a little of the costume, on the other hand, indicates an Etruscan origin. Seven Vulcian tombs, .."; discovered at CornetoTarquinia, contained Etruscan and Campanian vases, with others imported from Attica. Many relics of Roman operations have been recovered from the Rio Tinto mines. The most important of them is the tread-mill for raising water, the wood work of which has been well reserved by the action of the copper in solution. nstead of leaning on bars, as in the modern tread-mill, the slaves appear to have held on to ropes like bell-ropes, parts of which remain. The wheel, 44 metres in diameter, was so constructed as to utilize the weight of the men very skilfully. The pickaxes are modern in shape, and another tool is like the hoe-like spade of the Spaniards. Other objects found include the fetters, collars, and anklets of the slaves, specimens of pottery and glass, “herring-bone work,” bronze urns, stamped pigs and a tube of lead, and four capitals of columns representing the Roman town. Stone hammer-heads, with depressions in the center for handles, and stone pestles and mortars attest still earlier workings than those of the Romans. Greece. Completion of Excavations on the Acropolis at Athens.—The first place in the report of the Hellenic Society, which was made by Prof. Jebb at its annual meeting, June 24, was given to the researches which had been É. in Greece itself, partly by the Greek overnment, partly by the Greek Archaeological Society and the foreign schools. The excavations on the Acropolis of Athens, which began from the Propylaea and were continued eastward to the north of the Parthenon, had been brought back along the south side of that structure so as again to reach the Propylaea. The entire area of the Acropolis had thus been , thoroughly explored down to the bed of rock. The gains of the last twelve months from this work fell under the heads of topography and architecture, sculpture and inscriptions. Further light had been thrown on the prehistoric fortifications of the Acropolis. New fragments of the primitive Acropolis wall, which encircled the summit of the primitive citadel, had been laid bare, and in one place, at the southeast corner of the Propylaea, it was seen to have been nearly twenty feet thick. Between the Parthenon and the south edge of the Acropolis, traces had been found of a rude, oblong building, constructed partly with the drums of columns rejected, apparently, by the builders of that earlier temple, never completed, which was superseded by the Parthenon. This oblong building seemed to have been covered over with earth when the Parthenon was finished, and might have been a workshop used by the builders. West of the Parthenon, a large chamber, about 130 feet by 50 feet, with a portico facing
northward, had been traced by its foundations. It may have been the xaxx00%km used as a repository for arms and stores. If so, that building did not belong, as had been supposed, to the temenos of Athena Ergané. In the same part of the Acropolis area, west of the Parthenon, the temenos of Artemis Beaurenia had been more accurately defined by the traces of the orticoes that bounded it on the south and east. ithin the Parthenon itself excavations had been carried on with a view to ascertaining whether the basis of the temple was a solid mass of stone, or consisted of foundation walls with rubble filling the spaces between them. The results were not decisive, but they showed that the solid stone basis went at least some distance beneath the pavement. Fragments had been recovered from architectural groups, which once adorned the pediments of older temples on the Acropolis—temples probably destroyed by the Persians in 480 b.c., and found buried between the basis of the Parthenon and the limestone wall to the south of it. Some sculptures of the best time had been recovered. Among the inscriptions found on the Acropolis was a copy of a decree conferring certain privileges on the Samians in recognition of their fidelity to Athens amid her disasters at the end of the Peloponnesian War. Another inscription related to the purchase of materials for |. chryselaphantine statue of Athené Parthenos. Among the objects discovered in the later stages of the excavations of the Acropolis, the head of Iris in the frieze of the Parthenon, which joins on to the block with Zeus and Hera in the British Museum, and the halves of two reat pediments of Poros stone, one representing the struggle between Herakles and the Old Man of the Sea, and the other containing a monstrous figure of three blue-bearded men together, ending in three snaky tails which, coiled together, filled one corner of the pediment, are mentioned by Mr. Gardiner as of more particular interest. The outside figure on each side of the last design had also one wing. A marble head with torso, found at Ammorgos, resembles the “Melian Zeus” in the British Museum; but, bearing a snake in the right hand and resembling in other respects an Asclepias from Epidaurus, is assigned to that god. This suggests the possibility of the “Melian Zeus” also being an Ascleplas. The Older Temple at Ephesus.