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works, a woolen mill, a cotton-duck and yarn mill, wood-working factories, planing mills, an organ factory, a hosiery and underwear factory, a lobster cannery, and prepared-fish works. Steamers are built and equipped, and fireengines, and all kinds of steam-engines, boilers, and P. are made here. The town has two local banks and an agency of the Bank of Nova Scotia. There are two papers, a weekly and a semi-weekly. The town is lighted b electricity; and there are two gas companies. company has been formed for putting in an electric street-car service. Local telephone companies have communication with all parts of the so. The Western Counties Railway, a ocal enterprise, connects Yarmouth with Digby, 67 miles, whence there is connection by steamers with St. John, N. B., and Annapolis, where the railway connects with Halifax. This railway will next year connect at Annapolis with the railway system of the continent. The Yarmouth Steamship Company runs a fourteen-knot steel steamer twice a week between Yarmouth and Boston, and is now having a larger seventeen-knot boat built on the Clyde, for the same route in the summer of 1890, when four round trips a week will be made. This company also runs a side-wheel steamer line between Yarmouth and Halifax, calling at intermediate i. and a line between Yarmouth and St. o

hn, N. B. Yarmouth is a port for fishing vessels and fish outfitting, and a trade center for western Nova Scotia. The latest official statistics (1888) place the year's fishing receipts at $760,187. o: following table will show the growth of trade:

The arrivals and departures of shipping for 1889 were (foreign ports) 670 vessels, 182,286 tons; (coastwise) 1933 vessels, 204,010 tons. The official valuation of taxable property in the town of Yarmouth in 1889 was $3,842,922. The town has no funded debt, but is responsible for a portion of a municipal loan that was raised for building the Western Counties Railway.

Yonkers, a city of Westchester County, N. Y., adjoining New York city on the north. The business center, at Getty Square, is 18 miles from the Battery. The population in 1880 was 18,892; in 1889 it was estimated at 30,000. The manufactures embrace carpets, hats, Fo elevators, hat machinery, morocco, wool and yarn, wool extract, pickles, glue, sugar, plumbers' tools, shirts, carriages, rubber goods, and castings. Steam power is used in the large works, but the Nepperhan river supplies water power for many smaller shops and mills. Millions of capital and thousands of operatives are employed in Yonkers industries. The city is o organized and governed. Its judicial, police, fire, water, health, and other departments are in general very efficient. The public water works are upon a scale adapted to the growing needs of the place. A large trunk sewer was built

COLLINS, WILLIAM WILKIE. 163 in 1887. The health of the city is excellent. The educational system embraces a high school and 7 grammar and primary schools. Two daily and 2 weekly newspapers are published. There are 4 Episcopal churches, 5 Methodist, 1 Reformed (Dutch), 2 Roman Catholic, 2 Baptist, 3 Presbyterian, 1 German Lutheran, and 1 Unitarian. orse railroads were introduced in 1887. The Hudson river boats and the New York Central trains supply means of travel and transportation. The latest arrangement for accommodation is the elevated railroad. The streets are lighted by electricity. The oldest building in Yonkers is the Manor House (now the City Hall), which was originally the residence of the first Frederick Philipse, proprietor of the Manor of Philipsburgh. On Oct. 18, 1882, the city celebrated with appropriate ceremonies the bi-centennial of the erection of this building. COLLINS, WILLIAM WikiE, an English novelist and dramatist, born in London, Jan. 1, 1824; died there, Sept. 23, 1889. His father, William Collins, R.A., was a noted painter of rural scenes, and his mother was a sister of Miss Carpenter, a famous portrait painter. Wilkie was educated first at Highbury, and later his

WILLIAM Wilkie collins.

