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body meets triennially, and originally represented the entire Church of the Dominion ; but the settlement of the Northwestern Territories has resulted in the erection of dioceses without its jurisdiction. Bishop Bond presided in the Upper ouse, the metropolitan having been prevented from being present. The Rev. John o was chosen prolocutor of the Lower House. The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society returned an increase for three years of $81,315. A committee appointed three years previously, to confer with other religious bodies respecting union reported the proceedings of a conference held in Toronto in April, 1889, at which the Methodist and Presbyterian Churches, as well as the Church of England, were represented. The subjects were considered of “Corporate Unity,” “The Amount of Unity in Doctrine, Worship, and Modes of Action,” “The Holy Scriptures.” “The Creeds,” and “The Administration of the Holy Sacraments.” A hope was entertained that a basis of agreement might be arrived at regarding the first three points in the resolutions of the ision Conference, namely, “As to the Holy Scriptures o: all things necessary to Salvation,” “The Apostles' and Nicene Creeds as the Sufficient Statement of Christian Faith,” and “The Two Sacraments,” with the use of the words of Christ's institution and the elements ordained by him. The appointment of a joint committee for future conferences was recommended. The resolutions of the Synod having been presented to the Congregational Convention, that body insisted upon recognition of its ministerial orders as a condition precedent to union. • A report on the “Incorporation of the Provincial

Synod” showed that the Church had already the

power to insure uniformity of procedure, canons, and discipline, and a united 8. in the Dominion. Steps were taken and a committee was appointed, to invite a conference of representatives of all the dioceses of British North America respecting the consolidation of the Church. Uniform Sunday-school lessons were recommended. Certain methods of obtaining money for Church purposes were condemned as “questionable.” A canon was adopted directing the formation of a board of examiners to examine candidates for degrees in divinity. APATITE, OR PHOSPHATE OF LIME, is the purest form of phosphate of calcium that is at the disposal of the manufacturer of fertilizers. It is a definite chemical compound, consisting of either 3(Ca3P.O.)CaF2, known as fluor-apatite, or of 3(Cas P.Os)CaCl2, known as chlor-apatite, or else of the two united in indefinite proportion. It is produced, so far as known, only in Norway, Spain, Russia, and Canada. Phosphates differing from apatite are found elsewhere, the localities of which are given below. The Norwegian article is a chlor-apatite, found in primary rocks near Kragero, but the amount exported is very slight. The Spanish is a fluor-apatite, largely produced in Estramadura and the neighboring districts of Portugal. There are large deposits in Russia, between the Volga and the Desna, but very little is known respecting them. Canadian apatite is looked upon as the best in the trade, and, being more largely used than any other, is here fully described. The name apatite, taken from the Greek, and signifying “deceptive,” ori

ginated from the similarity it bears to certain other minerals, such as pyroxene, beryl, etc., for which it has frequently been mistaken. In its chemical composition it is a tricalcic phosphate, the formula of the Canadian product being 3Cas(PO.),Caf', showing the presence of calcium fluoride, which in much of the European product is replaced by calcium chloride. This makes the Canadian the richer of the two in phosphoric acid. It is found associated with granitoid neiss, quartzite, pyroxenite, and crystalline imestone. The Laurentian rocks of North America have for many years been known by mineralogists to contain apatite (commonly known as phosphate), sometimes disseminated in minute green crystals, sometimes o abundant to make up a large proportion of the rock. Of late years the increasing demand for phosphate as a fertilizer of the soil, in the o form of superphosR. has excited much interest in the economic eposits of this mineral that have been discovered in Canada. It is also irregularly distributed through the New England States, but no effort has been there made to utilize it. The Laurentian rocks cover a vast area of Canada, both in Ontario and Quebec, extending from Labrador to the Arctic Ocean, skirting the north shore of the Ottawa river for nearly two hundred miles, and stretching thence down to the St. Lawrence, between Kingston and Brockville. The origin of these rocks is undecided, but they are generally conceded to be metamorphic. Their materials, deposited in palaeozoic seas, are supposed to have been subjected to intense heat, vapor at high ressure, and eruptive overflows. As they have en thus metaphorphosed, and often much folded and contorted, their origin can only be guessed at by their stratification and chemical composition. The various forms in which apatite presents itself are: 1. crystals, sometimes of large dimensions; 2, masses or irregular beds; 3, veins running with the stratifications; 4, strata of a lamellar texture; and 5, in a granular and friable form, fairly abundant, known as “sugar phosphate.” The disturbed condition of the Laurentian rocks explains the irregularity of the apatite deposits, layers, and veins, which, before the great folding and kneading together of these rocks, may have possessed regularity and uniformity, but which have been dislocated in every sense, leading to the production of large “pockets” and irregular masses connected only by narrow and twisted seams, and even occupying completely isolated positions. The crystals consist of six-sided prisms, the usual color of which is blue or sea-green, while a few are brown, pink, yellow, or white. In the veins, beds, and pockets the same colors are met with, arising from impurities. The blue and green varieties contain scales of chlorite: the pink and brown, minute portions of hematite; while the yellow and white owe their tint to organic substances. The ordinary thickness of the beds varies from one to five feet. In some places they are entirely surrounded by dead rock, with a sharp line of demarkation, and in others it is hard to define where the phosphate ceases and the dead rock begins. The important question of the continuity of both veins and beds is occupying the attention of the Geological Survey of Canada; for, although veins filling rock-fissures have been followed to a considerable depth, experience shows that different regions and different rocks afford great variations, and most of the workings are as yet comparatively superficial. The nature of the yield from veins is uncertain, being sometimes solid and pure apatite, and again only layers of the mineral mixed with calcite, pyroxene crystals, and magnesian mica. These latter constitute the principal impurities in the commercial article, calcite especially lowering the percentage of calcic phosphate, and acting injuriously when acid is applied for conversion into superphoshate. p The origin of this mineral is a matter of controversy, scientists holding different theories. Dr. G. M. Dawson, assistant director of the Canadian geological survey, suggests metamorphic action on the sedimentary deposits in the earliest ocean of which we have any trace; that these de|. originally resembling those of later seas, ave been so completely altered that their materials have entered into new combinations, and have become entirely crystalline, resembling the original deposits as little as do the crude ingredients of glass the finished product. The sedimentary origin of the Laurentian rocks, such as mussel mud, sand, and coprolite layers, would be changed by volcanic action to wholly crystalline rocks. To substantiate this—limestone thus acted on would assume a crystalline character as marble; peaty or coal substances would pass into crystalline carbon or graphite; and phosphatic layers would appear as crystalline calcic phosphate or apatite. All these substances are found in close contiguity in the apatite district. Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, who has made the Laurentian rocks his study for more than thirty years, looks upon them as the deposition of materials derived from the adjacent strata; and as apatite is closely associated with pyroxene, the latter may be, to a large extent, the source from which it is derived. There are two districts in Canada that furnish this mineral. One is in the province of Quebec, in the county of Ottawa, where the chief deposits exist, in the townships of Templeton, Bowman, Derry, Portland, and Buckingham. A village of the latter name has come into publicity lying about twenty miles east of the city of Ottawa, as the point at which the mineral floated thence down the River Lievre, is shipped by rail. The other district is in the province of Ontario, and extends north from Kingston and Brockville, on the River St. Lawrence, in a belt through the counties of Leeds, Lanark, and Frontenac, comprising the townships of Burgess, Bedford, Crosby, Storrington, and Loughborough. This has not been much worked, except in the vicinity of Sharbot lake, near the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In both provinces the face of the country where apatite is found presents a succession of small, isolated, rounded, rocky hills, alternating with small lake-basins. With the demolition of the original forests, fire followed, destroying the undergrowth; and the layer of soil on this formation, being thin, was soon washed away o rain, leaving the bald rocky strata so exposed as to render the region sterile. The mining operations are very simple, and in some instances might rather be styled quarrying,