—From a number of fragments discovered under the tem|. of Artemis, at Ephesus—the one that was uilt in the time of Alexander the Great—Mr. A. S. Murray has been able to reconstruct a column and part of the cornice of the older temple that had been destroyed by fire. Between the lions' . heads, which served as spouts for the rain that collected on the roof, the cornice had been decorated with elaborate sculptured groups, one of which represented the combat of a Lapith and a Centaur. The lowermost drum of the column was sculptured with relief, while the rest of the shaft was fluted. On a torus molding underneath this sculptured drum were remains of an inscription recording a dedication by Croesus, King of Lydia, partly at whose expense, according to Herodotus, the temple was built. Fragments enough were left of the capital to per
mit the reconstruction of a work resembling in many respects the capital of the archaic temple at Samos. Other Explorations.—Excavations were begun by the French Archaeological School, in the autumn of 1888, in the Temple of the Muses at Helicon, which o: to have been an amphiprostyle of four Ionic columns, like the Temple of Victory on the Acropolis. It had been rebuilt in Roman times. hile the discoveries of objects of art at the time when the works were closed for the winter had not been very important, a large number of inscriptions were found —chiefly dedicatory, and among them an epigram in verse. Dr. Schliemann was in treaty at the beginnin of the year for the purchase of a hillock name o, Tshelebi, on the site of the ancient city of Cnossos, in Crete, which is believed to have been a public building of a remote epoch. All that could be seen of it at the time were some very thick walls of the local gypsum, which Were o disinterred by the Spanish viceconsul, M. Calocherinós, in 1877. me of the stones bear figures of ancient characters, probably mason's marks. The form of the building appears to be rectangular, about forty-four metres by fifty-five, and the walls and mode of construction exhibit points of resemblance with the prehistoric palace of Tiryns. The |. of the temple of Artemis Orthia, on the hill of Lycone, near Argos, has been excavated by the head-master of the gymnasium of Nauplia so as to reveal the plan of the structure and expose a mosaic floor in the inclosed portion of the sanctuary, one half of which was formed of large pieces and the other half of small ones. Fragments of the building were found within and without the structure, and fragments belonging to a great statue, which are regarded as being remains of one of the statues of Apollo, Artemis, and Leto–works of Polycleitus—which, according to Pausanias, adorned the temple. A well-preserved torso of a female statue in marble, of admirable workmanship, was found on the east side of the peribolos. Three Muses of the Roman period were found, showing that the sanctuary was visited and prosperous till the middle of the fourth century, A. D. In one the tombs explored by Dr. Tsoudras at Mycenae have been found various objects of ivory, and among them two cylinders of unknown use. One of these is covered with ornamental circles in relief composed of shell-fish. Other ivory ornaments are the upper part of the body of a woman, holding in her left hand a branch or flower, also in relief; the lower part of the body of a woman, seated; and a small plaque, preserved entire, on which is a Sphinx in relief. In the exploration of the Dromos at Vaphio, not far from the ancient Amyclac, an unrifled grave of a woman was found, in which were two cups of gold and one of silver, adorned with representations of men, cattle, and trees; three ji rings and ladies' needles of silvered bronze with heads of amethyst ; fine toothpicks and earpicks; a necklace of some ninety amethysts and another necklace of sardonyxes and agates, the stones of which were engraved with representations of men, oxen, and birds, and other articles. In digging among the foundations of ancient
