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public-school system is unusually good. The public buildings are the Market, Masonic Temple, court-house, and Cotton Exchange. The two last named have been built within a few years. There is a free library, controlled by a lyceum society, and here also is the Texas Geological and Scientific Association. Harris County contains fine agricultural and grazing lands.

Huntsville, a city and the county seat of Madison County, Ala., in the northern border of the State, 10 miles north of Tennessee river and 98 miles west of Chattanooga, 640 feet above the sea-level. The population in 1889 was about 9,000, largely recruited from the North. The cotton yield of the county is 23,000 bales annually, but the farmers are engaging extensively in raising stock and the growth of corn, wheat, clover, grasses, vegetables, and fruits. The annual corn crop is estimated at $1,500,000; the cotton crop, about $1,000,000; peas and beans, 50,000; potatoes, $100,000; horses, cattle, and sheep, $1,000,000. The largest fruit nursery in the United States is in this county. Immense forests of hard woods are tributary to the city, and the lumbering and woodworking industries are prominent. There is limestone near, and iron, lead, and silver ores have been found ; but little mineral development has yet taken place. A direct road will soon connect it with Gadsden, and another with Birmingham. A dummy line runs out to Monte Sano, a watering-place three miles and a half northward. Turnpikes run to Tennessee river landing, and radiate in other directions. A cotton factory is running over 10,000 spindles, and in 1887 declared a dividend of 22 per cent. Besides this, Huntsville has a cotton compress and one of the largest cotton-seed-oil mills in the South, several saw and planing mills, a broom factory, wagon and carriage factories, and many minor shops. A tobacco house is in progress. Huntsville's streets were macadamized fifty years ago, and are shaded with aged and handsome trees. She has many fine old houses, as well as some new ones, and new business blocks. A good hotel has been built. The Federal building will cost $100,000. The churches are mostly of brick or stone, and there are a boys' institute and two girls' seminaries, in addition to the public schools. The town is lighted by gas and electricity, derives its water from a cold spring in the hills that yields 1,250,000 gallons an hour, and has an opera house, telephones, a market, and a paid fire department.

Junction o: the county seat of Davis (or Geary) County, Kan., near the geographical center of the United States, 138 miles west of Kansas City. The population is about 6,000. It is the northern terminus of the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad, and the southern terminus of the Junction City and Fort Kearny Railroad, near the confluence of Smoky Hill and Republican rivers, where they unite to form Kansas river. The town was laid out in 1858, on a site chosen for its natural advantages—easy grades for road-making, abundance of pure water, excellent natural drainage, and salubrity of climate. The rivers that border the town on three sides are noted for their even flow of water. They seldom overflow or run low. Junction City is in the center of the great limestone region of

the State, and the fine stone quarries near the town are easily worked. Two test borings have proved the existence of salt beneath the city in great purity. Junction City is legally ranked as “a city of the second class.” It has water works that supply 500,000 gallons a day of pure well water. The town is lighted by electricity, operated by water power, and a company is organized to locate and build a system of street railroads connecting with Fort Riley, three miles distant, to be operated by electricity. There is a telephone system, a board of trade, a building and loan association, 2 banks, 2 railroad stations with repair-shops, 4 good hotels, 2 steam grain elevators, 3 grain warehouses, a butter and cheese factory, a canning factory, 2 grain and flouring mills, a pressed-brick factory, a marble yard, an iron foundry and other manufactures. Four weekly papers are published. There are 4 school-houses with a capacity of 1,200 pupils, employing 17 teachers, and 2 private schools, 10 churches, a city hall, an opera house which cost $35,000, 4 public libraries, and an efficient fire department. — Fort RII.EY is practically a suburb of Junction City, and the exclusion of all trade, manufactures, and the usual avocations of civil life from the post must cause it to remain so. The military reservation consists of 20,000 acres, including portions of the valleys of the Republican, Smoky o and Kansas rivers, with wide stretches of variegated uplands. The valleys are exceedingly fertile, with numerous groves of forest trees, and well watered by the rivers and small tributaries supplied by