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aries, and is an admirer of European productions, especially mechanical inventions. In September the new King was crowned at Adua, the sacred city of Abyssinia, by Bishop Matheos. Italian Annexations.—Although the auspicious moment had arrived for carrying out the carefully arranged plans of the military authorities to occupy the cool and healthful plains near Massowah, which would afford a summeringplace where the troops could escape the fatal climatic conditions of the coast, and also a gateway for spreading Italian influence into Abyssinia, yet the Italian Cabinet was at first unwilling to assent to Crispi’s proposal to occupy the coveted o in the highlands, because the Premier had not long before promised that no more money should be sunk in African undertakings. The Minister of War reckoned the cost of occupying Keren and Asmara with two regiments at 6,000,000 lire, while for an extended occupation of Bogos 20,000,000 lire would be required. The Italians have had to support an expense of 20,000,000 lire per annum and the dislocation of 7,000 or 8,000 of the best of their troops to retain possession of Massowah and a triangle of coast territory which is of no practical benefit, since the blockade has stopped all trade with Abyssinia. Therefore, they were driven to make a choice between going forward or retiring from Africa. Moreover, consideration of the health of the troops was a pressing o The forces in and near Massowah in the spring of 1889 consisted of 7,800 Italian soldiers and 4,160 Bashi-Bazouks, or native irregulars, without counting the bands of Abyssinians in Italian pay. The Italians made an unsuccessful attempt in 1888 to seize Keren, which is on the edge of the salubrious table-land. Subsequently they purchased the allegiance of Barambaras k. an Abyssinian chief, who collected 2,000 men, and by means of 600 breach-loading rifles tyrannized over the entire plateau of Bogos. When ordered to restrain his men from lundering, Kafel invited Ras Aloula to join him in expelling the Italians. The latter knew of the treacherous scheme, and while Aloula was on the march with 8,000 men, laid their plans to frustrate it before he arrived. Gen. Baldissera, governor of Massowah, sent a detachment of scouts and Bashi-Bazouks with a mountain battery under Major Dimajo, who, with the cooperation of Debeb's army of 1,500 men, surrounded and surprised the faithless ally, arrested him and five of his principal chiefs, disarmed his freebooting band, and on June 2, 1889, took formal possession of Keren, hoisting the Italian flag over the fort. Senahit, another important place on the Abyssinian frontier, was occupied subsequently. On Aug. 4 Gen. Baldissera took possession of Asmara, which he fortified. Ras Aloula attempted to opose the Italian advance, but was put to flight y Major Dimajo at the head of a detachment of chasseurs and irregulars. Debeb had held the district since early spring, having again entered the Italian service after deserting to the enemy with arms and baggage the year before, giving his infant brother and uncle into their hands as hostages, and proving his fidelity by defeating the Abyssinian governor of Asmara. Debeb's brother, Ligg Abraham, was taken to Italy to
be educated in the International College at Turin. Asmara is the place that Ras Aloula chose for his residence when he advanced from Zazega to oppose the Italian occupation of Keren. It was formerly a wretched village, but is well situated in an undulating plateau, 2,327 metres above the sea, 90 kilometres from Massowah, on the road that passes through Mukulu, Dogali, Sahati, Ailet, Sabarguma, Baresa, and Ginda, and is near the sources of the Mareb and other streams. In conjunction with Keren it commands the northern border of Tigreh, and with Zazegra controls all the routes between northern Abyssinia and the sea. The neighboring valley of Anseba, through which passes the road to Keren from Abyssinia, is adapted to agricultural colonization, and the table-land is nowhere unfruitful. The fort at Asmara was rendered impregnable without the aid of artillery, barracks and magazines were erected, and other places in the Hamassen district were fortified during the summer. The Shoan Mission.