buildings on the site of the ancient Co there were found a little cylindrical stela, objects of terra-cotta, and a number of statuettes, mostly female figures of various sizes—temple offerings —the belongings to which apparently indicated the site of a temple of Artemis, although no temple of that goddess is mentioned in descriptions of the island. A group of three grottoes connected by underground openings, at Aphrata, Crete, contained graves in which were earthen vases, bronze kettles, and other objects. In the ancient Eretria, in Euboea, have been found two bronze mirrors of beautiful workmanship, one bearing a relief of the abduction of Orithyia by Boreas, and the other of a Venus; and two archaic semi-white lecythi, one of which depicts Herakles carryin on his shoulders the vault of the heavens, whic he has for the time taken over for Atlas, while Atlas is bringing him the apple of the Hesperides. The other lecythus is ornamented with a picture of Circe offering Ulysses a fatal potion, which the hero declines. One of his companions has already been turned into a pig. Dr. Dorpfeld, Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute at Athens, some years ago pointed out a similarity between the remains found in Tiryns with those of Carthage and other African colonies of the Phoenicians. He added to this, at a recent meeting of his Institute, that he might §. further and point out analogies between the Megaron at Tiryns and Solomon's temple. In excavating at Delos, M.M. Doublet and Legrand, of the French school, have discovered two statues of women and the bronze foot of a Roman statue, with several inscriptions, among them being one of more than a hundred lines, containing the account of expenses relating to the table. Cyprus.-The agents of the British Archaeological School at Athens reported, at the annual meeting, July 10, concerning work at two sites in Cy ..". tes Chrysochou, the supposed site of the ancient Arsinoë, and Limniti. The results of the excavations at Poli had hardly been so striking as those obtained in the previous year at Paphos, but, taken as a whole, the finds in Cypriot inscriptions and in works of art of various styles and periods—more especially in pottery and terra-cotta—were of very considerable interest. In the tombs, of which about twenty were opened, were found a great quantity of Cypriot pottery; black glazed ware; terra-cotta figures, mostly of poor workmanship; objects of bronze and iron, such as strigils, knives, and mirrors: alabastra; vases of various styles; glass; a little jewelry; and two inscriptions in Cypriot characters. o hough the large majority of tombs opened seemed to be Ptolemaic, some appeared to be reconstructions of older sepulchres. #...i the objects found were “several black-figure cylices, dating from about 500 B. c.; fragments of a red-figured vase, colored white and gold in parts, and of two or three red-figured fifth-century, vases; and the upper half of a large inscribed marble stela, with the head and shoulders of a male figure of fair style. The find of Cypriot pottery was large, and the vases with figurines were numerous, the best of them '..."; one with elaborate patterns in dull so on the ruddy ground of the natural clay. The jewelry was more plentiful than good; but a
pair of silver-plated bracelets with gilt rams' and second centuries of the Christian era. The heads and an engraved hematite scarab deserve second hall contains the two-headed capital, mention. Two probably early limestone capitals graven stones, and epigraphic documents. A may also be noticed.” Additions were made to base of a column, supposed to be from the palace the materials for the study of Cypriot epig- of Darius, is represented in Figure 2. Figure 3 raphy.
Detailed accounts of the work carried on by the Cyprus Exploration Fund during the two seasons in which its operations have been prosecuted, have been published in the “ Journal of Hellenic Studies." The antiquities obtained have been distributed between the British Museum, the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, various public schools, and other institutions. The committee propose, in continuing the work, to begin during the next season 1889-'90, a thorough exploration of the ruins of Salamis. Among the considerations by which the choice of this site has been determined are that it was the largest and most important city of Cyprus; its foundation is ascribed by a constant legend to Teucer, who crossed from Asia Minor to Carpass; it was a royal city in the eighth century B. c., and from that period till the end of the fourth century ruled over a tract of country more extensive and fertile than that possessed by any other town; it was never Phænician, but obtained a Hellenic character under the influence of Evagoras, and from that period until late Byzantine times was the center of civilization in FIG. 3.- ENAMELED BRICK OF THE SAME PERIOD. the island ; its great shrine of Zeus was accounted of equal splendor with that of Aphrodite at represents one of the enameled bricks of which Paphos.