springs. This reservation was selected by a committee appointed by Congress in September, 1852, and was first occupied in May, 1855. It was at first named Camp Center, on account of its position in the American Union, but by general order of the War I)epartment, June 27, 1855, the name was changed to Fort Riley, in honor of Gen. Bennett Riley, of the United States Army. Prior to 1887 the approximate sum of $500,000 was spent in the construction and repair of buildings, thus maintaining it as an important military post. In January, 1887, an act of Congress authorized the Secretary of War to establish upon the military reservation of Fort Riley a “ permanent school of instruction for drill and practice for the cavalry and light artillory service for the army of the United States.” Since that date elaborate plans have been prepared, and the work of construction has proceeded rapidly. Up to October, 1889, $800,000 had been expended, and the superintending officer estimates that it will require $500,000 more to complete the improvements. The principal structures now completed or under contract are as follow: Five artillery barracks costing $46,250: 5 artillery stables, $57.495; 5 gun-sheds, $40,000: 12 cavalry barracks, $115,950; 12 cavalry stables, $156,000: 1 large mess hall, $33.000: water works, $43,000; iron bridge and approaches on Kansas river, $16,000; guardhouse, $5,000; construction and grading of roads, $25,000; 1 barracks, 2 administration buildings, 62 sets of officers' quarters; and sundry store-houses, shops, and out houses, cost not definitely ascertained. The post is lighted by electricity and heated by steam from one central furnace, and is supplied by reservoir pressure with pure well-water. The capacity of the water works is 1,000,000 gallons a day. A complete sewerage system has been constructed. All improvements are planned and constructed in the most substantial manner. Fort Riley is to be the largest and most important military post on the Western Continent, and will probably be made headquarters for the breeding of the various grades of cavalry and artillery horses and a general recruiting station for the United States Army. The expenditures for labor are now about $300,000 a year, exclusive of pay of officers and men and cost of supplies. It is estimated that the cost of maintaining the post when in full running order, including pay and all supplies and expenses, will approximate $1,500,000 a year. The latitude of Fort Riley is 39°4′ north; longitude 96° 47' west; altitude, 1,300 feet above the sea. Laramie City, the county seat of Albany County, in the southeastern port of Wyoming Territory, on the line of the Union Pacific Railroad and on the east bank of Big Laramie river, 57 miles from Cheyenne, 573 from Omaha, and 163 from Denver. The town site was chosen in 1868, and the city incorporated in 1873. The population is about 7,000. On the east and west lie mountains rich in ores, and to the north and south stretches a plateau of 2,000,000 acres devoted to stock-raising and agriculture. The latter industry has received an impetus from the introduction of irrigation. The Pioneer Canal, the first irrigating ditch in the Territory, pours its surplus into the river three miles north of the city. Water flows through the streets on either side in summer. The floating debt is $16,000; the bonded debt, $40,000; assessed valuation of property, $1,500000: rate of taxation, 8 mills. Spring water for domestic purposes is supplied in abundance by water works. Artesian water is also used, reached at a depth of 150 feet. The drainage is excellent, from the slope of the land and nature of the soil. Four miles of sewers were constructed in 1888. There is a fire department, telephones, and electric lights. There are eight churches. The public-school system was established in February, 1869. There is a handsome main building of dressed brick and stone, costing $30,000, having an attendance of 800 pupils, and another known as the West Side. There is also a Roman Catholic school. The building for the University of Wyoming, located here, was completed in 1887 at a cost of $75,000. It is of native stone, and has an assembly hall capable of seating 800 persons. The course of education is free, and open to both sexes. There are two banks, with an aggregate capital of $200,000; a loan and trust company, with capital of $190,000; and a land and improvement company for Albany County. One daily and two weekly newspapers are published, and there is an opera house and two hotels. The city is a supply center for miners, ranch men, and timber, for a radius of 200 miles. The resources of Albany County are rich. South of Laramie 13 miles lie the Soda Lakes, covering 100 acres, and containing 50,000,000 cubic feet of chemically pure crystallized sulphate of soda in deposits 9 to 12 feet thick. The salts are held in solution by spring water at the bottom, and the

