Gambar halaman
PDF
ePub

successful employment. The West Indian product is in reality a phosphate i. which has accumulated and hardened in fissures and cracks and such parts of phosphatic matter as have penetrated in solution through the porous coral rock. Bordeaux phosphate, from the Ardennes region in the south of France, is of similar origin, taken from fissures traversing the Jurassic limestone plateaus that once probably formed an archipelago of o islands in a Tertiary sea. Nassau, or German phosphate, from the valley of the Lahn, is a similar product. The following table, from analysis in Liverpool, shows the average percentage of tribasic phosphate in the yield from the various localities of production :

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

or lower than the average given above. ARCHEOLOGY. (America.) The MoundBuilders.--The inquiry into the origin of the mound-builders has been pursued by Dr. Cyrus Thomas in a paper on “The Problem of the Ohio Mounds.” The author finds analogies between a number of these mounds and the relics found in them and certain works in Tennessee and North Carolina which it is agreed were executed by the Cherokees, whence he concludes that they were most probably made by the ancestors of that tribe. Ancient works related to those in Ohio are found in the Kanawha valley and other parts of West Virginia by the aid of which Dr. Thomas believes that he can trace the course of the mound-builders in their migration up the Kanawha valley and to the southward in the same line that the Cherokees appear to have followed in reaching their historical locality. He further suggests, on grounds which are given in his paper, that the Cherokees entered the immediate valley of the Mississippi from the northwest, striking it in the region of Iowa. Proof is also collated that the mound-building era had not closed previous to the discovery of the continent by Europeans. On the otherhand, Prof. F. W. Putnam supposes that the mound-builders were driven northward, and their remnants are found in the Eskimos: while Dr. Patton believes that two different races immigrated from Asia, the mound-builders coming first, and the red men afterward. Evidences of ancient mining operations of considerable extent have been found in the copper district of Lake Superior, in the mica fields of North Carolina and the serpentine of the Alleghany mountains; and in lead veins, particularly near Lexington, Ky. From the evidence afforded by the growth of trees over these works, Prof. J. S. Newberry has determined that the copper workings on Lake Superior were abandoned not less than four hundred, and the lead vol. xxix.-2 A