—Anticipating the ultimate accession of the ambitious Menelek to the supreme power, the Italians had cultivated friendly relations with him and favored his pretensions. Count Antonelli, the Italian envoy to Shoa, accompanied Menelek as far as Egyn, leaving him when he had obtained his signature to a treaty embodying the more important demands that the Negus Johannis had rejected when presented, in 1887, by the English embassy in a letter from Queen Victoria, and later in the peace negotiations with Gen. San Marzano when the Abyssinians confronted the Italian encampments in March, 1888. The treaty was conveyed to Italy by an embassy of twenty Shoan chiefs, who arrived at Rome in August. King Menelek agreed to recognize the sovereign rights of Italy over the "... actually occupied by Italian troops, and for that reason the military authorities made haste to raise the Italian flag over Keren and Asmara. The Italians agreed to open the port of Massowah to the unrestricted commerce of the Abyssinians, in return for special facilities in comparison with other nations. Menelek accepted an Italian protectorate over the whole of Ethiopia. The treaty was made by Count Antonelli on May 5, and was ratified by King Umberto on Sept. 25. On Oct. 3 a supplementary convention was signed at Naples by Signor Crispi and Makonen, chief of the Shoan Mission, providing for the termination of the blockade, and for the establishment of commercial relations between Italy and Abyssinia. It also makes provision for the appointment of an Italian consul-general in King Menelek's dominions and for mutual defense against a common enemy. On Oct. 13 the Italian Government declared a protectorate over all Abyssinia. The Sagallo Incident.—Nicholas Atchinoff, calling himself Hetman of Free Cossacks, is a Russian adventurer who has visited Abyssinia and aided the Negus Johannis in his warfare against the Italians, and who, according to his own story, fought with the Mahdi against Gordon at Khartoum, and with Osman Digma against the English at Suakin. By taking some Abyssinian priests to Russia, he interested the Slavonic committees in a scheme for assimilating Abyssinian Christianity to the doctrines and worship of the Orthodox Church and privately aiding the Negus in his conflict with the Italians, in the expectation of o; for Russia the ascendancy in Abyssinia and the commercial and political foothold in Africa that Italy with heavy sacrifices had failed to attain. With pecuniary contributions of the Panslavists, Atchinoff fitted out an expedition, consisting of 146 persons, the publicly announced purpose of which was to make ropaganda for the Greek religion in Abyssinia |. establishing schools and churches. The party consisted of Capt. Atchinoff, Archimandrite Paissy, 9 popes, 20 military officers, a band of 40 South Cossacks—artisans and cultivators, who were likewise acquainted with military duties— and the wives and children of many of the emigrants. The disguised purpose of the expedition, that of assisting the Abyssinian belligerents with arms and military instructors, was as widely bruited as its ostensible religious mission. The only ports giving access to Abyssinia are Massowah and Obock. Atchinoff and his backers reckoned on opening an avenue into Abyssinia from French territory, expecting public opinion in France to commend a breach of the neutrality laws in favor of a Russian enterprise aimed against the ally of Germany. The expedition passed through the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in an Austrian packet to Jeddah, followed by an Italian aviso, the “Barberigo.” Slipping past the Italian vessel and a French cruiser that was watching, under cover of the night, the Austrian ship took the party down the blockaded coast and landed it, with its chests of arms, on the shore of the Bay of Tadjurah, which is under the protectorate of France. The doings of Atchinoff have repeatedly been the subject of diplomatic correspondence between the French and Russian governments since 1886. In the spring of 1888 the Cossack adventurer had negotiated with the Sultans of Tadjurah for a grant of land on which he had left seven companions, forming what he called a Russian colony of the name of Moskva. As he failed to return before the promised term of three months with more settlers, arms, and provisions, the deserted colonists escaped to European stations, and were assisted on their way back to Russia. Russian diplomatic agents in Paris and Cairo, in reply to French interrogatories, gave official contradictions to Atchinoff's assertions at Port Said and Jeddah that his enterprise was under the patronage of the Czar. When the expedition landed at Tadjurah, on Jan. 18, the governor of Obock sent an official to inquire his intentions of Atchinoff, who said he had come to found a colony, and would remove in a few days to Sagallo, a district outside French jurisdiction over which he had acquired sovereign rights by treaty with the native chiefs. He was told that by virtue of prior treaties and formal acts of occupation, the territory was subject to France, but that he was at liberty to establish a Russian settlement if he would acknowledge French sovereignty and conform with the regulations by delivering up superfluous arms, as the importation of firearms as an article of commerce was interdicted on protected territory. Atchinoff departed with his companions for Sagallo, and there took up his quarters in an old fort, on which he hoisted the Russian commer