152 CITIES, AMERICAN. (LARAMIE City, Lewistox, LexingtoN.)

amounts removed are soon replaced. The soda works were built in 1886 at a cost of $500,000. There is a railroad to the lakes. Building stone abounds, and red and brown sandstone quarries are within three miles of the city. Timber is within fifty miles, and there are two large planing mills. Clay and glass sand abound, and glass is manufactured at the rate of 42,000 boxes a year. A bed of gypsum of 1,000 acres lies almost along the railroad track, and plastermills will soon be built. There are a tannery, a brewery, a flouring mill, two bottling works, a soap factory, brick and lime kilns, large machine and repair shops, a rolling mill and spike mill, and Burnetizing works of the Union Pacific Railroad. It is the seat of the Territorial fish hatchery, and also of a United States penitentiary. The court-house and Laramie Club are notable buildings. There are handsome residences and business blocks, and fine ranches and stock farms are to be seen in the adjoining country. The altitude is 7,187 feet. Lewiston, a city of Androscoggin County, Me., the second city in population in the State, on the left bank of Androscoggin river, thirty miles northeast of Portland, on the line of the Maine Central and Grand Trunk Railways. The population in 1870 was 13,602; in 1880, 19.083; in 1889, estimated at 25,000. Three railroads touch the city, and horse-car tracks are laid through the principal streets. The city owns and maintains the water works and electric-light plant. It also owns, in connection with Auburn (a city of 13,000 inhabitants, on the opposite bank of the river) six miles of railroad, connecting at Lewiston Junction with the Grand Trunk Railway. The best primary school-building in the State has been built during the year, at a cost of $50,000; and a new Roman Catholic Church is approaching completion, which will cost about $150,000. Bates College has just completed one of the finest laboratories in New England, and is about to erect an observatory on Mt. David, at a cost of $30,000. Lewiston has one of the finest and most complete city buildings in New England, which was erected at a cost of $300,000. In addition to the electric-light plant owned and maintained by the city for its own use, two other electric-light companies, which run by water power, furnish light and power. There are eighteen cotton and woolen mills, with an invested manufacturing capital of $9,000,000, operating 300,000 spindles, the annual consumption of cotton being 27,000,000 pounds; the number of males employed in the mills is 4,000; the number of females. 3,300; total monthly disbursements of manufacturers, $225,000; production of cotton and woolen goods yearly, 54,000,000 yards. The water works net the city a good yearly surplus; and the railroad is self-sustaining. The school system is most thorough. A board of trade, with 300 members, recently established, is finely located and in a flourishing condition. Lexington, a city, and the county seat of Fayette County, Ky. : population about 20,000. It is in the center of the blue-grass district, which is noted for its extraordinary fertility and the perfection to which the blue grass (Poa sylvestris) comes. This fertility is due to the fact that the soil is made from and overlies a blue

Silurian limestone that decomposes easily. Lex- city, and their product amounts to many thouington is one of the oldest settlements in the sand of barrels annually. State, having been named on the day when the Lockport, a city and the county seat of Niagnews of the Battle of Lexington, Mass., April, ara County, New York, in the northwestern part 1775, reached that frontier point. It was the of the State, on the Erie Canal, and on branches meeting-place of the first Legislature (1792), and of the New York Central and New York, Lake has been the home of many distinguished men. Erie and Western Railroads. Lockport was a Some of its long streets are exceedingly beauti- post-office in 1822, and had its origin in the conful avenues between spacious grounds surround- Struction of the five canal locks cut through ing stately old houses. Here are the University solid rock which at this point overcome the of Kentucky, a military school for boys, and difference in levels of sixty feet. The work three seminaries for young, ladies; and here occupied a large force four years. From these meets the State Chautauqua Assembly. Lex- locks the city takes its name. It was incorpoington derives its largest reputation from the rated in 1829 as a village, and grew rapidly race-horses that have