mine at Lexington not less than five hundred years ago, and that the mica and serpentine quarries are of corresponding antiquity. Traces of ancient workings of oil fields are met on Oil creek, Pa., in Mecca, Ohio, and at Enniskillen, Canada. The remains in the valley of Oil creek are described by Prof. Newberry as being shallow depressions in the ground resembling the |. caused by the overturning of forest trees, ut symmetrical in shape. A well sunk in one of these pits exactly followed the course of an old well which had been cribbed with timber, and the ladder, consisting of a tree trunk with the stumps of the limbs projecting—like those often found in the old copper mines of Lake Superior—was still standing. The oil had apparently been collected by the method formerly used in the Caspian region of skimming from the surface of water. Prof. Newberry, while admitting that the authors of these works “were some members of the great American family of nations,” can not agree with those who would reard them as the same as our modern nomadic ndian. They were, he thinks, not one, but many tribes, and but little advanced on the road to civilization; but differed from the present Indians in being far more sedentary, agricultural, and industrious. He can believe that the Mandans, Natches, and a few other tribes may be the descendants of the mound-builders, but not the Iroquois and Algonquins. Dr. S. D. Peet, of the “American Antiquarian,” suggests that the inquiry should take the direction of learning whether there was not a difference in the periods of occupation and a diversity of migrations among the class of people whom we call Indians; whether the diversity which is acknowledged to exist in the works of the mound-builders is of foreign or autochthonous origin; and whether the succession of races or tribes on the same territory was rapid and caused by the crowding of one tribe upon another, or occurred after long periods of occupation. In his personal explorations in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Ohio, he has found abundant evidences of suc. cessive populations, plainly representing three or four different periods in . works. He assumes that more time than is usually granted should be given to the prevalence of the mound-builders. “We have all the period between the palaeolithic age and the close of the neolithic age to fill up in some way, and know of no other way than to ascribe it all to the mound-builders.” The Casa Grande.—The Secretary of the Interior has directed that steps be taken at once, under the act of Congress of March 9, 1889, to repair and protect the ruins of the Casa Grande, in Pinal County, Arizona. According to the description given by the o agent of the department, the main building is 66 feet long and 43 feet wide, the first story is 13 feet high, the second story 9, and the third and fourth stories each 8 feet. The walls are between 4 and 5 feet thick, and are constructed of an almost indestructible concrete made of fine gravel, sand, and cement, laid in great blocks. The walls, both inside and out, were plastered with cement, which still clings to them, that on the inside being very smooth and glossy. All of the rooms, four of which are intact, are of a uniform buff color. The largest of the rooms is 34 feet by 9 feet, and the building has an extreme height of nearly 40 feet. The lower story is filled with crumbling débris and the drifting sand of the plain to the height of 13 or 14 feet. The special agent's report mentions many great mounds, now hardly distinguishable from the desert, sands, situated for miles around the Casa Grande, that mark what were once the abodes of men. Ruins at Cochita.-The ruins of an extensive city, hitherto unknown, have been discovered by Mr. Amanda Chavez, at Cochita, on the American side of the Rio Grande. The site had the appearance of a huge swell in the prairie, destitute of vegetation. The existence of the ruins was revealed through the washing away by a heavy rain-storm of a part of the sand covering them. A large building with stone walls and a tower at each corner was exposed, having apparently a reservoir in the center, with which were connected aqueducts leading in several directions. Among the relics obtained from the site by the discoverer were a skeleton having brown hair, with three strands of beads—of turquoise, jet, and bone—around its neck, and ear-rings of jet and turquoise; arrow heads; and broken pottery. The skeleton had been inclosed in a chamber of masonry. Ancient Image at Nampa, Idaho. — A unique relic was found in September, 1889, in boring an artesian well at Nampa, twenty miles from Boise City, Idaho, at about three hundred feet below the surface of the ground. As described by Prof. George Frederick Wright in the “Independent,” it is a carved image of fine and rather soft pumice stone, about an inch and three quarters in length, and displaying considerable artistic skill. The position in which it was found and the geological structure of the ground are described by Prof. Wright as follows: “After penetrating the surface soil sixty feet, fifteen or twenty feet of lava rock was encountered. Below this for upward of two hundred feet there was nothing but alternate beds of quicksand and clay; then coarse sand was struck in which the image came up, then below was vegetable soil, and then sand rock. Thus it was evident that the image lay buried to a depth of about three hundred feet beneath the deposits which had accumulated in a lake formed by some ancient obstruction of the Snake river valley, and that over this accumulation there had been an overflow of lava sufficient to cover the whole and seal it up.” The genuineness of the “find " is vouched for by all the persons who were present at the discovery—three educated and competent men of established character and in responsible positions—besides the driller and helper; besides which it was covered with a film of oxide of iron, such as would form only after long exposure under peculiar conditions, and small particles of sand have been cemented into the crevice between the arm and the body. The image has been seen by Profs. H. W. Haynes and F. W. Putnam, of the Archaeological Museum at Cambridge, as well as by Prof. Wright, and the evidence and the correspondence respecting it have been fully canvassed by them and reviewed in the Boston Society of Natural History. It will be recollected that Prof. Whitney many years ago reported the discovery of a skull called “the Calaveras skull” and implements of human work

[graphic]
[graphic]

o in a somewhat similar situation beneath the lava in California; and that European archaeologists were slow to accept the discovery as genuine. The present discovery comes to

Fig. 1.-IMAGE found IN InAHo.

