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ries, with a capital of $700,000, employing 1,700 men, with annual production of $2,175,000. Four of these have doubled their capacity during the year. Two pressed-brick works have a caacity of 36,000,000 bricks per annum. Findlay i. the only manufactory in the world of seamless steel tubes, with a capital of $4,000,000, 3 large foundries and machine shops, 2 rollin mills in operation, and a third partially erected, with o capital, and to employ 1,500 to 3,000 men. There are 2 chain factories, a pottery employing 300 men, a wire-nail works, an oilrefinery, railroad car and repair shops, a typewriter factory, with capacity of 1,500 machines per annum, extension-table works, a church-furniture factory 2 brass foundries, an excelsior factory, lime-kilns, 8 planing mills, an aluminium factory, electrical-supply works, edge-tool and drilling and mining-tool works, a tin and copper and a refrigerator factory, galvanizediron-cornice works, a woolen and a linseed-oil mill, cooper shops, flouring mills, carriage and harness factories, stave and handle works, a rake factory, bottling works, cigar factories, and other industries. Florence, a city, the county seat of Lauderdale County, Ala., in the northwestern part of the State, on a high plateau, overlooking Tennessee river, at the head of navigation. It is 150 feet above high water. Until 1887 it was a burgh of 1,500 inhabitants. In January, 1889, the population was 6,000; in October of the same year it was estimated at from 8,000 to 10,000. Bailey's and other medicinal springs in the vicinity, have given it reputation as a health resort. The death rate is less than 7 in 1,000. The climate is favorable, that part of Alabama being exempt from extremes of heat or cold. The highest temperature during 1888 was 95.3°; the lowest during the winter 1888–89, 18°. Florence has fine parks and drives, and wide, shaded streets, lighted by electricity, and paved with natural gravel. It has excellent drainage. The State Normal College, Florence Synodical Female College, and Mars Hill Academy are located here, with other public and private schools. A Baptist university is being built and will be liberally endowed. There are numerous churches regular services being held by the Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Catholic, and Christian denominations. Baptist and Cumberland Presbyterian churches, are also projected. Florence has a valuable electric plant; and Cox's, Sweetwater, and Cyprus creeks, furnish the water for its water works and various factories. The city has no debt. The rate of taxation in 1888 was $1.50 on $100. The State Legislature recently permitted an amendment to the charter of Florence, exempting new manufactories from city taxes for ten years. There are 32 manufactories in operation, including cotton-mills, an iron furnace, a manufactory of builders' hardware, a cotton cultivator company, wagon works, corn and flour mills, a shoe factory, stove foundry, spoke and handle factory, ice factory, woodenware factory, bagging factory, sash, door, and blind factory, and blast furnaces. The majority of these were established in Florence within the six months previous to October, 1889. The amount of capital invested during that period is computed at $14,212,500. Her geographical po

(FLORENCE, Fort Worth, FREDERIcton.)