been bred there or in the from the enlargement of the canal in 1835, when immediate vicinity. The old families had raised the locks were made double. In 1845 the popufast horses long before the civil war, of which lation was 12,000; in 1888, 20,000. Between Lexington had hard experience. When the close Buffalo and Lockport there is a canal level of of the war had made it possible to buy farms and 31 miles, 568 feet above the mean level of the blooded sires cheaply, shrewd Northern men, Hudson at Albany. The greater part of the knowing the extraordinary capabilities of that city is on the plateau forming the edge of the climate and pasturage, invested largely in breed- Erie level. More than 90 per cent. of Niaging farms, and now the principal of these are in ara County is under cultivation. It is the second the hands of men not natives of Kentucky. Run- county in the State in the production of wheat, ning horses, or thoroughbreds, first received at- and claims one tenth of the entire yield of fruit. tention. Lexington, Longfellow, Ten Broeck, It is the home of the Niagara white grape. Leamington, Himyah, Virgil, and many others, Gray and red sandstone, used for paving-stone famous on the running-tracks years ago, came and construction purposes, lie beneath the surface from this locality. But before long all of the limestone. A ten-mile railroad, to connect with breeders at Lexington, and most of those else- the Rome. Watertown, and Ogdensburg, was where in the blue-grass district, turned their at- surveyed in 1888. Lockport is the third city in tention to trotting horses, since they were able importance as a shipping point between Buffalo to sell trotters to better advantage than runners and New York, and is a through billing point to when they did not turn out to be great racers. all parts of the continent. During 1888, 100 This has become an immense business, and a new dwellings were erected, and $230,000 exlarge area formerly planted with hemp or grain pended on commercial buildings. Telephone is now devoted to pasturage. For this class of communication is held with towns within a radihorses, the famous sires Mambrino Chief and is of sixty miles. Three daily papers are issued. Bellfounder had laid the foundation. In 1864 Sanitation is directed by a board of health. Lady Thorne trotted a full mile at Lexington in New water works, of the Holly-Gaskell system, 2.30. and Mambrino stock took the lead. Almont, have been completed. To increase the water son of Rysdyk's Hambletonian, and Dictator were supply a company was chartered in 1886 emthe next celebrities. The latter is the sire of powered to draw water from Niagara river to Jay-Eye-See (record, 2.10); Phallen (2.131); and be discharged into Lake Ontario. A canal 'has Director (2.17). These were followed by “the been proposed 200 feet wide and 20 deep, to mighty George Wilkes," the sire of more trotters to yield 363,060 horse-power, which, in addition of great speed and sires of trotters than any to the supply of pure water for domestic use, other horse on earth. Year by year the record will be available for commercial and manufactwas reduced, until dozens had done better than uring purposes. A volunteer fire department 2.15, and finally Maud S. trotted a full mile in is provided with electric alarm. The city is 2.084. Many large farms are now devoted to lighted by gas, and has street railways. One this industry, and enormous prices are paid for fourth of the city tax is levied for public schools; animals of promise or approved power. To the these are five primary, one union, and one high spring races at Lexington the horsemen of the school, and a circulating library is maintained whole country look to see what is coming for- by the school money. There are seventeen ward; and at the annual sales from 800 to 1,000 churches. A convent and a young ladies' acadhighly bred horses are sold, the average price in emy are connected with St. Patrick's. The Young 1889 exceeding $300, while the total receipts by Men's Christian Association has a library, gymblue-grass breeders was above $250,000. În ad- nasium, etc., and during the winter conducts a dition, large sales of thoroughbred take place, course of public entertainments. There is a new but these are less prominent at Lexington than court-house of cut sandstone. The New York at some neighboring towns, such as Paris. This Central and Hudson River Railroad has a new business brings many strangers to the little passenger depot, and there is a fine opera ho use city, and gives it an unusually alert and cosmo- and several halls capable of seating large audipolitan air; but it also promotes to a great de- ences. The surplus water of the canal at the gree the evils that unfortunately attend horse upper level is utilized in two races, one in the racing. Lexington is also famous for the manu- form of a tunnel, opposite each other, and each facture of “ Bourbon” whisky, a beverage made with a fall of fifty-three feet to the canal below, of a mixture of corn and grain, which is pecul- Along the line of this water power are large iarly strong in alcohol and fiery in its taste.stone flouring mills, the works of the Holly There are several large distilleries in or near the Manufacturing Company, manufactories of mill

ing machinery, a planing mill, a canning fac- of property exempted from taxation, $1,800,tory, and machine shops and foundries that 000. Moncton is the terminus of the Buctouche manufacture steam dredges, boilers, engines, wa- and Moncton railway; two short lines--extenter wheels, saws, stave, broom, veneer, and chair sions of the Grand Trunk and the Canadian Pamachines, tackle blocks, and railroad trucks.cific--are surveyed across the province to this The surplus water below the locks is discharged point; and the lines of the Intercolonial from into a natural stream flowing with rapid fall Halifax, from Quebec, and from St. John, center northward to Lake Ontario. Here are a saw here. The general offices and the workshops of mill, employing 200 men and handling 15,000- the last-named railway are also here. The In000 feet of lumber and timber a year, two paper tercolonial Railway yard covers 95 acres, and and one rolling mill, an indurated-fiber compa- contains 20 miles of sidings. The railway buildny, turning out 540,000 pieces yearly, a wood- ings cover 8 acres, and $100,000 is being expulp mill, and electric smelting and aluminum pended this year in enlarging the machine shops works. Others manufactories are of cotton-bat- and providing accommodations for increasing ting, shirts, filters and coolers, barrels, brooms, traffic. Moncton is supplied by water from two staves and heading, carriages, furniture, files, and reservoirs, the first having an elevation of 140 reversible seats. Glass-works are in operation, feet and a capacity of 80,000,000 gallons, the and cider mills, refining by sand. The Holly second having 200 feet elevation and a capacity steam heating system had its origin at Lockport. of 40,000,000 gallons. The water supply is ade

Meriden, à city of New Haven County, Conn., quate for a population of 30,000. The town is midway between Hartford and New Haven, eight- lighted by electricity. There are 1 high school teen miles from either, on the New Haven and and 7 common schools, having 22 teachers, 8 Hartford Railroad; latitude 41° 42 north, longi- churches, 2 daily and 2 weekly newspapers, and tude 72° 47' west: population in 1880, 18,340; in 3 banks. The principal manufacturing establish1887, 24,309. It became a city in 1867. It is ments are a sugar refinery, with a capital of lighted by electricity and has good electric-car $300,000 and an annual product exceeding 70,service, water from a mountain reservoir, elec- 000 barrels; a cotton mill, with a capital of tric fire alarm, and a paid fire department. The $300,000, and having 12,000 spindles; a flouring town has 3 post-offices, 5 banks, 15 churches, 18 mill, with a capacity of 300 barrels a day; an public-school buildings in which are employed iron foundry, with a capital of $35,000 and an 84 teachers, 1 German and 1 parochial school, annual product worth $70,000; manufactures and 1 convent. Its high-school building and of agricultural implements, wooden ware, carits Congregational church are among the finest riages, steam engines, mill machinery, brass and buildings in the State, The State Reform School iron hardware, etc. The imports increased from is here. The school population for 1889 was $63,498, in 1880, to $851,729, in 1889, and exports 5,651; the “ grand list” for the same year was increase from $12,718 in 1880 to $283,195 in $10,000,000. The principal productions are elec- 1889. A bill for a city charter is now in prepatro-plated goods, gas and lamp fixtures, lamps, ration. ornamental bronzes, cast, forged, and malleable New Britain, a city of Hartford County, iron, brass kettles, casters, door latches, locks, Conn. The town was incorporated in 1850 and sleigh, door, table, and call bells, builders' and the city in 1870. The population, which was carriage-makers' hardware, spoons, screws, vises, 3,029 in 1850, was 13,978 in 1880, and is about coffee-mills, power presses, pocket and table cut- 18,000 in 1889. It is largely a manufacturing lery, steel pens, harness trimmings, flint glass, reed city, having 173 mills, manufactories, and busiorgans, orguinettes, shot - guns, piano stools, ness establishments. The large hardware estabclocks, and woolen goods. Meriden has a rail- lishments have greatly increased their facilities road of its own connecting it with Cromwell on and buildings within ten years. The New York the Connecticut, and another connecting it with and New England Railroad passes directly Waterbury. The Curtis Home is an institution through the city, and the New York, New Haven built by the late Lemuel J. Curtis, for aged women and Hartford main line within two miles, with and orphans, and endowed with $600,000. The a branch line to the city, connecting with the Hon. 1. C. Lewis, of Meridian, has recently fin- New York and New England. A fine passenger ished a brick and free-stone business block, at an station of stone and brick was completed in 1887, expense of $75,000, and given it to the trustees of and is used by both roads. A tramway on the the Meridian City Mission. A soldiers' monument principal streets was opened in the autumn of was erected in 1875, at an expense of $15,000. 1886. The water supply of the city, which comes Meriden is in an interesting geological locality, from Shuttle Meadow Lake, has been increased surrounded by trap rocks rising 900 feet above by the construction of the Panther Swamp Canal, the waters of 'Long Island Sound, among which and is now abundant. Sewers extend to nearly Prof. William M. Davis has recently discovered all parts of the city. The principal streets, the ash-bed of an extinct volcano.

buildings, and stores are lighted by electricity. Moncton, a town of Westmorland County, A new building for the Connecticut State NorNew Brunswick, at the head of navigation on mal School was completed and opened in 1883. Petitcodiac river, at the grand junction of the The Mechanics' National Bank, the second bank Intercolonial Railway system, 186 miles north- of discount in the city, was opened in 1887. A west from Halifax and 89 miles northeast from large Roman Catholic cathedral is building, and St. John. It was settled in 1763 by two fami- also a stone church for the Methodists. The lies of German descent from the vicinity of Young Men's Christian Association building, to Philadelphia. The population in 1871 was 1,200; cost about $50,000, was erected in 1887. The in 1881, 5,032; in 1889, estimated at 9,000. New Britain " Herald” was consolidated with The assessed valuation is $2,000,000; valuation the “ Observer” in October, 1887, and a daily

and weekly edition are issued. A State armory, all imposin brick structure, was erected in 1887. The New Britain Institute, in 1887, received a rtion of the bequests of the late Cornelius B. rwin, and has made considerable additions to its library and reading-room. Newburgh, a city of Orange County, N. Y., on the west bank of Hudson river, 60 o, above New York city. It is surrounded on three sides by mountains. It covers 4 square miles, and is, for the most part, built upon a series of terraces, averaging 150 feet above the river. It has a [...". of about 25,000. Its harbor, Newurgh bay, is 8 miles long, with a front of from a mile to a mile and a half, and has a depth of from 30 to 60 feet. The facilities for lading are better, and elevator charges for grain less than in the harbor of New $. Newburgh has a large forwarding business in lumber and coal also. For the latter it is a large market; coal from Pennsylvania mines is transshipped from rail to coasters and barges, destined for all districts of New England and Canada accessible by ocean, lake, river, or canal. Returning vessels are often loaded with lumber. The West Shore Railroad runs through the city, and the Erie into it. The Lehigh and the Ontario & Western connect, and ferries, which ply winter and summer, connect with the New York Central, New York and New England, and the Newburgh, Dutchess, and Connecticut lines. Eight lines of steamers ply to and from the city regularly, in addition to the two ferries, and innumerable tramp vessels increase the trade. Newburgh owns a large fleet of river craft—steamboats, schooners, and barges. It is a favorite place for excursions. The old stone house, which was the headquarters of Washington during the last years of the Revolutionary War, is preserved within the city limits in its original condition, at the expense of the State, and attracts many tourists. The city is lighted by gas and electricity, and is abundantly supplied with water from a lake three miles distant and 276 feet above the lower level, affording ample supply to extinguish fires in the business part without engines. The higher parts are fed from a high-level reservoir, filled b R. The fire department is well equipped. here are 4 daily newspapers, and 4 banks. Newburgh is especially proud of its public schools, of which there are 1 primary, 3 graded, and a free academy. The private schools include the Newburgh Institute, which prepares for college, a boarding - school for girls, and 3 parochial schools controlled by Roman Catholics. There is a free public library of 20,000 volumes, which is also abundantly supplied with periodical literature. The Young W. Christian Association numbers 600, and has a handsome building, with library, and all the usual accessories. The churches number 24, and there are a Children's Home, a Home for the Friendless, St. Luke's Home, and an almshouse which is largely self-supporting by means of its farm. The rate of taxation is about two mills to the dollar. The city has a board of trade. Cheap building is facilitated by the neighborhood of the great brick fields of the Hudson, and most of the buildings are of brick. The manufactures include wire goods, paper, shoes, plaster, line, engines, machinery, soap, boats, paper boxes, woolens, cot

tons, carpets, clothing, carriages, hats, brushes, tiles, and wood-work. Among the machines for which Newburgh is famous are the Wright engines, used upon the Brooklyn Bridge, and lawn mowers. Norwich, a city of New London County, Conn., at the head of tide-water on the river Thames, at the base of a high bluff, 14 miles from Long Island sound, 136 miles from New York, and 95 miles from Boston. Its population is about 25,000. It is the southern terminus of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad, and a daily line of passenger and freight steamers connect it with New York. The New London Northern Railroad passes through the city, Horse-car tracks are laid in the principal streets, extending out to the suburban . es, and gas and electric lights are in general use. The water works have a sufficient head to throw a stream over the highest buildings. Norwich is a large manufacturing center, having 40 establishments of various kinds within its limits which employ 5,500 hands, to whom is paid $2,160,000 a year. The making of cotton and woolen fabrics, fire-arms, paper, merchantable iron, printing presses, and locks are among the chief industries. The four cotton-mills, whose aggregate capital is $2,750,000, run 184,000 spindles, employ 2,800 operatives, and pay $810,000 for labor, manufacture 34,500,000 yards of cloth, and consume 8,650,000 pounds of cotton annually. The Ponemah cotton mill, which is said to be the largest but one in the country—being a trifle less than a third of a mile in length—emloys 1,500 hands, and turns out yearly 20,Wood yards of goods. Norwich has an excellent harbor and is accessible to vessels drawing thirteen feet of water. It does a large lumber and coal trade, and also deals heavily in cotton, wool, and iron. It has 6 national banks, with a combined capital of $2,320,000, and 3 savings banks whose aggregate deposits amount to more than $13,000,000. There are 25 churches and 22 school buildings. The Free Academy was built and endowed by !. subscriptions, amounting to $260,000. Within the past three years, Wm. A. Slater (son of the late John F. Slater, who gave $1,000,000 for the education of Southern blacks) has built and given to the Free Academy a fine building at a cost of nearly $200,000, in memory of his father. This is to be used for public lectures, graduating exercises, mineral and floral collections, a library, music room, etc. A large hall in the building is to be used for an art museum. Through Mr. Slater's generosity, an agent has been sent abroad to purchase works of art for the museum, and in a few months the collection, one of the largest and finest in the country, will be open to the public. Norwich has many beautiful residences. From its picturesque situation and its many attractive features, in the way of public buildings, parks, and streets shaded by elms and maples, the city is known as “the Rose of New England"—a name given it by Henry Ward Beecher, who was an enthusiastic admirer of the place. Pensacola, a city, and the county seat of Escambia County, Fla., in the northwestern part of the State, on Pensacola Bay: population, about 15,000. The bay is 30 miles long, and from 3 to 4 miles wide, affording a land-locked

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