the explorers have brought back many fragments, Persian.-Special galleries have been allot- in the enameling of which turquoise blue generted in the Museum of the Louvre to the relics ally predominates. The fourth figure is a little
which M. and Madame Dieulafoy have recovered during their three tours of exploration in Susiana (see “Annual Cyclopedia ” for 1886). The collections are arranged in two groups. In a first Fig. 4.-FIRE-ALTAR IN ENAMELED WARE OF THE hall are exhibited the sculptures of the archers
PARTHIAN EPOCH. of the Royal Guard, the lions, the steps of the staircases, the rich enamels from the royal pal- fire altar in blue-enameled ware of the Parthian aces, tiles belonging to the horizontal facings of or Sassanian epoch. It was only about sixteen a grand stairway, and funeral urns of the first inches high, and is supposed to have been used in
domestic devotion. Besides the monumental re- from the harem on the Elamite tumulus to his official mains, the excavations have yielded large numbers apartments. I sought in vain for a third staircase of objects in ivory, bronze, alabaster, and earthen- which was demanded by the arrangement of the plan. ware. Among them are Chaldean, Elamite, and It had been completely destroyed. But traces of the Persian seals, in hard stone, that fill two cases in substructure of a portico symmetrical with the eastern the museum. They are usually very finely en- one were found on the west of the Apadana.
The three colonnades of the palace and their bigraved. Figure 5 reproduces in relief, the en- cephalous pillars might escape the notice of visitors graving of an archaic Chaldean cylinder of dio- unless they should perceive them through the large
bays at their ends. Otherwise one might spend all the time admiring the elegance and majesty of the porticos before penetrating into the royal inclosure. The throne-hall dominated the fortifications on the north by its whole height, and upon that grand pedestal offered itself to the pious admiration of the people of Elam. . . . The isolation of the colonnades, their exceptional prominence, and their brilliant ornamentation, indicate that the king
reserved to himself the exclusive use Fig. 5.-CHALDEAN CYLINDER IN DIORITE, REPRESENTING AN OFFERING. prerogatives attached to the sovereign
of that part of his palace. Of all the
power this was the most enviable, for rite, representing an offering, with an archaic one could not dream of a spectacle comparable with inscription. A two-headed capital of great dimen- that which unfolded itself before the eyes of the sovsions from the palace of Artaxerxes is complete, creign when from his throne he beheld Susiana laid some parts of it being almost as well preserved out at his feet. as if they were of yesterday. The bulls are re Syrian.— Three inscriptions of series, discovgarded as exceptionally fine specimens of orna- ered at El Heiyat in the Hauran, relate the dedimental sculpture. A complete model of the pal- cation by. Proklos, the son
of Aumos, of a Ganace of Darius is under execution for the Susia- ymede, a Hermes, and an Aphrodite, for each of nian galleries. The importance of this monument his two sons and his daughter respectively. The is set forth in the following description by M. name of the divinity is not given, but two parDieulafoy :
allel Phænician inscriptions found at a site southThe royal constructions were elevated upon a nearly east of Tyre records similar dedications to Morectangular platform about 17 or 18 metres high, ris- loch Astarte and to the Lord Baal of the heaving clear upon the Elamite tumulus. The northern ens. The inscriptions show that traces of the coast of the defenses was brought to a level with the ancient worship of Baal survived down to near floor of the palace, so that the sovereign could from the time of Christianity and suggest how the the Baktyaris mountains and the plain and city of ancient devotion of the children themselves as Susa. The southern face of the
platform of the Apa- sacrifices to the God yielded to the substitution dana formed one of the sides of the parade-ground of figures resembling them and bearing the between the citadel and what is called the Elamite names of divinities to whom they might be mound. The chief entrance to the parade-ground likened. Was situated on a line with the axis of the throneroom on the east and at the foot of the walls of the Babylonian Dynasties.-Mr. G. Bertin, seek