studies were continued in Italy, where his parents lived for two years. On his return to England, in 1839, his proficiency in French and Italian provoked the jealousy of his schoolmates, who persecuted him as a foreigner, but he fortunately secured the friendship of the strongest boy in school, who engaged to defend him from illtreatment if Collins would tell him stories. After leaving school he was articled for four years to a London, firm engaged in the tea trade, but as he showed no aptitude for commercial pursuits he was entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn, where he remained until the death of his father in 1847. It does not appear that he had yet shown himself better o for law than for commerce, but in 1848 he published a life of his father, which showed very conclusively that literature was the field in which success was easiest for him. After this his whole time was given to literary pursuits, and in 1850 appeared his second book, “Antonina, or the Fall of Rome; a Romance of the Fifth Century.” It was a work to which he had given much time and thought, and though it was only a moderate success it nevertheless brought his name to the notice of his contemporaries and procured for him the friendship of Charles oil. who shortly afterward invited him to become a contributor to “Household Words.” In the years that immediately followed Mr. Collins !". in this periodical several stories which showed an advance in literary workmanship, but it was not until 1860 that he could claim to be ranked among contemporary masters of fiction. In that year Dickens's new magazine, “All the Year Round,” contained Mr. Collins's serial “The Woman in White,” which, after the lapse of thirty years, remains as


pular as when first issued. Its success in §. was almost instantaneous, and it spread rapidly to America and to the Continent, where the book was translated into several languages. It may be safely said that, up to that time, no novel had been published that showed such marvelous arrangement of incident, such successful hold upon the central idea, or such skill in fixing the reader's interest from the first page to the last as “The Woman in White.” The book exhibits all its author's peculiar excellencies— excellencies that rise to the rank of genius—and has been surpassed, if surpassed at all, only by Mr. Collins himself in “The Moonstone.” That he lacked the ability to delineate successfully the finer lines of character, and that his pages are deficient in humor, must be conceded. The patient realism of Jane Austen and the ethical purpose of George Eliot are as foreign to his work as the rugged strength of George Meredith or the perfect so of style of Walter Pater. But in his own line, although he had many imitators, he has had no equal. As a master of ingenious construction, he stands alone among novelists of any age or country. In 1866 Mr. Collins's “Armadale’—a novel for which he received five thousand guineas before it was even begun—was printed in “The Cornhill Magazine.” It is a ...}. story, and in point of literary style is much superior to “The Woman in White,” but it has never been one of its author's popular efforts.

In the winter of 1873–74 Mr. Collins visited America, and repeatedly read in public two of his short stories, “The Frozen Deep” and “The Dream Woman.” He was everywhere received with kindness, and even with enthusiasm, and he always retained a most grateful appreciation of his American visit.

His career as a dramatist began with “The Lighthouse,” produced privately at Camden House, in Kensington, and afterward at the Olympic Theatre; and in 1857 his drama “The Frozen Deep” was acted at Tavistock House, the cast including Dickens among the other amateurs. In September, 1877, his own dramatic version of “The Moonstone” was produced at the Olympic Theatre, and in the same place dramatizations of “The New Magdalen" and “The Woman in White” were also produced; and at the Adelphi a dramatic version of his “Man and Wife.” All these plays achieved a marked success, both in England and America, “The New Magdalen" being perhaps the most popular. His original play, “Rank and Riches,” acted at the Adelphi on June 9, 1883, was a complete failure.