sition necessarily concentrates at Florence the bulk of the industries along the line of her great waterway. In addition to her water transportation for 15,000 miles, in the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi valleys, this city is a railway center for agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and timber interests, having the Louisville and Nashville, Memphis and Charleston. Florence Northern, and the Sheffield and Birmingham, and Tennessee River railways. Lauderdale County is in the cereal belt. Farming, stock raising, and manufacturing are extensively pursued. It has valuable timber, and just south of it are the Warrior coal-fields, Whil. the pine forests of Georgia are within fifty miles of Florence. Immense beds of hematite iron ore lie twenty miles north. The important and costly engineering work, undertaken by the State with Government aid, to overcome the obstruction in the Tennessee river at Muscle Shoals, is practically completed. Locks have been tested, and an aqueduct upon stone abutments bridges the creek for steamboat passage over the shoals. The trough, 60 feet wide, by 1,500 feet in length, is to contain 5 feet of water, the same depth as the canal. This gives Florence direct communication with the steel-making ores of east Tennessee, and the vast coal-beds below Chattanooga. Fort Worth, the county seat of Tarrant County, Tex., in the northern part of the State, on the south bank of Trinity river. The population is about 30,000. The city has an altitude of 825 feet, and 20 miles to the south stretches an unbroken prairie. It has 10 railroads. 6 of which are trunk lines. Two other lines are being built to the coal fields 45 miles westward, and to the iron region in Llano and Mason counties, to the southwest. A fine bed of hematite ore lies 3 miles south of the city, from which it is expected steel will be manufactured in a twelvemonth. There are 7 banks with aggregated capital of $1,960.000, 40 miles of graded streets, 15 miles of street railway, 20 miles of water mains, and 13 of sewerage. The water works are of the Holly system. Artesian wells, 150 in number, also furnish water from a depth of from 150 to 300 feet. One hundred tons of ice are manufactured daily from artesian water. The churches number 15, and there is a fine system of public schools. Tarrant County produces not only cotton, corn, and wheat, but two annual crops of oats and three of hay. It is a fine fruit-growing region. The annual rainfall is 37 inches. The flouring mills of Fort Worth have an elevator storage of 1,000,000 bushels, and grind 1,000 barrels daily. In 1888, 60,000 bales of cotton were shipped from the city, and 80,000 head of cattle. A union stock-yards company has been formed, with capital of $200,000. There is a Union Depot, and a Board of Trade building that cost $110,000. Fredericton, the capital of New Brunswick and of York County, in latitude 45° 55' north, longitude 46° 32' west, on the right bank of St. John river, S5 miles from its mouth as the stream runs, though only 65 by rail. The population in 1881 was 6,218: in 1889, estimated at 7.300. The city proper covers nearly a square mile, and is laid out with great regularity, the streets crossing each other at right angles. The public buildings include the Parliament and departmental buildings, the county court-house, the officers' quarters, stone barracks, the post-office and custom house, the provincial normal school, the city hall, Victoria Hospital, and Government House, the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor. The Parliament Building, erected in 1881 to replace a wooden one that was destroyed by fire, is a handsome structure of gray freestone with a beautiful Corinthian front. Adjoining this building is a fireproof structure containing the legislative library of 10,500 volumes. The departmental building, which has just been finished, is of purplish gray stone found in the neighborhood. The barrack buildings were erected by the Imperial Government about the beginning of the century, and the imperial troops were stationed here till about the time of the confederation of the provinces. The barracks are now occupied by an infantry school. The corps consists of a permanent force of about one hundred young men, with one or two veterans of the imperial service. The normal-school building, erected in 1876, is of brick trimmed with gray freestone, and is surrounded with grounds tastefully laid out. The Victoria Hosital, erected in 1887, to commemorate the §o. Jubilee, is of wood. This institution will be associated with the name of Lady Tilley, to whose efforts it owes its existence. The Government House, which has been used as the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor for over sixty years, is a large, old-fashioned, but very commodious stone building, in beautiful grounds. The Fredericton branch of the New Brunswick Railway connects here with St. John and Maine. The Gibson branch connects with Woodstock, 66 miles from Fredericton, and with Quebec by the Temisconata and Riviere du Loup Railway. The Northern and Western Railway, with its terminus at Chatham, connect with points on the north shore and with Quebec by the International Railway. The Fredericton Railway steel bridge, completed last year, connects the railways on the opposite banks of the river. The Fredericton Boom Company has its headquarters here, and employs hundreds of men to collect and raft all the logs that are cut on the river and its tributaries. The other industries are few. There are 1 large foundry, 5 carriage and sleigh factories, 2 sash-and-door factories, several tanneries, 1 broom factory, 1 canning establishment, and 3 saw mills. The Church of England has a fine cathedral of Gothic architecture. besides a parish church. The Roman Catholic church is a large wooden structure. Adjoining it are two brick buildings, one being a convent and the other the residence of the priests. St. Paul's Presbyterian Church is of limestone, recently erected at a cost of $25,000. The Baptist church is of purplish gray sandstone, erected in 1882. There are several other churches, and the Salvation Army has erected a brick building at a cost of about $4,000. The university was established by provincial charter in 1800, afterward founded and incorporated by royal charter, and reorganized by an amended charter in 1860. The faculty consists of six professors, including the president. The endowment yields annually $8,800. The provincial normal school, established in 1846, has six instructors, includ