Assyrian and Babylonian. The Earlier tions, all anterior to Darius, we will pass over this ing to retrace the earlier Babylonian dynasties gate and direct ourselves toward the palace of Arta- from the cuneiform tablets in the British Muxerxes. In front rises a gigantic staircase, occupying seum, has found a series of Semitic and Akkathe center of the southern face of the Achemendian dian kings, of whom the names only until the platform and resting with its lateral extremities on time of Sargon are known, while their dates are two towers attached to the fortifications. Like the uncertain. The Babylonians placed the beginstaircase of the Takhté Jemchid, it is composed of ning of the historical period at the time of the the steps, which were gradual enough to be climbed first Kassite invasion under Hammurabi 1, 6200 by a horse, we reach the outer court, which is bounded
B. C. The second Kassite dynasty was succeeded on the east and the west by the ramparts. The by a Semitic period, B. c. 4000 to 2371, during middle of the aisles is occupied by hypostyle porti- which the cities the remains of which have been coes decorated by fanciful animals. In front of the explored were predominant. staircase, a wide bay opens itself, which is included Amraphel, King of Shinar.—The date of between two piers like the pylons of the portico Vi- King Hammurabi, the sixth ruler in the first çadayon at Persepolis. The Susian pylons were cov- Babylonian dynasty, who is identified by Dr. ered with white and rose mosaic and topped with the Schrader with the biblical Amraphel of Shinar, threshold of the second court, we perceived the throne- one of the four kings against
to be hall, open like the talars of the Persian palaces. fixed by a cylinder of Nabonidus, relating to the
The Apadana was isolated from all the surrounding rebuilding of the temple Bit-Samas. The inbuildings; on the south by the inner court ; on the scription relates that a strong wind blowing east and west by a ditch 22 metres broad, at the bot- away the mud disclosed the foundation stone of tom of which, on a firmly built roadway of gentle the temple, and made visible“ the writing of the plain to the palace. On the east, looking toward the name of Hammurabi, the old king, who seven throne-hall
, was a newer portico, commanding the hundred years before Burnaburyas, had erected entrance to a second staircase and the road laid out Bit-Samas and the tower over the old foundaon the ramparts for the use of the king when going tion for Samas."
The era of Burnaburyas is fixed by the syn- a small vertical shaft through the fifteen thickchronistic history and the tablets of Tell-el nesses of stone. From the central chamber the Amama in the first half or not later than the clew to the original entrance was disclosed. It middle of the fifteenth century, B.C. Adding was from a point outside the pyramid, and apseven hundred years to this, would give the date parently at some distance from it The passage, of Hammurabi, and also of Abraham, whose con- which is underground, strikes the south side of temporary he was, as, in round numbers, 2150. the pyramid at some distance from the southThe results of the recent studies of Dr. Jules west corner, and is intricate in its windings. Oppert have led him to fix the era of Flammu- According to Mr. Petrie's description : rabi some two centuries earlier than this, or from 2394 to 2339 B.C. Unless, therefore, there slopes down northward for some distance. Then a
It does not run straight into the chamber, but were another Burnaburyas of whom there is no branch passage leads eastward, the main line conhistorical indication the date of Khuen-Aten ţinuing on, as a blind. The branch passage (still gowill have also to be set back two hundred years. ing eastward) ends blank, but the issue from it is by Such an adjustment of the chronology would a large trap-door in the roof. This trap-door opens allow ample time for the four hundred years of into an upper passage leading north, which presently the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt and for turns off to the west. Here it again ends blank, and the four hundred and eighty years from the ex- sage running farther
west. This passage ends in a odus to the beginning of Solomon's temple. well leading to a short passage southward, which