confirm it. “The high degree of art displayed by the image,” Prof. §: ht remarks, in #. account, “is noteworthy. It is not the work of a boy or of a novice. The proportions are perfect, and there is a pose of the body that differentiates it from anything that has been found among the relics of the mound-builders. Altogether, it supports the hypothesis of Prof. Putnam set forth some years ago, that civilization advanced on the Pacific coast long in advance of that which has anywhere else been discovered.” The precise geological age of the relic has not been determined ; but Mr. Emmons of the United States Geological Survey, who is more familiar than any other geologist with the region, has expressed the opinion (subject, however, to correction), that the strata in which it lay are “probably of far greater antiquity than any deposits in which human implements have hitherto been discovered.” International Congress of Americanists. —The seventh International Congress of Americanists met in Berlin, Oct. 2, 1888. Dr. Reiss, of Berlin, was chosen president, and Prof. E. S. Morse represented the United States in the list of vice-presidents. The first of the regular papers was on the origin of the name America— concerning which a theory of native derivation has lately been broached by M. Jules Marcou and others—by Signor Guido Cora, of Italy. The author was not ready to pronounce definitely on the subject, for various recent investigations had left it uncertain whether the name was native or imported. Señor Fabić, of Spain, supported the old theory of derivation from Amerigo Vespucci. The origin and use of the American specimens of the objects called agripearls was discussed. They were o regarded as peculiar to the Old World, but had recently been found in America. It seemed to be agreed that they had been brought from Europe. Some ancient Mexican decorations upon human bones were described by M. Andrée as showing a high development of technic and taste. Only eighteen pieces of the kind are known, and these have been placed in European collections. Some of them are masks worked out of real skulls or of wood, while others are figures of animals, etc. The mosaic is composed of small pieces of turquoise, malachite, or mussel shell, pressed into a so of pitch, forming some kind of design or representing in colored shadings the forms of the human face. A skull-mask of the kind in the Berlin Museum comprises the head of a puma and a figure composed of the fore parts of the animals. Prof. E. S. Morse read a paper by Mr. F. H. Cushing concerning the work of the Hemenway Archaeological Expedition in Arizona, where traces of several cities and irrigation works and often evidence of the former existence of populous settlements have been found. Senhor Netto, of Brazil, described a series of mounds giving an elliptical ground plan with a head-shaped annex in which he had found relics of a people who might be distinguished from the present Indians chiefly by the prominence of female influence among them. Signor Arzruni mentioned in a discussion on the present condition of knowledge respecting nephrite and iadeite that the famous Humboldt axe and another South American hatchet seem to be identical in substance with the European mineral, and a hatchet from Venezuela with one from Hissarlik. The anthropological classification of the native Americans was discussed by Prof. Virchow and Herr Fritsch. Prof. Virchow admitted that it would not do to speak of a primitive race; yet the ancient skulls are predominantly of a brachycephalic type. These forms seem to have persisted in the south to the present time, but in the north there has been a noticeable transition to long and medium forms. Herr Fritsch, making the types of hair a basis of distinction, would assign the Central Americans and, generally, the ancient civilized peoples of South America to a group having smooth or waving, moderately long brown hair, like that of the Polynesians; and the northwestern tribes, with those of single districts in the South, to a group with coarse, stiff hair, inclining to deep black, like that of the Mongols. Herr Nehring spoke of the domesticated animals of the ancient Peruvians. He remarked that the subject was of scientific importance because the other peoples of ancient America were poor in property of this kind as compared with these people and the Bolivians and some among the Central Americans, and because the influence of domestication on the formation of races could be better followed on these animals than on those of the old world. The animals were the dog, llama, alpaca, and Guinea-pig. Among eighteen mummified dogs from Peruvian graves examined by the speaker, types were found of a shepherd's dog, a dachshund, and a bull-dog or pug. Herr Wittmack described the useful plants of Peru, from traces found in the graves. The bread-plant was maize, which is represented on the sculptures and architectural ornaments of the people; a chenopodium and two kinds of pulse were used; and small tubers, like potatoes, but which could not be determined, and fruits of annotto had been observed in the graves. The researches of Herr Hartmann had indicated to him that the people of Mexico in the time of Montezuma po

[graphic]

the same physical race characteristics as are exhibited by the present Dakotas, Pawnees, Comanches,etc. The Araucanians, Patagonians, and Fuegians miš. also be regarded as related to the Aztecs. The Chibchas of Colombia, instead of being an immemorially isolated people, as according to the current it. appeared to the