except at a few of the larger mines, where shafts have been sunk for underground workings. Steam-power for drilling and hoisting is employed, and tramways facilitate transport. The magnitude of this industry appears from the following figures, taken from |. “Trade and Navigation Reports” of Canada, showing the exports of the mineral for ten years: 1879–80, 7,974 tons; 1880–81, 15,601 tons; 1881–82, 17,181 tons; 1882–83, 14,478 tons; 1883–84, 21,471 tons; 1884–85, 18,984 tons; 1885–86, 25.974 tons; 1886–87, 23,943 tons: 1887–88,21,849 tons: 1888–89, 23,158 tons. This shows an export of more than 190,000 tons in the ten years since the trade began. The market value varies with the purity of the article, and although a large quantity turns out 85 per cent, of tricalcic phosphate, the average yield of the Canadian apatite is officially calculated to be 72.62 per cent. A report of the United States Consul at Ottawa, in 1885, says that much of the material mined in Canada, sold and exported to Europe, has been, and is still, reshipped to the United States, either raw or manufactured, where it is used to aid in producing the very high grade superphosphate by firms in the Northern States. The reason assigned why Canadian phosphates thus cross the ocean twice is, probably, that, since American dealers were in the habit of importing from England before the Canada mines were developed very little effort has been made to turn the trade to a more direct course. The money basis taken in Europe is by the unit for phosphate that gives by analysis 75 per cent. of tricalcic phosphate, with an addition of one fifth of one penny sterling for each unit above that percentage. Thus, e. taking 1s. 2d. as the unit for to: grade, a sample yielding 80 per cent. would be worth 1s. 3d., and while a ton of 75-per-cent. grade would brin 87s. 6d., one of 80 per cent. would comman 100s., and 85 per cent. 113s. 4d. Prices continually fluctuate. When the material has been poorly dressed, the product will be of a low grade. From the rule adopted by foreign purchasers, the more careful the selection and dressing, the greater the profit. Low grades of 60 per cent. find a market in the pulverized or ground state at the fertilizer works in the Northern States, the result being brought up to a high grade by admixture with blood and offal. Other phosphates which are akin to apatite must not be confounded with it. South Carolina phosphate, commonly known as “Charleston rock,” occurs in rough masses associated with fossil bones and teeth ; the river phosphate being dark gray, and the land phosphate pale brown. The former requires careful washing, as the cavities in it, being filled with sand, would otherwise deteriorate its quality. It is obtained by dredging Beaufort, Bull, Ashley, and other rivers, and is superior to that found on the land, the iron in the former existing as pyrites, while in the latter it assumes the form of ferric oxide. Carolina phosphate rates in commerce with the coprolite deposits of the greensand formation of the eastern coast of England and near Boulogne in France. Sombrero and Nevassa phosphate comes from the coral islands of the Carribean Sea, and is known as rock guano. It is of high quality, but the predominance of alumina and iron prevents its

successful employment. The West Indian product is in reality a phosphate i. which has accumulated and hardened in fissures and cracks and such parts of phosphatic matter as have penetrated in solution through the porous coral rock. Bordeaux phosphate, from the Ardennes region in the south of France, is of similar origin, taken from fissures traversing the Jurassic limestone plateaus that once probably formed an archipelago of o islands in a Tertiary sea. Nassau, or German phosphate, from the valley of the Lahn, is a similar product. The following table, from analysis in Liverpool, shows the average percentage of tribasic phosphate in the yield from the various localities of production :

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or lower than the average given above. ARCHEOLOGY. (America.) The MoundBuilders.--The inquiry into the origin of the mound-builders has been pursued by Dr. Cyrus Thomas in a paper on “The Problem of the Ohio Mounds.” The author finds analogies between a number of these mounds and the relics found in them and certain works in Tennessee and North Carolina which it is agreed were executed by the Cherokees, whence he concludes that they were most probably made by the ancestors of that tribe. Ancient works related to those in Ohio are found in the Kanawha valley and other parts of West Virginia by the aid of which Dr. Thomas believes that he can trace the course of the mound-builders in their migration up the Kanawha valley and to the southward in the same line that the Cherokees appear to have followed in reaching their historical locality. He further suggests, on grounds which are given in his paper, that the Cherokees entered the immediate valley of the Mississippi from the northwest, striking it in the region of Iowa. Proof is also collated that the mound-building era had not closed previous to the discovery of the continent by Europeans. On the otherhand, Prof. F. W. Putnam supposes that the mound-builders were driven northward, and their remnants are found in the Eskimos: while Dr. Patton believes that two different races immigrated from Asia, the mound-builders coming first, and the red men afterward. Evidences of ancient mining operations of considerable extent have been found in the copper district of Lake Superior, in the mica fields of North Carolina and the serpentine of the Alleghany mountains; and in lead veins, particularly near Lexington, Ky. From the evidence afforded by the growth of trees over these works, Prof. J. S. Newberry has determined that the copper workings on Lake Superior were abandoned not less than four hundred, and the lead vol. xxix.-2 A

mine at Lexington not less than five hundred years ago, and that the mica and serpentine quarries are of corresponding antiquity. Traces of ancient workings of oil fields are met on Oil creek, Pa., in Mecca, Ohio, and at Enniskillen, Canada. The remains in the valley of Oil creek are described by Prof. Newberry as being shallow depressions in the ground resembling the |. caused by the overturning of forest trees, ut symmetrical in shape. A well sunk in one of these pits exactly followed the course of an old well which had been cribbed with timber, and the ladder, consisting of a tree trunk with the stumps of the limbs projecting—like those often found in the old copper mines of Lake Superior—was still standing. The oil had apparently been collected by the method formerly used in the Caspian region of skimming from the surface of water. Prof. Newberry, while admitting that the authors of these works “were some members of the great American family of nations,” can not agree with those who would reard them as the same as our modern nomadic ndian. They were, he thinks, not one, but many tribes, and but little advanced on the road to civilization; but differed from the present Indians in being far more sedentary, agricultural, and industrious. He can believe that the Mandans, Natches, and a few other tribes may be the descendants of the mound-builders, but not the Iroquois and Algonquins. Dr. S. D. Peet, of the “American Antiquarian,” suggests that the inquiry should take the direction of learning whether there was not a difference in the periods of occupation and a diversity of migrations among the class of people whom we call Indians; whether the diversity which is acknowledged to exist in the works of the mound-builders is of foreign or autochthonous origin; and whether the succession of races or tribes on the same territory was rapid and caused by the crowding of one tribe upon another, or occurred after long periods of occupation. In his personal explorations in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Ohio, he has found abundant evidences of suc. cessive populations, plainly representing three or four different periods in . works. He assumes that more time than is usually granted should be given to the prevalence of the mound-builders. “We have all the period between the palaeolithic age and the close of the neolithic age to fill up in some way, and know of no other way than to ascribe it all to the mound-builders.” The Casa Grande.—The Secretary of the Interior has directed that steps be taken at once, under the act of Congress of March 9, 1889, to repair and protect the ruins of the Casa Grande, in Pinal County, Arizona. According to the description given by the o agent of the department, the main building is 66 feet long and 43 feet wide, the first story is 13 feet high, the second story 9, and the third and fourth stories each 8 feet. The walls are between 4 and 5 feet thick, and are constructed of an almost indestructible concrete made of fine gravel, sand, and cement, laid in great blocks. The walls, both inside and out, were plastered with cement, which still clings to them, that on the inside being very smooth and glossy. All of the rooms, four of which are intact, are of a uniform buff color. The largest of the rooms is 34 feet by 9 feet, and the building has an extreme height of nearly 40 feet. The lower story is filled with crumbling débris and the drifting sand of the plain to the height of 13 or 14 feet. The special agent's report mentions many great mounds, now hardly distinguishable from the desert, sands, situated for miles around the Casa Grande, that mark what were once the abodes of men. Ruins at Cochita.-The ruins of an extensive city, hitherto unknown, have been discovered by Mr. Amanda Chavez, at Cochita, on the American side of the Rio Grande. The site had the appearance of a huge swell in the prairie, destitute of vegetation. The existence of the ruins was revealed through the washing away by a heavy rain-storm of a part of the sand covering them. A large building with stone walls and a tower at each corner was exposed, having apparently a reservoir in the center, with which were connected aqueducts leading in several directions. Among the relics obtained from the site by the discoverer were a skeleton having brown hair, with three strands of beads—of turquoise, jet, and bone—around its neck, and ear-rings of jet and turquoise; arrow heads; and broken pottery. The skeleton had been inclosed in a chamber of masonry. Ancient Image at Nampa, Idaho. — A unique relic was found in September, 1889, in boring an artesian well at Nampa, twenty miles from Boise City, Idaho, at about three hundred feet below the surface of the ground. As described by Prof. George Frederick Wright in the “Independent,” it is a carved image of fine and rather soft pumice stone, about an inch and three quarters in length, and displaying considerable artistic skill. The position in which it was found and the geological structure of the ground are described by Prof. Wright as follows: “After penetrating the surface soil sixty feet, fifteen or twenty feet of lava rock was encountered. Below this for upward of two hundred feet there was nothing but alternate beds of quicksand and clay; then coarse sand was struck in which the image came up, then below was vegetable soil, and then sand rock. Thus it was evident that the image lay buried to a depth of about three hundred feet beneath the deposits which had accumulated in a lake formed by some ancient obstruction of the Snake river valley, and that over this accumulation there had been an overflow of lava sufficient to cover the whole and seal it up.” The genuineness of the “find " is vouched for by all the persons who were present at the discovery—three educated and competent men of established character and in responsible positions—besides the driller and helper; besides which it was covered with a film of oxide of iron, such as would form only after long exposure under peculiar conditions, and small particles of sand have been cemented into the crevice between the arm and the body. The image has been seen by Profs. H. W. Haynes and F. W. Putnam, of the Archaeological Museum at Cambridge, as well as by Prof. Wright, and the evidence and the correspondence respecting it have been fully canvassed by them and reviewed in the Boston Society of Natural History. It will be recollected that Prof. Whitney many years ago reported the discovery of a skull called “the Calaveras skull” and implements of human work


o in a somewhat similar situation beneath the lava in California; and that European archaeologists were slow to accept the discovery as genuine. The present discovery comes to

Fig. 1.-IMAGE found IN InAHo.

confirm it. “The high degree of art displayed by the image,” Prof. §: ht remarks, in #. account, “is noteworthy. It is not the work of a boy or of a novice. The proportions are perfect, and there is a pose of the body that differentiates it from anything that has been found among the relics of the mound-builders. Altogether, it supports the hypothesis of Prof. Putnam set forth some years ago, that civilization advanced on the Pacific coast long in advance of that which has anywhere else been discovered.” The precise geological age of the relic has not been determined ; but Mr. Emmons of the United States Geological Survey, who is more familiar than any other geologist with the region, has expressed the opinion (subject, however, to correction), that the strata in which it lay are “probably of far greater antiquity than any deposits in which human implements have hitherto been discovered.” International Congress of Americanists. —The seventh International Congress of Americanists met in Berlin, Oct. 2, 1888. Dr. Reiss, of Berlin, was chosen president, and Prof. E. S. Morse represented the United States in the list of vice-presidents. The first of the regular papers was on the origin of the name America— concerning which a theory of native derivation has lately been broached by M. Jules Marcou and others—by Signor Guido Cora, of Italy. The author was not ready to pronounce definitely on the subject, for various recent investigations had left it uncertain whether the name was native or imported. Señor Fabić, of Spain, supported the old theory of derivation from Amerigo Vespucci. The origin and use of the American specimens of the objects called agripearls was discussed. They were o regarded as peculiar to the Old World, but had recently been found in America. It seemed to be agreed that they had been brought from Europe. Some ancient Mexican decorations upon human bones were described by M. Andrée as showing a high development of technic and taste. Only eighteen pieces of the kind are known, and these have been placed in European collections. Some of them are masks worked out of real skulls or of wood, while others are figures of animals, etc. The mosaic is composed of small pieces of turquoise, malachite, or mussel shell, pressed into a so of pitch, forming some kind of design or representing in colored shadings the forms of the human face. A skull-mask of the kind in the Berlin Museum comprises the head of a puma and a figure comg". of the fore parts of the animals. Prof. E. . Morse read a paper by Mr. F. H. Cushing concerning the work of the Hemenway Archæological Expedition in Arizona, where traces of several cities and irrigation works and often evidence of the former existence of populous settlements have been found. Senhor Netto, of Brazil, described a series of mounds giving an elliptical ground lan with a head-shaped annex in which he had ound relics of a people who might be distinguished from the present Indians chiefly by the rominence of female influence among them. Signor Arzruni mentioned in a discussion on the present condition of knowledge respecting nephrite and iadeite that the famous Humboldt axe and another South American hatchet seem to be identical in substance with the European mineral, and a hatchet from Venezuela with one from Hissarlik. The anthropological classification of the native Americans was discussed by Prof. Virchow and Herr Fritsch. Prof. Virchow admitted that it would not do to speak of a primitive race; yet the ancient skulls are predominantly of a brachycephalic type. These forms seem to have persisted in the south to the present time, but in the north there has been a noticeable transition to long and medium forms. Herr Fritsch, making the types of hair a basis of distinction, would assign the Central Americans and, generally, the ancient civilized peoples of South America to a group having smooth or waving, moderately long brown hair, like that of the Polynesians; and the northwestern tribes, with those of single districts in the South, to a §. with coarse, stiff hair, inclining to deep lack, like that of the Mongols. Herr Nehring spoke of the domesticated animals of the ancient eruvians. He remarked that the subject was of scientific importance because the other peoples of ancient America were poor in property of this kind as compared with these people and the Bolivians and some among the Central Americans, and because the influence of domestication on the formation of races could be better followed on these animals than on those of the old world. The animals were the dog, llama, alpaca, and Guinea-pig. Among eighteen mummified dogs from Peruvian graves examined by the speaker, types were found of a shepherd's dog, a dachshund, and a bull-dog or pug. Herr Wittmack described the useful plants of Peru, from traces found in the graves. The bread-plant was maize, which is represented on the sculptures and architectural ornaments of the people; a chenopodium and two kinds of pulse were used ; and small tubers, like potatoes, but which could not be determined, and fruits of annotto had been observed in the graves. The researches of Herr Hartmann had indicated to him that the people of Mexico in the time of Montezuma possessed the same physical race characteristics as are exhibited by the present Dakotas, Pawnees, Comanches, etc. The Araucanians, Patagonians, and Fuegians might also be regarded as related to the Aztecs. The Chibchas of Colombia, instead of being an immemorially isolated people, as according to the current belief, appeared to the


speaker to have had near relatives in the people of Costa Rica and Northern Colombia; o peoso of Chibcha and Mexican origin met in Costa ica. A paper was read by Herr Uhle on the primitive history and wan i." of the Chibchas. Other papers were read by Messrs. Borsari, on the constructions of the ancient Peruvians; Müller, on the Sambakis of Brazil, who had a prehistoric civilization: Von den Steinen, on his second journey to the Xingu and the confirmation of his previous conclusions respecting the relationship of the Tupi and the Caribs and on the calendar stone and various Mexican and Central, American relics. . M. Hamy exposed some falsifications of American antiquities which have become numerous and systematic. (For further revelations in American archaeology, see special article CAve DRAwiNgs.) Rome. Summary of Recent Results.Signor R. Lanciani, in his comprehensive account of the excavations conducted at Rome under his official direction and their results (“Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries”), describes among the immense number of relics of the past which have been uncovered, an archaeological stratum hitherto unknown, consistin of antiquities of the prehistoric and traditiona age. It is, however, very incomplete, because Rome has always been rebuilding itself out of the ruins of preceding periods; yet, on the whole, he says, “it is wonderful that so much should still i. left of the works raised by the ancients after a process of destruction and transformation that has been going on for fourteen centuries.” Discoveries lately made on the Alban hills are cited by Prof. Lanciani as supporting the theory that Rome was founded by peasants from Alba, who were driven away by fear of volcanic action there, and militating against the view of an Etruscan origin. The name of Rome is derived by the author, from Rumon, a river, and was intended to designate its situation as a river town, in contrast to the hill towns. The name of Romulus is believed, in the light of recent philological discoveries, to be a genuine one, and to belong to the founder of the city. The only evidence as to the time when Rome was built corresponds with that afforded by recent discoveries, which would place Alba in the bronze age. Among the principal works of art discovered since 1870 are enumerated “two bronze athletes found on the slope of the o the bronze Bacchus of the Tiber, the Juno of the Palatine, the bas-reliefs of the Forum, and the four hundred and seventy-nine busts brought together by the municipality. Other discoveries of importance, most of which have been mentioned in the previous volume of the “Annual Cyclopedia,” are the house of the vestal virgins, with fifteen marble pedestals, eleven life-size statues, fragments of statues, eulogistic and historical inscriptions, and many busts and portrait heads, coins, and fragments; and the barracks of the vigiles, or police, the luxuriant ornamentation of which shows that these officers were a higher class of functionaries than common watchmen. An Etruscan tomb, opened at Orvieto, in June, contained many bronze ornaments, arms of iron, Corinthian vases, and others of local manufacture. A series of Etruscan paintings on slabs of

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