Babylonian and Hebrew Analogies.-An erds in another well now full of water. This well, I analogy has been found by Mr. W. St. C. Bos- imagine, must lead to another short passage going cawen between the Cherubim with flaming eastward, whence a last well would ascend into the swords whom the Lord set to guard the gate of chamber. Eden and the scorpion-men, “ consuming in their The chamber had been entered through a terribleness and their aspect of death," that the forced opening made from the second roof-trap hero Ghizdubar found guarding the gates of into the sepulchral chamber, and whatever of the sun at the mountains of Masu. As in the portable value it contained had been carried narrative of the Garden of Eden, beyond these away. There were evidences also of fire, and it scorpion-men lay a beautiful garden which is de- is supposed that the mummies and their cases scribed as “equal to the trees of the gods in as- had been burned. Remains of Roman amphoræ pect, . . . bearing emeralds as its fruit, indicate that the violation of the tomb had been where branches bend not to uphold the crystal committed at least as early as the Roman domin. covering they bear as foliage," and "pleasant to ion. The chamber measured inside 22 feet by 8 the sight”-just as the Garden of Eden-con- feet. The floor and the four sides up to a height tained "every tree that is pleasant to the sight of 6 feet (inside measurement) had been hollowed and good for food.". The guardians of the gar- out of a single block of sandstone. The chamber den also exclude Ghizdubar from it and prevent contains one large and one smaller sarcophagus his reaching the tree of Life.
of polished sandstone both plain and uninscribed, Mr. Theodore G. Pinches, of the department the base of the larger one being bordered by a of Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum, projecting plinth decorated with paneled ornadeclares that he has recognized. in certain Assyr- ments. The second sarcophagus had been conian and Babylonian proper names elements rep- trived by the insertion of a head and a foot slab resenting the Hebrew Ya and Yaveh. These peo- between the large one and the wall, and had been ple were thus acquainted with the Hebrew Jeho- closed by a narrow lid. It appears to have been vah and recognized his divinity, as they did that an afterthought. There were also two boxes of of other foreign gods; and the occurrence of polished limestone in the chamber decorated such combinations as Assur-Aa, Nergal Aa, Sa- around the base with the same paneling as the mas-Aa-Assur is Ya, Nergal is Ya, Samas is Ya large sarcophagus. Many fragments of alabaster -etc., identified some of their deities of foreign vases and bowls were found, some inscribed, origin with Ya, as different manifestations of one others not, representing the funeral vessels of god. From other features in the structure of the buried Pharaoh. One of these bore the these names the author concludes that the Assyr- throne name of Amenemhat III, confirming the ians employed Ya from the earliest time as a other circumstances that contribute to identify word common to them and their kindred and the pyramid with the tomb of that king. The neighbors, and became acquainted with Yaveh smaller sarcophagus was found to belong to the at a later period.
Princess Ptahnefru, daughter of Amenemhat III. Egypt." Pyramids of Hawára and Illa- This was established by the inscriptions on two hûn.—Mr. W. F. Petrie began the exploration objects that were found in the passages. One of the pyramid of Hawára, which stands by the was an alabaster vessel, 18 inches in length, supposed site of the Labyrinth, in the season of carved in the shape of a trussed duck, on which 1887–88, and succeeded during that season in was engraved the hieroglyphic legend, " The royal tunneling a passage from the north face of the daughter Ptahnefru." The other was an alastructure as far as the stone casing of the central baster table of offerings, surrounded by fragments chamber, which proved to be so massive as to re- of nine alabaster duck-vases. It is a rectangusist all his efforts. Returning to the work in block, 264 inches long by 16 inches broad and 9 November, 1888, he made various trial excava- inches thick, bordered by a funerary invocation tions at points round the base of the pyramid, in of the ordinary type, praying for oblations of hopes of discovering the original entrance. It food and drink for the “ Ka” of the royal was not found. Then masons were employed to daughter Ptahnefru, while the inclosed surface quarry down through the roof of the central is carved in low relief with 110 miniature reprechamber, and three weeks were spent in cutting sentations of vases, bowls, cups, plates, loaves,