speaker to have had near relatives in the people of Costa Rica and Northern Colombia; o: le of Chibcha and Mexican origin met in Costa ica. A paper was read by Herr Uhle on the primitive history and wanderings of the Chibchas. Other papers were read by Messrs. Borsari, on the constructions of the ancient Peruvians; Müller, on the Sambakis of Brazil, who had a prehistoric civilization; Von den Steinen, on his second journey to the Xingu and the confirmation of his previous conclusions respecting the relationship of the Tupi and the Caribs and on the calendar stone and various Mexican and Central American relics. M. Hamy exposed some falsifications of American antiquities which have become numerous and systematic. (For further revelations in American archaeology, see special article CAVE DRAwiNgs.) Rome. Summary of Recent Results.Signor R. Lanciani, in his comprehensive account of the excavations conduc at Rome under his official direction and their results (“Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries"), describes among the immense number of relics of the past which have been uncovered, an archaeological stratum hitherto unknown, consistin of antiquities of the prehistoric and traditiona age. It is, however, very incomplete, because Rome has always been rebuilding itself out of the ruins of preceding periods; yet, on the whole, he says, “it is wonderful that so much should still {. left of the works raised by the ancients after a o of destruction and transformation that been going on for fourteen centuries.” Discoveries lately made on the Alban hills are cited by Prof. Lanciani as supporting the theory that Roo. was founded by peasants from Alba, who were driven away by fear of volcanic action there, and militating against the view of an Etruscan origin. The name of Rome is derived by the author, from Rumon, a river, and was intended to designate its situation as a river town, in contrast to the hill towns. The name of Romulus is believed, in the light of recent philological discoveries, to be a genuine one, and to belong to the founder of the city. The only evidence as to the time when Rome was built corresponds with that afforded by recent discoveries, which would place Alba in the bronze Among the principal works of art discovered since 1870 are enumerated “two bronze athletes found on the slope of the $.". the bronze Bacchus of the Tiber, the Juno of the Palatine, the bas-reliefs of the Forum, and the four hundred and seventy-nine busts brought together by the o: Other discoveries of importance, most of which have been mentioned in the previous volume of the “Annual Cyclopedia,” are the house of the vestal virgins, with fifteen marble estals, eleven life-size statues, fragments of statues, eulogistic and historical inscriptions, and many busts and portrait heads, coins, and fragments; and the barracks of the vigiles, or police, the luxuriant ornamentation of which shows that these officers were a higher class of functionaries than common watchmen. An Etruscan tomb, opened at Orvieto, in June, contained many bronze ornaments, arms of iron, Corinthian vases, and others of local manufacture. A series of Etruscan paintings on slabs of terra-cotta, found at Coere, in 1874, and lately uired by the British Museum, are assigned o: A. S. Murray to a date of about 500 B. c. Mr. Murray traces in them a combined influence of Corinth, of the Greeks who were settled in the Delta of Egypt and the Greeks in Asia Minor, and ultimately an influence reaching westward from Assyria. The last is noticed especially in certain conventional matters, such as the drawing of profiles of the eye and of the knee-bones; not a little of the costume, on the other hand, indicates an Etruscan origin. Seven Vulcian tombs, .."; discovered at CornetoTarquinia, contained Etruscan and Campanian vases, with others imported from Attica. Many relics of Roman operations have been recovered from the Rio Tinto mines. The most important of them is the tread-mill for raising water, the wood work of which has been well reserved by the action of the copper in solution. nstead of leaning on bars, as in the modern tread-mill, the slaves appear to have held on to ropes like bell-ropes, parts of which remain. The wheel, 44 metres in diameter, was so constructed as to utilize the weight of the men very skilfully. The pickaxes are modern in shape, and another tool is like the hoe-like spade of the Spaniards. Other objects found include the fetters, collars, and anklets of the slaves, specimens of pottery and glass, “herring-bone work,” bronze urns, stamped pigs and a tube of lead, and four capitals of columns representing the Roman town. Stone hammer-heads, with depressions in the center for handles, and stone pestles and mortars attest still earlier workings than those of the Romans. Greece. Completion of Excavations on the Acropolis at Athens.—The first place in the report of the Hellenic Society, which was made by Prof. Jebb at its annual meeting, June 24, was given to the researches which had been É. in Greece itself, partly by the Greek overnment, partly by the Greek Archaeological Society and the foreign schools. The excavations on the Acropolis of Athens, which began from the Propylaea and were continued eastward to the north of the Parthenon, had been brought back along the south side of that structure so as again to reach the Propylaea. The entire area of the Acropolis had thus been , thoroughly explored down to the bed of rock. The gains of the last twelve months from this work fell under the heads of topography and architecture, sculpture and inscriptions. Further light had been thrown on the prehistoric fortifications of the Acropolis. New fragments of the primitive Acropolis wall, which encircled the summit of the primitive citadel, had been laid bare, and in one place, at the southeast corner of the Propylaea, it was seen to have been nearly twenty feet thick. Between the Parthenon and the south edge of the Acropolis, traces had been found of a rude, oblong building, constructed partly with the drums of columns rejected, apparently, by the builders of that earlier temple, never completed, which was superseded by the Parthenon. This oblong building seemed to have been covered over with earth when the Parthenon was finished, and might have been a workshop used by the builders. West of the Parthenon, a large chamber, about 130 feet by 50 feet, with a portico facing