Mr. Collins was a man of not quite medium height, with stooping shoulders, large eyes, and a round, pleasant face. In his later years his abundant, hair and heavy beard were nearly white. ... He never married, and the greater part of his life was spent in London. Nearly all his works were published serially, a form of publication for which their method of construction most admirably fitted them. The complete list is as follows: “Memoirs of William Collins, R. A.” (1848); “Antonina, or the Fall of Rome.” (1850); “Rambles beyond Railways, or Notes in Cornwall, taken Afoot” (1851); “Basil, a Sto of Modern Life” (1852); “Mr. Wray's Cas Box, or the Mask and the Mystory—a Christmas Sketch" (1852); “Hide and Seek” (1854); “After Dark” (1856); “The Dead Secret” (1857); “The Queen of Hearts” (1859); “The Woman in. White” (1860): “No Name”. (1862); “My Miscellanies” (1863); “Armadale” (1866); “The Moonstone” (1868); “Man and Wife” (1870); “Poor Miss Finch" (1872): “Miss or Mrs? and other Stories in Outline” (1873); “The New Magdalen" (1873); “The Law and the Lady” (1875); “Agnes Warlock” (1875): “Two Destinies” (1876); “The Haunted Hotel” (1878); “The Fallen Leaves” (1879): “A Rogue's Life, from his Birth to his Marriage” (1879); “Jezebel's Daughter" (1880); “The Black Robe” (1881); “Heart and Science” (1883); “I Say No” (1884): “The Evil Genius” (1886): “The Guilty River” (1886); “The Legacy of Cain." (1888); and “Blind Love” (1889). The last named was being published serially at the time of his death in the “Illustrated London News,” and, being left unfinished, was completed by Walter Besant from the author's notes. “No Thoroughfare,” the joint production of Mr. Dickens and Mr. Collins, appeared as a Christmas story in 1867. The best American edition of his works is the illustrated library edition, in seventeen volumes (New York, Harper Brothers). COLOMBIA, an independent republic of South America. (For details relating to area, territorial divisions, and population see “Annual Cyclopaedia" for 1886 and 1887.) Government.—The President is Dr. Cárlos Holguin. His Cabinet is composed of the following ministers: Government, Don Domingo Ospina Camacho; Foreign Affairs, Don Vicente Restrepo; Finance, Don Felipe Paul; War, Gen. Antonio B. Cuervo ; Education, Don Jesus Casas Rojas; Secretary of the Treasury, Don Cárlos Martinez Silva; and Public Works, Don Leonardo Canal. The United States Minister at Bogotá is Dabney H. Maury; the Colombian Minister at Washington is Don José Marcelino Hurtado. The Colombian Consul at New York is Don Climaco Calderon; the American Consul-General at Bogotá is John G. Walker. Finances.—In July, 1889, a contract was arranged at Bogotá between the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Señor Restrepo, then temporarily holding the portfolio of the Secretary of the Treasury, and Charles O'Leary, special commissioner of the foreign bondholders in London, for the conversion of the foreign debt of Colombia. The debt as it now stands amounts to £1,913,500 principal, and £964,703 interest; total, £2.878,203. In payment of this sum, £1,000, £500, and £100 bonds will be issued, bearing interest from Jan 1, 1890, the coupons up to 20 at the rate of 3 per cent. per annum, and from the 21st at 4 per cent., payable Jan. 1 and July 1. The Government will be entitled at any time to buy up the bonds at market rates, and to redeem them at 70 per cent. of their value up to Dec. 31, 1894, and subsequently at 80 per cent. The paper money in circulation on Aug. 1, 1889, had been reduced to $12,000,000. The revenue collected during the biennial period of §: was $20,890,000; the expenditures, $20, $435,160.38, leaving a net unfunded debt in excess of revenue of $517,394.03. In November, 1886, according to the Auditor's report of that date, the net unfunded debt in excess of revenue was only $110,379.30, but this estimate proved to be too low. Soon after the report was issued, the State Supreme Court decided that, under section 3 of Article XI of the State Constitution, the total tax for all pu could not exceed 4 mills on the dollar. rate of 4 mills on the dollar had heretofore been levied for the general fund alone, the total levy being 54% mills, and this rate had been the basis of the figures given by the Auditor. The decision changed the rate for the general fund from 4 . mills, and reduced the item of “taxes for 1886, as an accepted asset of the State, from $497,078.94 to jo. By direction of the Attorney-General, credits were given the several counties amounting to $194,689.21. The effect of this was to add a like amount to the net debt of the State and to make a large part of the taxes delinquent Nov. 30, 1886, and other years of no value. The opinion was rendered as to the levy of 1886, but for 1883–84–85 a 4-mill tax for the general revenue alone had been collected, and in the light of this opinion had all been excessive. The net unfunded debt on Nov. 30, 1886, was in consequence, increased to $338,422.99. In comparison with the net debt of Nov.30, 1888, there has been a total increase of $178,971.44 in two years. This was due to the issue of certificates of indebtedness during the two years amounting to $85,891.50, and to the more noteworthy fact that the total receipts to the general revenue funds in 1887–88 were $721,051.11 as against $900,661.11 during 1885–86. Thus, while values inc largely, the change in rate of taxation resulted in a reduction of the general revenue for 1887 and 1888 below that collected for 1885 and 1886, while there had been no reduction in appropriations and expenditures. The decision of the State Supreme Court, rendered this year, which declares all appropriations made by the Legislature in excess of the revenue designed to pay them to be illegal, would seem to cast doubt upon the validity of many of the outstanding warrants reckoned as a part of the above-named debt, especially such as have been drawn to pay such excessive appropriations. Legislative Session.—The seventh General Assembly convened at Denver on Jan. 2, and remained in session three months, adjourning on April 1. The choice of a United States Senator to succeed Hon. Thomas M. Bowen first occupied attention. A caucus of Republican members selected as its candidate Edward O. Wolcott, the vote standing 45 for Wolcott to 15 for Senator Bowen. The Democrats nominated Charles S. Thomas. In the Senate, on Jan. 15, Wolcott received 19 votes, and Thomas 6; in the House Wolcott had 43 votes, and Thomas 6. The former was subsequently elected at a joint session of both Houses. A large number of important measures were passed during the session. Two amendments to the State Constitution were proposed, one giving the General Assembly power, by a two-third vote of both