ing the principal, and an attendance of about two hundred. The collegiate school is under the joint control of the university senate and the city school board. There are seven other schools. All except the normal department are supported by a direct tax amounting to $14,000 annually and by grants to the teachers from the provincial treasury. There are 5 newspapers, including 1 daily, and 4 banks. The ferry boats that formerly plied between the city and Gibson and St. Mary's on the opposite side have given way to a substantial bridge that cost about $70.000. There is a fine water supply by direct oumping from the river. The streets and many ouses are lighted with electricity, though gas is still largely used. The use of the telephone is general. The taxable valuation of real estate (not including provincial, municipal, church, and college property, which are exempt) is $1,754,330; personal estate, $1,161,075. The value of the imports for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1889, was $575,795, and the duty thereon $69,416. The value of the exports, which consist chiefly of lumber, shingles, laths, bark, and railroad ties, was $132,410. Fresno, the county seat of Fresno County, Cal., the exact geographical center of the State, on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, 207 miles from San Francisco. The population is nearly 10,000. The county lies in the valley of San Joaquin river, and contains 2,000,000 acres of land susceptible of irrigation, which was introduced about twenty years ago. From a stock-raising, it became a grain section, and now is especially famous for its fruit. In 1887 there were 1,050 miles of trunk canals in operation, built at a cost of $2,000,000, and capable of watering 720,000 acres. There are 1,000,000 acres of heavily timbered land in Fresno County, and two groves of the big trees. Thirteen saw-mills are in operation, and 15,000,000 feet of lumber were sold from yards in Fresno in 1888. Mining for coal and minerals is also carried on, though not to a large extent. In 1888, 2,541,115 pounds of dried fruit were exported and 1,455,530 of green. Oranges, figs, and olives grow readily, as well as the more hardy fruits. Raisin culture was introduced about ten years since. The total raisin crop of the State for 1888 was 18.300,000 pounds; that of Fresno County, 10,686,270; and that of Fresno proper, 8,300,000. In 1887, 16,786 acres were planted in vineyards, and the annual product of wine is 2,500,000 gallons. A board of trade was established two years ago. The city is built principally of brick, and has fine residences and business blocks, electric lights, teleso water works, a fire department, and a orse railroad. A sewerage system is under construction. There are 3 projected railroads, 4 banks, 2 fine hotels, 9 churches, and a high school. There are 2 daily and 3 weekly newsapers. In addition to the planing mills and umber yards, there are a machine shop and foundry, agricultural implement and cornice works, marble and stone cutting yards, warehouses, the largest Malaga fruit-packing houses in the State, and a flouring mill that grinds 200 barrels daily. The court-house occupies a city block, and cost $60,000. There is a Masonic temple, a club house, and fair grounds. Upon the latter $30,000 were spent in the past year. The increase of total value of all city property in 1888 over 1887 was $3,427,020–141 per cent. Gadsden, the county seat of Etowah County, Ala.; population in 1889, about 6,000. It stands on the western bank of the Coosa, at the southern terminus of that range of mountains which, beginning in Lookout, at Chattanooga, runs unbrokenly southwestward for 90 miles, and for all that distance is impassable to wheeled vehicles. This range abounds in hematite iron ores, both red and brown; limestone for flux is near at hand, and coal and coke are only a few miles away from Gadsden. The transportation facilities are already abundant, and additions are in prospect. The “Queen and Crescent” through route passes (at Atalla) within five miles of Gadsden, with which it is connected by a branch. The Rome and Decatur Railroad gives connection with the system of the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia, while the Anniston and Cincinnati Railroad connects at Anniston, 28 miles southwest, with the extensive systems of the Georgia Pacific and the Richmond and Danville Rail

ways. Steamers on the Coosa between Gadsden.

and Rome, carrying the United States mail to twenty-seven post-offices, make schedule time every day in the year. These lines give Gadsden transportation facilities and freight rates that put it upon an equality with other manufacturing points in the South. In the mountains east of Gadsden, immediately on the line of the Anniston and Cincinnati Railroad and in close proximity to Coosa river, are vast beds of brown ores. The company that owned the principal mineral properties and the town site built a furnace, which was “blown in " Oct. 14, 1888. It has a capacity of 125 tons of iron each 24 hours, and furnishes employment, at mines and furnace together, for 300 men. A second furnace, lately completed, turns out 40 tons of charcoal iron a day. Its owners operate a short railroad and steamboat and barge line, and burn their own charcoal. Their ore is mined within half a mile of the furnace, and is worked direct from the mine. The Elliot Car Works have a capacity of 12 cars a day and employ from 250 to 300 men. This company is part “owner of the Round Mountain ore bed, which is widely noted as giving an iron of peculiar excellence for car-wheels. There are also several smaller factories, foundries, lumber and wood-working mills, flouring mills, and brickyards. The river and railroad centering here pass through good agricultural lands, and two cotton warehouses, with a capacity of 15,000 bales, have been provided. The site of the business portion is level, and the town is handsomely built up, everything being modern, new, and fresh. One of the finest hotels in the South has been erected by the Improvement Company. A motor line runs to the suburbs and to the Nochalula Falls, which are formed by a mountain torrent leaping 94 feet from the top of Lookout Mountain into an alpine gorge about 200 feet wide, with o pendicular walls 60 to 100 feet high for nearly a mile below the falls. The recess behind this cataract would shelter 5,000 persons. The streets and many buildings are lighted by electricity. There are water works and an ice factory. A fine park and drive have been made around Lake George, which affords opportunity

for boating, and chalybeate springs form a further attraction. Halifax, the capital and metropolis of Nova Scotia; population in 1881, 36,096: in 1889, estimated at 41,000. Halifax was settled in 1749 and incorporated in 1841. It is about midway of the Atlantic coast of the province, on Chebucto Bay, one of the finest harbors on the contiment, is built on a peninsula 4 miles long and # to 24 miles wide, and covers about 8 square miles. Its streets run at right angles and are generally well shaded. Its common contains 235 acres. Point Pleasant Park contains 186 acres, and has beautiful drives and scenery. The public gardens contain 174 acres, recently improved at a cost of more than $60,000. Halifax is the winter port of Canada for English mails and shipping, and an important British military and naval station. The extensive properties of the War Department and the presence of war ships in the harbor and of imperial troops throughout the city are necessarily a prominent feature, and mark this as the most English city in America. The citadel, an immense fortification two hundred and fifty-six feet above sealevel, commands the city and the harbor. York Redoubt across the Northwest Arm, George's island within and McNab's island at the entrance of the harbor, Fort Clarence, on Dartmouth side, and Point Pleasant, are all strongly fortified. Other properties of the War Department throughout the city are estimated to be worth $1,500,000. Halifax is the headquarters of the imperial forces in British North America, and the principal station of the North American and West India squadron of the royal navy. About 2,500 troops are generally stationed here. It is also the seat of a bishop of the Church of England, and of a Roman Catholic archbishop. There are 38 churches—12 Anglican, 4 Roman Catholic, 8 Presbyterian. 7 Methodist, 6 Baptist, and 1 Universalist. The principal educational institutions are Dalhousie College and University, which has 9 professors and 3 instructors in its Arts faculty, and 2 professors and 5 lecturers in its Law faculty: Halifax Medical College, with 11 professors, 4 lecturers, and 1 extra mural lecturer; the Presbyterian Theological Hall, with 3 professors: Halifax Ladies' College and Conservatory of Music, with 12 teachers: Academy of the Sacred Heart, with 14 teachers; and Halifax Business College. There are also numerous private schools. The city schools are the Halifax County and City Academy, which has 5 teachers, and 20 common schools, with 114 teachers. The total number of pupils attending city schools is somewhat over 7,000. The compulsory education law is to be enforced hereafter, and the school attendance will probably be increased. Five newspapers are published daily, 3 tri-weekly, and 7 weekly: besides 1 bi-monthly and 1 monthly periodical. There are 8 banks, 15 hotels, 3 public libraries, several reading-rooms, and numerous charitable institutions, among which are the Mount Hope Asylum for the Insane (Dartmouth), the county poor-house, Halifax School for the Blind, Halifax Deaf and Dumb Institution, Halifax Dispensary, the Protestant Industrial School, Home for the Aged, House of Industry for girls, Women's Home, Orphan's Home, Infant's Home,

and Victoria Hospital. The last-named build- erty in the city is $21,562,603 ; of exempted ing is being enlarged at a cost of $55,000. The property, Nov. 1, 1889, as follows: Churches, Young Men's Christian Association owns a spa- $611,000; charitable, $183,500; industrial, $600,cious building valued at $40,000. Among the 000; educational, $202,000; to which should be more important public buildings are the Do- added the cost of city school buildings, $193,000; minion Building, which cost $120,000; the new miscellaneous, $805,000; much city, Governcity hall, $130,000; the Provincial Building, ment, and imperial property remains unestirecently modernized; the Government House; mated. The city debt, Nov. 1, 1889, was $1,950,and the court-house. A new granite dry-dock 000 (including the cost of water-supply, $802,000,

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has been built at a cost of $1,000,000; a new and of school buildings $193,000). Halifax is Dalhouisie College building. $80,000; and the the chief eastern terminus of Canadian railways, Church of England Institute, $16,000 ; and a has regular steamship communication with both new city school building is being erected at a sides of the Atlantic, and is an important cable, cost of $16,000. Electricity is used for lighting, telephone, and telegraph station. Its manufactand will soon be adopted as the motive power on ures, except of sugar, rope, cotton, and skates, the seven miles of street railway. There were though numerous, are not extensive. As a wareported at the Immigration Office 15,053 immi- tering place, it offers a salubrious air, fine scengrants for 1888, and 10,937 for the first ten ery, bathing, and historic associations. months of 1889. The imports for the year end Helena, the capital of Montana, and county ing June 30, 1889, amounted to $6,940,342, of seat of Lewis and Clarke County, the commerwhich $2,216,179 worth were entered free. The cial, financial, and railroad center of the State, value of home consumption of imports was situated at the eastern foot of the Rocky mount$6,521,848; the total duties collected, $1,836,- ains, 12 miles from Missouri river. The pop089.81. During the same year vessels entered ulation, by census of 1880, was 3,600; in 1889 this port as follows: From foreign ports, 1,049, it was about 20,000. Originally a town site of having 618,446 tonnage, 22,671 men, and 226,451 160 acres, Helena was founded in 1864 by miners tons of cargo; and 3,404 coastwise vessels, hav- in “ Last Chance Gulch," on both sides of which ing 284,475 tonnage and 20,377 men. Of vessels the city is built, and from which $20,000,000 of that cleared, 1,414

were for foreign ports, having gold has been taken. The city was three times 603.105 tonnage, 26,774 men, and 168,608 tons of destroyed by fire (in 1867, 1872, and 1874) and was cargo; 3,095 were coastwise vessels, having 317,- incorporated in 1881, with an area of 9 square 396 tonnage and 3,095 men; and 481 were fish- miles. The Northern Pacific Railroad reached ing vessels, having 36,320 tonnage and 6,630 Helena in 1883, and the Manitoba and Montana men. The assessed valuation of taxable prop- Central was completed in 1887, entering the city

by way of the Great Falls of the Missouri and the cañon of the Prickly Pear. A short rail extension to Butte City connects with the Union Pacific. There are 11 local roads. Twenty-two passenger trains arrive and leave daily. There are 4 telegraph and 2 express companies. Telephone communication is maintained with the surrounding mining districts, within a radius of 50 miles, as well as with Deer Lodge and Butte City. The total mineral production of Montana in 1888 was $41,000,000, of which $24,666,000 was gold and silver, and in 1887 the production of the Territory in these metals was greater than that of either of the three leading States. The out-put of the United States Assay Office at Helena for the fiscal year 1888 was $1,344,094.59, of which $1,316,608 was gold. The largest gold bar ever made, weighing 7,000 ounces and worth $101,385.50, was cast by that office in 1889. In East Helena, a suburb, there is a $1,000,000 smelter, turning out daily 60 tons of silver bullion, and there are two reduction works. The assessed valuation of Helena property is $9,000,000, and that of the county $4,000,000. In 1888 $3,055,000 were expended in buildings and improvements. The capital, surplus, and undivided profits of five banks were $8,300,000. There are thirty miles of graded streets and avenues, with board sidewalks, one street railway, and one steam-motor line. Water is supplied by mountain streams, and the water works of three companies aggregate in cost $600,000. Gas and electricity are employed in lighting. The slope of the city from south to north affords excellent drainage, and $280,000 have been appropriated for a general sewerage system. A fire department, owning three engines, has a salvage corps, watch-tower with alarm bell, and electric signals. The post-office o are $39,000 yearly. The Catholic and Episcopal denominations have each a hospital, and the Catholic a reformatory institution. The public schools have 21 teachers and 859 pupils. The school buildings are of brick, with all modern appliances. St. Vincent's Academy, for girls, and St. Aloysius parochial school are Catholic, and there is an Episcopal parish school. One of the two business colleges is also a normal training school. The libraries are the Terrritorial Law library, that of the Historical Society, and that of the Young Men's Christian Association. Three daily and numerous weekly newspapers are published. There are nine hotels, and the city has a Chinese quarter. The Territorial fair has been held annually at Helena, and it is also the seat of a United States land office. To the north lies the fertile valley of the Prickly Pear. Lumber and coal are near. Granite, marble, porphyry, sandstone, and limestone are found within city limits and within ten to twenty miles. Sand for mortar is washed down in flumes from placer mines. The court house, of native granite and sandstone, cost $200,000, and has been used for the Capitol. By the act of admittance of the State, 182,000 acres of land were given by Congress for public buildings at the capital. There are many beautiful residences so fine parks. A steamer runs eighteen miles to the famous cañon of the Gates of the Rocky Mountains. Four miles from the city are the Hot Springs, a health resort, with a new hotel costing $100,000, and bathing-pool

120 by 300 feet. Water is conveyed six miles at a temperature of 150°. The industries embrace foundries, machine-shops, saw and planing mills, brick works, and breweries. The latitude of Helena is 46° 30'; longitude, 112° 4'; altitude, 4,256 feet; annual mean temperature, 48°.

Houston, the county seat of Harris County, Tex., in the eastern part of the State, 50 miles northwest of Galveston, on the bank of Buffalo Bayou, at the head of tide-water and navigation. A ship channel, 200 feet wide and 12 feet deep, from the Gulf of Mexico, through Galveston Bay, to the city is under construction by the United States Government. At present vessels of nine feet draught pass up Buffalo Bayou to within a few miles of Houston. The facilities for trans

rtation promised by this undertaking have ed to the extension of railroads, bringing the produce of western Texas to Houston as a shipping point. More than 5,000 miles of railway reach tide-water at this point, and two lines of Mexican railway also have their base here as the nearest available connection with Atlantic ports. No great engineering difficulties exist in the construction of the channel, and its completion will greatly facilitate the coastwise trade of the United States and commerce with Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. The city was founded in 1836, and has had a steady growth. Its population in 1887 was estimated at 35,000; in 1889 it was 42,000. Its taxable wealth in 1889 was $11,400,000. In 1887 there were $750,000 invested in public works—gas, water, and electric lights; $2,750,000 in manufactures: $300,000 in shipping ; and $1,400,000 in banks (including surplus). The deposits in national banks Dec. 31, 1887, were $1,789,191.68. The manufacturing interests have advanced. Two cotton-seed-oil mills have been erected, at a cost of $500,000, and there are five cotton presses, which for the year 1887 handled 748,036 bales. The repair and manufacturing shops of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company have been erected here, a car-wheel foundry, and also a large brewing establishment. The Live-Stock Association of Texas selected Houston as a central market of the cattle-growing interests, and the construction of a refrigerating plant of $500,000, to which the city contributed $255,000 was resolved upon in March, 1887. There are several foundries, soap factories, a fence-wire, a broom, and a plow factory, and other industrial enterprises. †. total value of manufactured products and sales of merchandise for 1888 was $23,250,000. Houston is the center of twelve lines of railway, the tonnage of which for the year ending Sept. 30, 1887, was estimated at 2,229.295 tons. It is also a postal center, and the erection of a post-office building has been authorized by Congress. Houston is the chief distributing point for groceries, provisions, hardware, and agricultural implements in southern and eastern Texas, and is one of the chief marts in the State for cotton, lumber, hides, and agricultural products. The lumber interest is large, as the city lies on the edge of the great pine forests of eastern Texas. In 1887, 346,690,000 feet were shipped. Truck-farming is profitable. The city has a street railway and a complete system of water works; artesian water is obtained at a depth of 150 to 200 feet. The streets are wide, and the drainage good. The

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