northward, had been traced by its foundations. It may have been the xaxx00%km used as a repository for arms and stores. If so, that building did not belong, as had been supposed, to the temenos of Athena Ergané. In the same part of the Acropolis area, west of the Parthenon, the temenos of Artemis Beaurenia had been more accurately defined by the traces of the orticoes that bounded it on the south and east. ithin the Parthenon itself excavations had been carried on with a view to ascertaining whether the basis of the temple was a solid mass of stone, or consisted of foundation walls with rubble filling the spaces between them. The results were not decisive, but they showed that the solid stone basis went at least some distance beneath the pavement. Fragments had been recovered from architectural groups, which once adorned the pediments of older temples on the Acropolis—temples probably destroyed by the Persians in 480 b.c., and found buried between the basis of the Parthenon and the limestone wall to the south of it. Some sculptures of the best time had been recovered. Among the inscriptions found on the Acropolis was a copy of a decree conferring certain privileges on the Samians in recognition of their fidelity to Athens amid her disasters at the end of the Peloponnesian War. Another inscription related to the purchase of materials for |. chryselaphantine statue of Athené Parthenos. Among the objects discovered in the later stages of the excavations of the Acropolis, the head of Iris in the frieze of the Parthenon, which joins on to the block with Zeus and Hera in the British Museum, and the halves of two reat pediments of Poros stone, one representing the struggle between Herakles and the Old Man of the Sea, and the other containing a monstrous figure of three blue-bearded men together, ending in three snaky tails which, coiled together, filled one corner of the pediment, are mentioned by Mr. Gardiner as of more particular interest. The outside figure on each side of the last design had also one wing. A marble head with torso, found at Ammorgos, resembles the “Melian Zeus” in the British Museum; but, bearing a snake in the right hand and resembling in other respects an Asclepias from Epidaurus, is assigned to that god. This suggests the possibility of the “Melian Zeus” also being an Ascleplas. The Older Temple at Ephesus.—From a number of fragments discovered under the tem|. of Artemis, at Ephesus—the one that was uilt in the time of Alexander the Great—Mr. A. S. Murray has been able to reconstruct a column and part of the cornice of the older temple that had been destroyed by fire. Between the lions' . heads, which served as spouts for the rain that collected on the roof, the cornice had been decorated with elaborate sculptured groups, one of which represented the combat of a Lapith and a Centaur. The lowermost drum of the column was sculptured with relief, while the rest of the shaft was fluted. On a torus molding underneath this sculptured drum were remains of an inscription recording a dedication by Croesus, King of Lydia, partly at whose expense, according to Herodotus, the temple was built. Fragments enough were left of the capital to per