Army.—The strength of the Federal army in 1889 was 6,500 men. A contingent of 1 per cent. of the population has to be furnished in the event of war, by each of the nine states, whose joint population is estimated at 4,000,000.

Commerce.—The imports in 1888 reached $24,000,000; the exports, $15,000,000. The stoppage of work on the Isthmus, and consequent emigration of canal hands, has put an end to the large shipment of cattle from the north coast to Colon; this trade is now being directed to Curaçoa.

The United States trade with Colombia in two years has been:

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Railroads.-On Feb. 26, 1889, the Minister of Public Works, Don Leonardo Canal, made a contract with Don Juan María Tonnegra for the construction and working of a railway to connect Bogotá with Zipaquirá, under a Government subsidy of $15,000 for each mile in operation. In June the same official made a contract with Count Gonsencourt for the construction and running of a railroad between the port of Buenaventura on the Pacific and the city of Manizales. Simultaneously he contracted with Don Pedro M. Corena for the building of a tramway in the city of Panama. On July 20 the President of the republic solemnly opened, the Sabana Railroad, which connects Bogotá with an upland region in the Andes called the Sabana, twenty-four miles.

Navigation. —Early in January, 1889, the steamer “Atrato” arrived at Carthagena from New York, intended for the navigation of the Atrato, and subsequently other steamers were placed on the river to connect Carthagena with the province of Chocó, considered one of the most auriferous regions of the republic. Steam navigation was also begun on the Sinú river.

A New Orleans-Colombian Steamship Company, newly founded, has applied for a concession to establish a line of steamers between New Orleans, Colon, Carthagena, Sabanilla, Santa Marta, and Rio Hacha, under a subsidy from the Colombian Government at the rate of $2,500 for each round trip, and J. M. Ceballos & Co., New York, have taken preliminary steps to place steamers on a line between the latter port and


The Panama Canal. —The Panama Canal enterprise, and its representative, the Panama Canal Company, were unable to resume operations in 1889. The disastrous collapse of the

old company in December, 1888, inflicted heavy and wide-spread losses in France, especially among small capitalists. On Jan. 26 a meeting of holders of Panama Canal shares was held in Paris. M. de Lesseps was present, and met with a hearty reception, but no offers of financial assistance to the Canal Company were made. The chief engineer of the canal estimated that the total out % still necessary to complete it would be 450,000,000 francs. Improvements at the Capital.-Bogotá in 1889 completed water works and a large national theatre, built under the superintendence and according to the plans of the Italian architect, Pedro Cantini. Gold Mining.—During the summer of 1889 gold of on the Isthmus again attracted attention. . The “Panama Gazette” of Aug. 14 contained a long list of mines ceded by the Government to natives and foreigners. COLORAD0, a Western State, admitted to the Union in 1876; area, 103,925 square miles; {{..."; according to the last decennial census (1880), 194,327; o Denver. Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Job A. Cooper, Republican ; Lietenant-Governor, William G. Smith; Secretary of State, James Rice; Treasurer, W. H. Brisbane; Auditor, Louis B. Swanbeck; Attorney-General, Samuel W. Jones; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Fred Dick; Commissioner of Immigration, F. J. V. Skiff; State Engineer, James P. Maxwell; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Joseph C. Helm: Associate Justices, Charles D. Hayt and Victor A. Elliot. Finances. – The following statement shows the condition of the treasury for the two years ending Nov. 30, 1888:

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At an election in 1883 the people authorized the issue of bonds to the amount of $300,000, to aid in constructing the capitol building, and by a similar vote in 1889 they assented to a further issue of $250,000 in bonds. In addition to this debt, there is an unfunded State indebtedness, which on Nov. 30, 1888, i. $952,554.41, and consisted of outstanding warrants, drawn by direction of the Legislature in its several appropriations against the General Revenue fund, and bearing interest at 6 per cent.; certificates of indebtedness, issued by direction of the Governor and Attorney-General, bearing 6 per cent. interest, and loco-weed certificates, unredeemed.

In detail this debt is as follows:

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branches, to provide for one or more additional judges of the Supreme Court, until the number of . should reach six; the other giving the Assembly power, by a similar vote, to increase the salaries of supreme and district judges to any sum not exceeding $7,000 per annum. Another act provides for the establishment of a Bureau of Immigration and Statistics, the chief officer of which shall be appointed by the Governor, and shall be called the Commissioner of Immigration His duties are to collect industrial and otherstatistics regarding the State, to publish such as he shall deem useful to encourage immigration, to answer all inquiries from and otherwise to assist intending settlers, and to provide suitable exhibits and proper representation of the State at important industrial exhibitions wherever held. In May the Governor appointed F. J. V. Skiff to be commissioner under this act. Much time was devoted to the discussion of a high-license bill, which was finally passed. The act fixes the annual license fee for retail dealers at not less than $600 in cities, $500 in incorporated towns, and 300 in counties outside of cities or towns. The fee for dealers in malt liquors exclusively may be reduced to half the above sums, in the discretion of the local authorities. A bond to observe the law must be given by all licensees. The anti-alien law of 1887 was so modified that non-resident aliens may hold agricultural, arid, or range lands to an extent not exceeding 2,000 acres. They may hold real estate in any incorporated town or city, and mines or mining property without limit. A ol.". law was passed, requirin that children between the ages of eight an fourteen years shall be sent to a public or private school at least twelve weeks in each year, eight of which shall be consecutive. Chil: dren living more than two miles from a public school, or having otherwise been instructed in the required public-school branches, are excepted from the operation of the law. Whenever any person is unable to send his child to school for want of suitable clothing, the local school authorities are directed to furnish such child with the necessary clothing at the expense of the school fund. A fine is imposed upon parents and others who disobey the law. Persons or corporations are also subject to a fine for employing any child under fourteen }. of age in any business whatever during school hours, in any school day of the public schools, unless such child shall have been otherwise regularly instructed twelve weeks in each year and eight weeks consecutively, and a certificate to that effect has been delivered to his employer. Another act provides that executions shall take place only at the Penitentiary, and shall be secret and private. The judge shall sentence the prisoner to be executed at any time within a certain week, the precise day and hour to be fixed by the warden, who shall communicate it only to the necessary officials and to six invited witnesses, who in turn are to keep the secret. Newspapers are forbidden to publish details of executions. Violators of any portion of this law are subject to fine or imprisonment, or both. An act concerning conspiracy provides that “it shall not be unlawful for any two or more persons to unite, combine, or agree in any manner to advise or encourage, by peaceable means, any person or persons to enter into any combination in relation to entering into or remaining in the employment of any person, persons, or corporation, or in relation to the amount of wages or compensation to be paid for labor, or for the |. of regulating the hours of labor, or for the procuring of fair and just treatment from employers, or for the purpose of aiding and protecting their welfare and interests in any other manner not in violation of the Constitution of the State and its laws; provided, that this act shall not be so construed as to permit two or more persons, by threats or by display of force, to prevent or intimidate any other person from continuing in such employment as he may see fit, or to boycott or intimidate any employer of labor.” In the interest of irrigation, a commission was established to submit to the next General Assembly a complete revision and code of law concerning the management and distribution of the waters of the State, whether surface or subterranean. The act of 1883, establishing a Superior Court in the city of Denver, was repealed, and all cases therein were transferred to the County District Court. A Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, to be located in the San Luis Park, was provided for, and $40,000 appropriated to erect buildings and for its support in 1889–90. Later in the year the site was fixed upon at Monte Vista, that township agreeing to give one hundred and sixty acres of land and to assist largely in the construction of buildings. For a State Normal School at Greeley, Weld County, $10,000 was appropriated for building, and the same amount for furnishing and maintenance during 1890. The school is to be established only on condition that a site be given and that $15,000 be contributed for building. The Colorado Foundling and Orphans' Home was established at Denver, and $20,000 appropriated for buildings and maintenance for two years. A State Reformatory in Chaffee County, mentioned below, completes the list of new institutions. Other appropriations include $10,000 for a monument on the Capitol grounds to the Colorado volunteer soldiers; $46,000 for completing the wings of the State Insane Asylum, and $10,000 annually for its maintenance in 1889–90; $80,000 for additional buildings at the Mute and Blind Institute; $18,000 for additions to the main building of the State Agricultural College. The sum of $100,000 was also appropriated out of the general fund for the payment of outstanding certificates of indebtedness and accrued interest. Other acts of the session are as follow :

Establishing the third Friday of April as “Arbor Po. and making it a holiday for the public schools. Regulating the business of building and loan assoClations. Appropriating $20,000 for laying out and ornamenting the State Capitol grounds. Amending the code of civil procedure. To provide, upon application of residents, for the appointment of a county inspector of bees, to suppress and destroy foul brood loor infectious diseases of bees. Repealing the act of 1887 establishing an abbreviated form for deeds and mortgages.

Authorizing corporations to give powers of attorney to convey estate. Creating a State board of dental examiners, and requiring intending dental practitioners to submit to an examination and obtain a certificate from such board. Punishing as a misdemeanor the enticing of unmarried persons, of either sex, of good repute, under eighteen years of age, to houses of ill famé. Assenting to the act of Congress establishing agricultural experiment stations in the various States. Providing a o for trapping, netting, or ensnaring wild ducks, and wild geese, and requiring the destruction of all devices used therefor. Revising the law governing insurance companies. Reducing the legal rate of interest allowed by law, when no rate is specified, from 10 to 8 per cent. Repealing the act of 1887, providing for commutation of life sentences for good behavior. Providing for a conservator to manage the property, within the State, owned by lunatics residing without the United States. Providing for the appointment of a live-stock meat inspector in each village, town, and city, and requiring that all cattle killed for food shall be inspected and certified as healthy by an inspector, at least fortyeight hours before slaughter. ividing the State into three metalliferous mining districts, providing for the appointment of a metalliferous mine inspector and three deputies, and appropriating $2,000 for the collection and distribution of meteorological data within the State. To prohibit the running or pouring of oil or petroleum into any waters of the State. To punish conversion of public funds by public officers charged with their keeping. To restore public records destroyed by fire. To punish false pretenses in obtaining registration of cattle and other animals, and to punish giving false pedigrees. Establishing the office of inspector of steam-boilers. To provide for the incorporation and regulation of loan and surety companies. Dividing the State into sixty-two water districts, for irrigation. Perfecting the mechanics’ lien law. Providing that, when judicial records are lost or destroyed, a duly, certified copy of such original records may be received and filed in place thereof, and in certain cases, where such copy can not be obtained, a statement of the substance of the original may be received; also prescribing the procedure of probate judges for replacing destroyed records of the probate court. [This act was suggested by the loss of the records of Bent County by fire.] Revising the law for the punishment of cruelty to animals. Requiring all persons, associations, or corporations who divert water for irrigation to erect and maintain head-gates and waste-gates and suitable fastenings thereon, and, in case of failure to do so, after five days' notice, empowering the local water commissioner to provide such and to levy the expense upon such persons, associations, or corporations. Creating the county of Baca out of a portion of Las Animas County. Creating the county of Cheyenne out of portions of the counties of Bent and Elbert. Creating the county of Kiowa out of a portion of the county of Bent. Creating the county of Kit Carson out of a portion of the county of Elbert. Creating the county of Lincoln out of portions of the counties of Elbert and Bent. Creating the county of Montezuma out of a portion of La Plata County. Creating the county of Morgan out of a portion of the county of Weld. Creating the county of Otero out of a portion of the county of Bent. Creating the county of Phillips out of a portion of the county of Logan.

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