cial flag. He said that he expected other cargoes of arms from Odessa. In answer to further demands of the French governor he refused to recognize any authority except that of the Emror of Russia. M. Goblet apprised the Russian oreign Office of this state of affairs, and received the assurance that, as soon as the imperfect communications would permit, a Russian war-vessel . would be sent to bring Atchinoff to reason. Sagallo is the starting-place of a caravan route into the interior: but Atchinoff was not able to open communications with Abyssinia and send on the missionaries and the munitions, for the reason that passage through Aoussah was denied at the behest of the Italian authorities, the Sultan detaining as hostages two Tadjurah chiefs who were sent to treat with him in behalf of Atchinoff. According to French accounts, Atchinoff not only incited hostile and rebellious feelings against the protecting power among the natives, but through his brutal tyranny came into conflict with them and with his own followers, producing a situation that compelled the naval authorities to take measures to avert disturbances without waiting for the promised interference of the Russian Government. On Feb. 17 Admiral Olry sent the Cossack leader an ultimatum to the effect that if he did not lower the Russian ensign and give | his mitrailleuse and boxes of rifles, except such as were necessary for personal protection, the fort would be bombarded in twentyfour hours, whereas if he complied with French laws the religious mission would be granted facilities to penetrate into Abyssinia, and the others might colonize Sagallo or go forward unmolested. On the 18th the French commander, wishing to avoid a hand-to-hand combat with the Russians, having an insufficient landingforce, fired shells into the fort, killing five persons and wounding as many more. Some one inside then displayed a white flag, and the Russian colors were hauled down. The Frenchmen landed and took the whole Russian party. The ecclesiastics, as well as the others, preferred being sent back to Russia instead of going to Abyssinia. They were forwarded to Suez, and there given into the custody of the Russian authorities, and conveyed on a man-of-war to Odessa. Unfortunately, among those who were hit in the bombardment were women and children, owing to Atchinoff's cruel order forbidding any person to retire from the fort. The Sagallo incident produced a painful impression in Russian patriotic circles, although the Russian Government, in an official communiqué, threw the blame upon Atchinoff, and declared that it would have no influence on the existing relations between Russia and France. M. Spuller, the new French Minister of Foreign Affairs, defended his predecessor in a semi-official note and in the Chamber, while the responsibility for the affair rested with M. Goblet. The anti-Republican and Boulangist factions embraced the occasion for Chauvinistic attacks on the Government, which led to the suppression of the League of Patriots and remarkable Polisi. consequences. (See FRANCE.) A DW ENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. The statistical reports of this denomination, made to the General Conference in October, 1888, give for the thirty-two conferences and five mission fields: Number of ministers, 232; of licentiates, 168; of
churches, 901; of members, 26,112. Amount of tithes paid in for the eight months ending July 30, 1888, $163,129. The mission fields—British, General Southern, New Zealand other Pacific islands, and South African—returned of these numbers, 16 ministers, 7 licentiates, 26 churches, and 1,709 members. The receipts of the General Conference for eight months |. been $26,634, of which $17,514 had been paid to ministers; and the receipts of the General Conference Association had been $103,112. In connection with twenty-two missions in cities, 131 persons had been engaged in Bible work, who had visited 10,353 families. Sixteen of the missions reported 526 converts since they were established. The missions had contributed, in tithes and gifts, $6,852 to the Church and its enterprises. The sum of $38,712 had been contributed for foreign missions. The receipts of the International Tract Society had been $131,598, while the the “total receipts of State secretaries” were returned at $198,456. One hundred and six cities in the United States and forty in foreign countries had been entered by the agents of the society. About five hundred reading-rooms in the United States, Great Britain, and Australia were supplied with the religious riodicals of the denomination. The work of istributing religious periodicals and other publications had been extended to China, South Africa, Holland, the West Indies, and Pitcairn and other islands in the Pacific Ocean. Several sets of bound volumes had been placed in colored schools in the South. The International Sunday-School Association had received $9,931, while the contributions received by the schools amounted to $16,944, the gifts of the schools to missions to $10,076, and their gifts to State associations to $1,346. Nine hundred and fifty-five schools were returned, with 25,560 members. At the meeting of the American Health and Temperance Association favorable accounts were received from the State organizations of the interest of members and improvement of public sentiment in favor of health and temperance. Special instruction in these subjects and on social purity was given at Battle Creek College and at several of the State camp-meetings. The accounts of the Central Publishing Association. Battle Creek, Mich., were balanced at $373,896; those of the Pacific Press Publishing Company, Oakland, Cal., at $305,291. The sales from the Central establishment had amounted (at wholesale rates) to $69,693; the Pacific Press Company had done a year's business of $163,935. Publishing establishments were in operation abroad at Basle, Switzerland (valued at nearly $60,000); Christiania, Norway ($60,000): Melbourne, Australia ($25,000); and London ($5,000). The accounts of the Educational Society were balanced at $112,232. The institutions are Battle Creek College, Mich., Healdsburg College, Cal., South Lancaster Academy, Mass., and preparatory schools at Milton and East Portland, Oregon, Minneapolis, Minn., and Ottawa and Lehigh, Kansas. The last is German. In connection with the health and temperance work of the denomination, sanitariums are established at Rattle Creek, Mich., St. Helena, Cal., and Mount Vernon, Ohio.
General Conference.—The General Conference met at Minneapolis, Minn., Oct. 17, 1888. S. N. Haskell presided in the absence of the regular president, George I. Butler. The Arkansas and Australia conferences were admitted. A committee on the subject of a missionary ship reported upon its efforts to secure a suitable vessel for the use of the conference. A vessel had been furnished by one of the members of the Church to transport a missionary to Pitcairn Island. Action was taken by the conference recommending provision for the instruction of the people at all general meetings on what the Bible teaches as to church discipline and on the duties of officers and members and the holding of monthly meetings for prayer and counsel; approving the disuse of tea, coffee, opium, and tobacco: pledging support to measures for the prohibition of the liquor traffic, and protesting “against any legislation which discriminates in favor of any religious class or institution, or which tends to the infringement of anybody's religious liberty”: commending the organization of health and temperance societies; inviting the conferences to send candidates to the Sanitarium Training School for Nurses; denouncing the “National Reform "party, as a menace to religious freedom, and recommending the circulation of a book presenting the Seventh-Day-Adventist view on the relations of “Civil Government and Religion ”; condemning the “Blair amendment” to the Constitution of the United States and the “National Sunday bill" of May 21, 1888 as tending toward union of church and state; appointing a committee to appear before the Senate Committee on Education and Labor “in the interests of religious liberty,” and recommending the commission of qualified speakers to go about and make addresses on the subject; making various provisions for advancing religious work in foreign fields, for the training of foreign laborers, and the promotion of mission schools; concerning city missions: and advising the holding of yearly institutes in each State and special general institutes for the study of the doctrines of the Church and its methods of working in the various departments. Persons wishing to discuss views differing from those usually taught by the denomination were advised to present them to the conference committee of their State ; the conference committee. if it thinks proper, to present them to the State institute; and that body, if it consider the matter of sufficient importance, to recommend it to the consideration of the General Conference Institute.
Second-Advent Christian Association.— This body, besides awaiting in common with other Second Adventists the speedy second coming of the Lord, holds to the lo. of immortality through Jesus Christ for the righteous alone. The thirtieth annual meeting of the association was held in Chelsea, Mass., Aug. 7 and 8. Elder E. A. Stockman presided. The treasurer reported of the Sick and Poor Ministers' fund that the receipts for the year had been $668, and the expenditures $448; and of the “Help the Needy fund,” receipts, $124, expenditures $38. The receipts of the Wii. Society had been $31,227, and its expenditures $27,121, while the amount of its assets was returned at $31,346. It had published twelve new tracts and books. Gifts of $267 had been received for the Tract fund, and $594 worth of tracts had been granted in answer to applicants. A book on “Conditional Immortality,” by a Congregational minister, had been accepted for publication. Five periodicals —for general reading, young people, and Sundayschools—were published under the direction of the society, and an appropriation had been made to aid in establishing a new paper in the West. The association directed that two publication societies be established, one in the East and one in the West, to be sovereign in the management of their affairs. Resolutions o by the association, besides expressing the belief that the jeople of the body had been called out by the ord to give the world the special message of his coming to jo and insisting on the inportance of organization for that purpose, urged ministers, missionarioes, and evangelists to form church and conference organizations at all suitable places in the new fields in which they may labor. The collection of a mission fund was advised for sending missionaries throughout the United States, and to England, Australia, Ireland, Canada, Nova Scotia, and other places open for missionary work. A committee was appointed to further the preparation and publication of a book of standard and substantial merit on the subject of the near and personal second coming of Jesus Christ. Provision was made for the preparation of a denominational register, giving the names and statistics of ministers, churches, Sunday-schools, and member
ship. Argh ANISTAN. a monarchy in Central Asia, between Russian Turkistan and British India. The present ruler is Abdurrahman Khan. Ameer of Cabul, who receives a subsidy from the Indian Government and is under a treaty obligation to follow the Viceroy's advice in his dealings with foreign powers, the Calcutta Government being bound in turn to aid in the defense of his frontiers against unprovoked foreign aggression. Revolution in Afghan Turkistan. — The Ameer, with the help of British money and munitions of war, strengthened his power by overcoming, before the winter of 1888–89, a formidable rebellion in the northern part of his dominions. Ishak Khan, who had reconquered Afghan Turkistan and for many years administered it on a semi-independent footing, took advantage of his cousin's troubles with the revolted Shinwarris and Ghilzais to renounce his allegiance and rebel against Abdurrahman, in the hope of seizing the throne of Cabul, which his father had once occupied. Gholam Haider Khan, deputy commander-in-chief of the Ameer's forces, a most successful general, who had commanded in the operations against the rebel Ghilzais, marched rapidly into Turkistan with an overwhelming force, before the revolution was well organized. The armies met in pitched battle, and Ishak was defeated and his troops dispersed with great slaughter. Gholam Haider was apointed Governor-General of Afghan Turkistan. n January Ishak Khan fled with his followers across the Amu Darya, and took refuge with the Russians. The Uzbeck Sultan, Murad Khan, who took part in the revolution, crossed into Bokhara, with 3,000 families of Afghan Uzbecks, who were settled on the lands of the Ameer of Bokhara,
the refugee Sultan and his fighting men entering the Bokharan service. After the suppression of the rebellion, Gholam Haider Khan withdrew the main body of the troops to engage in a campaign against the insurgent Shinwarris, while Abdurrahman went to Turkistan to establish his rule by measures of vengeance and terror. The Russians accused Abdurrahman of endeavoring to extend his influence beyond the boundary fixed by international agreement, suspecting him of an intention to pursue his fugitive subjects into Bokhara, or of wishing to inveigle the Bokharan Ameer into a secret alliance against Russia, or of intriguing with the Russophobe party in Bokhara and exciting the fanaticism of the Mollahs against the Christians. Great excitement was produced in Bokhara by the wholesale execution of friends and relatives over the border, and there was danger of a collision with the troops of Abdurrahman. A concentration of Russian troops was ordered. The Muscovite force in Turkistan amounted, in the early months of 1889, to 17 battalions of infantry, 14 squadrons of Cossack troopers, a brigade of artillery, and 5 batteries of guns. A large Russian garrison was posted at Kerki, and a road and a telegraph were constructed to connect that fortress with Chardjui, steamboat communication having proved unsafe. The advanced guard at Kerki was placed under the command of Gen. Christianin. Gen. Komaroff, commander-in-chief, removed his headquarters to Chardjui. Abdurrahman remained at Mazar-i-Sherif throughout the year. On his arrival at that place he broke off commercial relations with Russia and strengthened the frontier posts. His military force consisted of from 12,000 to 15,000 troops armed with breech-loaders. Those partisans of Ishak Khan who did not escape into Bokharan or Russian territory were executed at the rate of 300 a day. The Russians received Ishak Khan with honor, and gave him a residence at Samarcand and a liberal pension, with lodging and support for 500 followers. The adherents of Ishak Khan continued through the spring to emigrate by thousands, to escape the Ameer's vengeance. In attempting to impose his rule in Badakshan, especially by enrolling the young men in his army, Abdurrahman provoked a rebellion in the summer. The insurgents imprisoned the Ameer's officials. Regular troops were sent against them from Mazar-i-Sherif, and re-enforcements were brought from Cabul. The rebels, with their primitive weapons, could not stand up before breech-loading rifles, and in a month the province was reduced to subjection. The Russian Transcaspian Railway.—The great strategic railroad skirting the borders of Persia and Afghanistan, binding the Central Asian Khanates to Russia, is said to be already a success in a commercial sense, as well as for military purposes. Not only are troops, officials, and tourists being conveyed along its line, but there is also a considerable movement of merchandise. It is largely used as a trade route between India and Central Asia, and the principal traders of Central Europe and Asiatic countries, including Afghanistan and Persia, are joining in a combination to develop trade along the line of the railroad, which offers to reward them by placing the freight tariffs for them very low. Afghanistan has been accorded the same favorable terms that were previously given to Persia. Gen. Annenkoff has proposed to extend the railroad from Samarcand, the present terminus, to Tashkend. He has also urged the Government to acquire possession of the Transcaspian oilfields, in id: to insure the railroad a supply of Ş. the only available fuel, of which 1,500,poods were required for the year 1889; otherwise he fears that the prices will be artificially advanced by a combination of well-owners, and that, through natural causes, they will rise inconveniently when the pipe-line shall have been laid between Baku and }. ALABAMA, a Southern State, admitted to the Union in 1819; area, 50,722 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 1,262,505; capital, Montgomery. Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Thomas Seay, Democrat; Secretary of State, Charles C. Langdon, who died on June 8, and was succeeded by J. D. Barron, appointed by the Governor; Treasurer, John L. Cobbs: Auditor, Cyrus D. Hogue; Attorney-General, Thomas N. Noi. who resigned on March 6, and was succeeded on March 18 by William L. Martin, appointed by the Governor; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Solomon Palmer; Commissioner of Agriculture, Rufus F. Kolb.: Railroad Commissioners, Henry R. Shorter, Levi W. Lawler, W. C. Tunstall: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, George W. Stone; Associate Justices, David Clopton and H. M. Somerville. The Legislature of this year made provision for a fourth justice of the Supreme Court, and the Governor, on March, 7, appointed Attorney-General McClellan. Finances.—The balance in the State treasury on Jan. 1 of this year was $153,373.46, of which $100,098.49 was available for general revenue purposes. On Oct. 1 preceding the balance was over $555,000. The latter figures represent more nearly, the average surplus for the year. The bonded debt consists of $7,721,300 in 4-per-cent. bonds, $539,000 in 5-per-cent. bonds, and $954,000 in 6-per-cent bonds, in all $9,214,300. The Governor is authorized to redeem the 6-per-cent. bonds on Jan. 1, 1890, when they first become redeemable, and to issue 4-per-cent. bonds to the Same amount. Legislative Session.—The Legislature met in regular biennial session on Nov. 13, 1888, and adjourned on Feb. 28, having taken a month's recess, which ended on Jan. 29. Earl in the session United States Senator John T. Morgan, Democrat, was re-elected without opło". for the term beginning March 4, 1889. 'ully five sixths of the legislation was local and special. The Supreme É. was enlarged from three to four members, and provision was made for calling in a member of the bar to sit with the judges in any case where they are equally divided in opinion. The drummers' license tax, declared by the United States Supreme Court to be unconstitutional, so far as levied upon nonresidents coming into the State, was repealed. An evidence of the improved financial condition of the State is found in the reduction of the tax rate from 5 mills to 4.5 mills for 1890, and to 4 mills for 1891. To prevent any deficiency caused by this reduction, the Governor was authorized to borrow not more than $100,000, in
his discretion. This Legislature granted also a much-needed increase of appropriation for the support of the public schools, by which the annual State expenditure for this purpose will be $350,000, instead of $250,000. The sum of $50,000 was appropriated to complete and equip the building of the Agricultural and Mechanical College: $11,600 for an additional building at the Alabama Academy for the Blind, and $20,000 for repairing and furnishing the Capitol buildin
and improving the grounds. A mechanical an
industrial department was established at the Alabama Institute for the Deaf, and $5,000 was appropriated for a building, The act of Feb. 22, 1887, authorizing the Governor to issue and sell bonds not exceeding $954,000, bearing not over 3} |. cent. interest, in order to raise money to pay that part of the State debt accruing in 1890, was amended so as to allow the issue of 4-per-cent, bonds to the same amount. The number of legal holidays was increased by adding the 26th of April, Good Friday, and Mardi Gras. It was made punishable by fine to present fire-arms, whether loaded or unloaded, at another. It was declared unlawful for any person or persons, whether uniformed or not, to be associated or assembled together under any name in a military capacity for the purpose of parading, drilling, or marching, or otherwise taking up and bearing arms, unless permitted by law or by leave of the Governor; but this act does not apply to schools for military tactics or to certain benevolent orders named in the act. Whenever any mob, riot, or tumult occurs in any city, village, or town, all persons therein who sell intoxicating liquors, arms, ammunition, dynamite, or other explosives, shall at once close their places of business and keep them closed and refrain from selling till the local authorities publicly announce that they may be opened. A forfeiture of the license to sell and a heavy fine or imprisonment are the penalties for violatin
this act. Certain local officers and the commanding officer of the State troops when called out for duty are required to issue orders closing such shops and saloons, when there is reason to apprehend trouble or an outbreak has occurred. Selling liquor to State troops on duty without leave of the commander is severely punished. The board of prison inspectors is required to adopt rules that will prevent inhuman treatment of State and county convicts, and to regulate the time, amount, and manner of workin
them. The sum of $50,000 was oi for the relief of disabled Confederate soldiers and the widows of those killed in the late war, and the manner of its distribution was prescribed. Other acts of the session were as follows:
Providing for a commission of lunacy of three members which shall have control of the criminal insane, and regulating the trial and care of such persons. Creating an additional judicial district, called the Tenth ji. District. Authorizing corporations to alter and amend their charters. Permitting building and loan associations to increase their capital stock. Releasing any claim now held by the State to lands sold for taxes prior to 1881 to the existing owners of such lands. To authorize the separate redemption of distinct parcels of land sold for taxes under one decree.