mit the reconstruction of a work resembling in many respects the capital of the archaic temple at Samos. Other Explorations.—Excavations were begun by the French Archaeological School, in the autumn of 1888, in the Temple of the Muses at Helicon, which o: to have been an amphiprostyle of four Ionic columns, like the Temple of Victory on the Acropolis. It had been rebuilt in Roman times. hile the discoveries of objects of art at the time when the works were closed for the winter had not been very important, a large number of inscriptions were found —chiefly dedicatory, and among them an epigram in verse. Dr. Schliemann was in treaty at the beginnin of the year for the purchase of a hillock name o, Tshelebi, on the site of the ancient city of Cnossos, in Crete, which is believed to have been a public building of a remote epoch. All that could be seen of it at the time were some very thick walls of the local gypsum, which Were o disinterred by the Spanish viceconsul, M. Calocherinós, in 1877. me of the stones bear figures of ancient characters, probably mason's marks. The form of the building appears to be rectangular, about forty-four metres by fifty-five, and the walls and mode of construction exhibit points of resemblance with the prehistoric palace of Tiryns. The |. of the temple of Artemis Orthia, on the hill of Lycone, near Argos, has been excavated by the head-master of the gymnasium of Nauplia so as to reveal the plan of the structure and expose a mosaic floor in the inclosed portion of the sanctuary, one half of which was formed of large pieces and the other half of small ones. Fragments of the building were found within and without the structure, and fragments belonging to a great statue, which are regarded as being remains of one of the statues of Apollo, Artemis, and Leto–works of Polycleitus—which, according to Pausanias, adorned the temple. A well-preserved torso of a female statue in marble, of admirable workmanship, was found on the east side of the peribolos. Three Muses of the Roman period were found, showing that the sanctuary was visited and prosperous till the middle of the fourth century, A. D. In one the tombs explored by Dr. Tsoudras at Mycenae have been found various objects of ivory, and among them two cylinders of unknown use. One of these is covered with ornamental circles in relief composed of shell-fish. Other ivory ornaments are the upper part of the body of a woman, holding in her left hand a branch or flower, also in relief; the lower part of the body of a woman, seated; and a small plaque, preserved entire, on which is a Sphinx in relief. In the exploration of the Dromos at Vaphio, not far from the ancient Amyclac, an unrifled grave of a woman was found, in which were two cups of gold and one of silver, adorned with representations of men, cattle, and trees; three ji rings and ladies' needles of silvered bronze with heads of amethyst ; fine toothpicks and earpicks; a necklace of some ninety amethysts and another necklace of sardonyxes and agates, the stones of which were engraved with representations of men, oxen, and birds, and other articles. In digging among the foundations of ancient

buildings on the site of the ancient Co there were found a little cylindrical stela, objects of terra-cotta, and a number of statuettes, mostly female figures of various sizes—temple offerings —the belongings to which apparently indicated the site of a temple of Artemis, although no temple of that goddess is mentioned in descriptions of the island. A group of three grottoes connected by underground openings, at Aphrata, Crete, contained graves in which were earthen vases, bronze kettles, and other objects. In the ancient Eretria, in Euboea, have been found two bronze mirrors of beautiful workmanship, one bearing a relief of the abduction of Orithyia by Boreas, and the other of a Venus; and two archaic semi-white lecythi, one of which depicts Herakles carryin on his shoulders the vault of the heavens, whic he has for the time taken over for Atlas, while Atlas is bringing him the apple of the Hesperides. The other lecythus is ornamented with a picture of Circe offering Ulysses a fatal potion, which the hero declines. One of his companions has already been turned into a pig. Dr. Dorpfeld, Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute at Athens, some years ago pointed out a similarity between the remains found in Tiryns with those of Carthage and other African colonies of the Phoenicians. He added to this, at a recent meeting of his Institute, that he might §. further and point out analogies between the Megaron at Tiryns and Solomon's temple. In excavating at Delos, M.M. Doublet and Legrand, of the French school, have discovered two statues of women and the bronze foot of a Roman statue, with several inscriptions, among them being one of more than a hundred lines, containing the account of expenses relating to the table. Cyprus.-The agents of the British Archaeological School at Athens reported, at the annual meeting, July 10, concerning work at two sites in Cy ..". tes Chrysochou, the supposed site of the ancient Arsinoë, and Limniti. The results of the excavations at Poli had hardly been so striking as those obtained in the previous year at Paphos, but, taken as a whole, the finds in Cypriot inscriptions and in works of art of various styles and periods—more especially in pottery and terra-cotta—were of very considerable interest. In the tombs, of which about twenty were opened, were found a great quantity of Cypriot pottery; black glazed ware; terra-cotta figures, mostly of poor workmanship; objects of bronze and iron, such as strigils, knives, and mirrors: alabastra; vases of various styles; glass; a little jewelry; and two inscriptions in Cypriot characters. o hough the large majority of tombs opened seemed to be Ptolemaic, some appeared to be reconstructions of older sepulchres. #...i the objects found were “several black-figure cylices, dating from about 500 B. c.; fragments of a red-figured vase, colored white and gold in parts, and of two or three red-figured fifth-century, vases; and the upper half of a large inscribed marble stela, with the head and shoulders of a male figure of fair style. The find of Cypriot pottery was large, and the vases with figurines were numerous, the best of them '..."; one with elaborate patterns in dull so on the ruddy ground of the natural clay. The jewelry was more plentiful than good; but a

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »