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their business into Kentucky and Ohio. The annual wholesale trade amounts to about $2,500,000. This has grown to its present proportions mainly within the past fifteen years, since the opening of the coal mines, which are now worked in great numbers, from Charleston to about sixty miles, up the Kanawha-New valley, and which, with their coke-ovens and attendant industries, sustain 50,000 people. All of these derive their supplies mainly from Charleston, and many of the managers dwell there, while her citizens have large investments in the mines. The State contains a vast area of almost untouched forest, and enormous quantities of logs are sent down the Elk and Kanawha rivers—an industry of great value to the city. Finally, there is every prospect of recovering the flow of natural gas, which gradually ceased to come from the old salt-wells in serviceable quantities several years ago, through the choking (it is supposed) of the uncased wells. One excellent gas well has been struck. If these experiments are successful salt-making will be resumed, great iron-making establishments can be set up, and general manufacturing entered upon under very advantageous circumstances. Petroleum is known to exist, and experimental boring in the neighborhood is being done. The Kanawha is in course of improvement by the Government, which has already expended $7,500,000 upon permanent works, mainly after the French system of movable dams, which can be erected at low water and lowered out of the way of boats when the river is high enough to make them unnecessary. There is even better navigation than on the upper Ohio, and, as the locks are free, the rates of traffic are cheaper than on the Monongahela. Hence the coal and other products of the Kanawha valley can be sent to the Western cities cheaper than can those of the northern valleys of West Virginia. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway runs along the whole length of the Kanawha valley, and affords a direct route from Charleston to the Atlantic coast and westward to Cincinnati. The Kanawha and Ohio Railroad now runs from Charleston to the Ohio river, and connects with the Ohio railway system. This road is to be continued eastward and northward into the lumber regions, to connect, up the Gauley valley, with the West Virginia Central Railroad ; while a road down the Elk is intended to connect Charleston with the great grazing and lumbering interior north of her, and with the Baltimore and Ohio Railway. Charleston is beautifully located and well built up. The Capitol is a handsome building, costing $350,000, which occupies a pleasant park. The financial condition of the town and its surrounding country is good. Charlottetown, capital of the province of Prince Edward Island, at the confluence of three rivers—Elliott, York, and Hillsborough—on a fine harbor, in latitude 46° 13' 55" north, and longitude 63° 7' 23° west, about fifty miles from Pictou, Nova Scotia. The population in 1881 was 11,485; in 1889 it was estimated at 14,000. The streets are broad and run at right angles. There are four spacious public squares and a fine o Near the center of the city, surrounded y the well-kept gardens of Queen's Square,

stand the imposing Government buildings. The

Provincial Building, erected in 1843, contains the parliamentary rooms and library, the provincial museum, and the offices of 5. local government. The court-house, built in 1876, contains the apartments of the Supreme Court, the |. courts, and the registry offices. The }ominion Building, completed in 1887, contains the customs-office, the post-office, and the Dominion Savings Bank; adjacent to these stands the public market. A new city hall was completed in 1888. An asylum for the insane and two well equip ed hospitals are here. The Young Men's too. Association has a commodious and well - appointed building near Queen's Square. The city is lighted by electricity, and has an excellent system of water supply, costing $177,000, and an efficient fire department with apparatus costing $26,000. The assessed valuation of the city on Dec. 31, 1889, was $2,620,000, and the exempted property amounts to $1,561,444.51. The city debt is $289,700, including the cost of water-works, $177,000; and the assets are valued at $306,700. The educational institutions are the Prince of Wales College and Normal School, 3 city public schools, having 35 teachers and an average daily attendance of 900, St. Peter's Church schools (Anglican), a business college, 2 convent schools, and, in the suburbs, St. Dunstan's Roman Catholic College. Charlottetown is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. There are 9 churches— 1 Roman Catholic, 2 Anglican, 2 Presbyterian, 2 Methodist, 1 Baptist, and 1 Christian ; their property has a total valuation of $188,000. There are 2 daily and 5 weekly newspapers, 7 hotels, and 4 banks, including the Dominion Savings Bank, with deposits amounting to nearly $3,000,000. Charlottetown is headquarters for the Prince Edward Island Railroad, and is connected by telephone and telegraph with all parts of the island. It has steamship communication daily with Pictou, on the mainland, and weekly with Montreal, Halifax, and Boston. For the fiscal year ending June 30. 1889, there were entered, from foreign ports, 371 vessels, having 59,852 tonnage, and 17,726 tons of cargo, and 3,096 coastwise vessels, tonnage 420,449. Of the vessels that cleared, 426 were from foreign ports, tonnage 70,049, with 24,289 tons of cargo. There were 3,072 coast wise vessels, tonnage 415,094. The customs report shows imports amounting to $565,717; duty, $166,858.65; exports, $709,139. These figures represent only about 40 per cent. of the actual imorts and 50 per cent. of actual exports, as the arge inter-provincial trade is not reported. As a summer resort Charlottetown is justly popular.

Cleveland, a city and the county seat of Bradley County, Tenn., on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad, twenty-eight miles northeast of Chattanooga; population in 1889, about 4,000. It is in a gently rolling region, about 800 feet above sea-level, and the climate is both healthful and delightful in a high degree. This town is the business center of several counties, and also of the adjacent counties of Northern Georgia, reached by the branching railroad to Rome, Ga., and southward. Cleveland contains much wealth, as is attested by the unusual elegance of its public buildings and mansions, and by the well-regulated appearance of its streets. Fine roads radiate from it through a beautiful country, and the accommodation for visitors is good. Cleveland, consequently, is coming to be a favorite resort for summer visitors from the far South, and for winter residents seeking to escape the chill of the North. Many Northern families are found among its permanent population. A railroad has recently been surveyed from Cleveland to Murphy, N.C., which will give direct communication with the Atlantic coast, and open the Ductown copper mines, forty miles distant, which are now reached only by a picturesque road along the gorges of the Oconee river. Two banks have a combined capital of $300,000. There is a woolen-mill making 60,000 yards of jeans a month; stove-works turning out 10,500 stoves a year; a flouring mill equal to 125 barrels a day; large fire-brick and terracotta works; a chair factory and several woodworking establishments; and two large tanneries. A woodenware factory to employ 300 to 500 hands is being established. Eleven churches have buildings. The public schools have been largely increased and stimulated within the past two years, and are now in superior condition. Besides them, two institutions for the education of young ladies are flourishing, one having one hundred pupils. There is a fine opera house, and the town is supplied with gas, street cars, and telephones, and water-works are about to be introduced. The valuation of city property in 1888 was $1,250,000. Columbus, a city of Muscogee County, Ga., at the head of navigation on the Chattahoochee river, where it becomes the boundary line of the State, 100 miles from Macon, 115 from Atlanta, and 250 from the Atlantic coast. The population in 1887 was 27,469. Columbus is surrounded by a tributary territory of the richest mineral, timber, and agricultural lands. An exposition was held here in the autumn of 1889, to exhibit the products and resources of the Chattahoochee valley. Cotton, grain, and fine fruits are raised. An acre of ground will produce 1,000 of the famous Georgia watermelons. Truck-farming is profitable. Large quantities of building stone exist. The increase of taxable property in Columbus in 1887 was $1,104,327. The transportation facilities include four lines of steamers in regular service on the Chattahoochee river to the Gulf of Mexico, and six complete railroads. Two others are building. A dummy line through the city and suburbs connects with all roads entering the city. There is a fine general freight and passenger depot. For 45 miles above Columbus the Chatahoochee has a fall of 125 feet in two miles and a half, giving 1,000,000 horse-power at lowest water, and double that amount at average stage. The power within the city limits is 36,940 horse-power, of which about one tenth is utilized by three cotton mills, one of which, the Eagle and Phenix, is claimed to be the largest in the South. It has 48,000 spindles, 1,500 looms, a capital of $1,250,000, and employs 1,800 operatives. The yearly product is between $1,500,000 and $1,750,000. Other mills are run by steam. The total of capital invested in 43 manufactories in Columbus in 1888, all of which were paying dividends, was $5.564,109 : 4,596 operatives were employed, with a monthly pay roll of $95,317. The cotton receipts average 100,

000 bales yearly, of which 30,000 are consumed in local mills. There are three large compresses for shipment direct to Europe. Columbus has also large iron-works, manufacturing, with other machinery, an absorption ice-machine; foundries; a bagging factory turning out 3,000 yards daily; a barrel factory; a flour mill, with capacity of 600 barrels and 2,000 bushels of meal; planing and oil mills; knitting works; a clothing factory; fertilizing, ice, and refrigerating companies; and other industries. There are 4 banks with an aggregate capital of $1,600,000 and surplus of $815,000, here are 2 daily and 2 weekly newspapers, gas and electric lights, a street railway, and water works that supply water by gravitation from mountains four miles west of the city. The fire department is supplied with an electric alarm. The bonded debt of the city is less than $500,000, and taxation is 1 per cent. Public schools have been in existence seventeen years. A new public-school building for boys cost $40,000. ere are fine o schools also, a female college, two orphan omes, a public library, and a prosperous Young Men's Christian Association. There are nine churches for whites, including a Jewish synagogue, and several for colored people. The opera house has a seating capacity of 1,300. The annual mean temperature is 65°. The city has never been quarantined against yellow fever. Dalton, a city and the county seat of Whitfield County, Ga.; population, about 4,500. It is at the iunction of the Western and Atlantic and the #" Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroads. It is doing a mercantile business of over $1,250,000 annually, and has $500,000 invested in prosperous factories, the largest of which are flour mills and lumber mills. The principal products of the country are cotton, corn, grains, forage plants, and fine fruits. Of cotton the annual receipts amount to about 16,000 bales, and the dealings in this make Dalton one of the leading cotton markets of the State. Churches and schools are numerous, and the latter are supplemented by a female college. Both county and city are thoroughly opposed to the liquor traffic. Prohibitory laws prevail and are sustained. No liquor is sold in the city. “Prohibition,” writes a citizen, “ has been proved to be a benefit to the county and city. More goods are sold now than ever before: the farming element is in a better condition, with more fine stock and good, substantial homes, and the latest agricultural implements are noticed in use since the change has taken place. Our county jail is almost deserted.” Water works and electric lighting have lately been introduced, and a soldier's monument has just been unveiled in one of the parks. The streets are wide and well shaded. Dayton, a city of Rhea County, east Tennessee, on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad ; population in 1889, about 7,000. As the town lies at the foot of Walden Ridge, at a point where rich coal deposits crop out, close to Tennessee river, and is surrounded by rich, yet sparsely cultivated lands, excellent for farming and fruit-raising, it seems strange that it became noticeable only so late as 1880. About that time the Cincinnati Southern came through the village and connected it with Chattanooga, and the Dayton Coal and Iron Company began a development of the mineral resources of the locality, which has not yet ceased. This company erected two large blast-furnaces, and now employs more than 1,000 men. The property valuation, excluding the coal company and the railroad, approaches $350,000. A foundry, a broom factory, a medicine-making company, two roller-process flouring mills of large capacity, and several other manufacturing industries have arisen. A bank, an opera house, several churches, and the usual benevolent societies have been organized there. Nearly 100 business firms are represented in the mercantile list, and a large local supplying business is done. The situation of the town between the hills and the river is extremely pleasant; and so great a number of springs of both pure and mineralized water gush out of the rocks at the foot of Walden Ridge that wells are hardly a necessity. Dover, a city and port of entry of Strafford County, N. H., on Cocheco river, a branch of the Piscataqua. The central part of the city is at the head of tide-water at Cocheco Falls, where are located the Cocheco Cotton Mills and Print Works. The population in January, 1890, was 17,000. It is 63 miles northeast of Boston, on the Boston and Maine Railroad, and is connected by rail also with Portsmouth, 10 miles distant, and by railroad north to the lake and mountain region, so that four railroads center here. Horse-car tracks are laid in the principal streets. The grammar and high schools rank the highest in the State; free text-books are furnished to all the pupils in the public schools. There are also a flourishing academy for private students, a large public library, and ten churches. The coasting trade is very large. Twelve first-class schooners are owned by the Dover Navigation Company, and these, with numerous others, bring immense quantities of coal and lumber here. The Cocheco Cotton Mills, the Cocheco Print Works, and the Sawyer Woolen Mills are the chief manufacturing establishments, but an extensive business is done in the manufacture of boots and shoes of the best grades. There are also extensive machine shops and foundries and a belt factory. There are five banks. Dover is the shire town of the county, and the oldest town in the State, having been settled in 1623. The water power is extensive and valuable, but in addition to that a large amount of coal is used in running the manufacturing establishments. Public water works have been established. It has a fine court-house and a new city hall, and is to have a Government building for the post-office, which now does more business than that of any city in the State except Manchester. There are 3 daily newspapers and 3 weekly. There are 5 cotton - mills, with 108,416 spindles and 2,492 looms, which manufacture 31,500,000 yards of cloth per annuin, employing 900 women and girls and 300 men and boys. The print works were rebuilt and much enlarged during 1887, and printed 50,227,894 yards of prints in 1889; they employ 500 men and boys and 100 women and girls; these works are run wholly by steam, and use 7,000 tons of coal per annum. The Sawyer Woolen Mills have 40 sets of machinery, employ 500 hands, use 2,500,000 pounds vol. xxix.-10 A

of wool per annum, and manufacture 1,500,000 yards of woolen goods of various kinds, but all of the best grades used in Inaking suits for men and boys. The whole amount of capital invested in the various manufactures is about $5,000,000.

Findlay, the county-seat of Hancock County, Ohio, in the northwestern part of the State. The population in 1885 was 4,879; in 1887 about 14,000; in February, 1889, 27,500. Natural gas has given rise to a rapid development of manufactures. Gas was known to exist in 1836. In December, 1885, the first well was sunk, and on June, 1, 1889, there were 43 in operation. 30 belonging to the city, yielding 66,500,000 cubic feet a day, and 23 the property of private comanies, yielding so cubic feet. The arg well, averaging 12,000,000 a day, was the largest known in the world prior to the drilling of the Tippecanoe in November, 1888. The daily yield of this well, which is private property, is estimated at 31,000,000 feet. The gas field of Ohio is 36 miles long and 9 miles wide. Gas is found in the Trenton limestone at Findlay, at a depth of from 1,092 to 1,312 feet. The corporation limits of the city are four miles long and six miles wide, and gas can not be piped out of the city. Valuable gas lands outside are owned by lease, and held in reserve by the city against emergency, which, however, is not likely to arise, as there are no signs of weakening flow. There is a Board of Gas Trustees. The center of the oil field of Ohio lies in Hancock County also, west of Findlay. The production of the whole territory for 1888 was 30,000,000 barrels. The oil is refined at Findlay, and produces 60 per cent. of lubricating oil. The soil of Hancock County is rich; there are exhaustless beds of clay, suitable for common and pressed brick, and stone for building and for |. Deposits of sand and gravel are abundant, and lumber is plentiful. Building is progressing rapidly. In the eighteen months to June, 1889, $2,101,305 were expended upon residences and business blocks, and at that date over 800 dwelling-houses were building. There are 5 railroads operating through Findlay, and the New York, Chicago and St. Louis (Nickel Plate) touches the city on the north. There are 4 street railroads, with 19 miles of track. A Holly system of water-works is in operation, costing $300,000, and a similar amount was expended upon a city gas-plant. There are electric lights also. Houses are supplied with gas for heating, cooking, and illuminating purposes at cost of piping merely, $10 or $15 yearly. There is a paid fire department. There are 4 banks and 3 daily and 7 weekly newspapers. The schools number 16; 56 teachers are employed, and the total cost of the buildings is $150,000. Classical, scientific, and English courses are given by the high school. Findlay College, built by the Church of God, at a cost of $150,000, is non-sectarian. Its enrollment is 250. There are 18 churches, and a fine Young Men's Christian Association hall. The court house, recently built, cost $305,000, and the new bridge across Blanchard river $35,000. In 1887 Findlay had $679.500 invested in manufactures, employing 941 men. On June 1, 1889, her manufacturing capital was $10,932,000, and 6,694 hands were employed. Among the most notable of the new factories are 11 glass facto146 CITIES, AMERICAN.

ries, with a capital of $700,000, employing 1,700 men, with annual production of $2,175,000. Four of these have doubled their capacity during the year. Two pressed-brick works have a caacity of 36,000,000 bricks per annum. Findlay i. the only manufactory in the world of seamless steel tubes, with a capital of $4,000,000, 3 large foundries and machine shops, 2 rollin mills in operation, and a third partially erected, with o capital, and to employ 1,500 to 3,000 men. There are 2 chain factories, a pottery employing 300 men, a wire-nail works, an oilrefinery, railroad car and repair shops, a typewriter factory, with capacity of 1,500 machines per annum, extension-table works, a church-furniture factory 2 brass foundries, an excelsior factory, lime-kilns, 8 planing mills, an aluminium factory, electrical-supply works, edge-tool and drilling and mining-tool works, a tin and copper and a refrigerator factory, galvanizediron-cornice works, a woolen and a linseed-oil mill, cooper shops, flouring mills, carriage and harness factories, stave and handle works, a rake factory, bottling works, cigar factories, and other industries. Florence, a city, the county seat of Lauderdale County, Ala., in the northwestern part of the State, on a high plateau, overlooking Tennessee river, at the head of navigation. It is 150 feet above high water. Until 1887 it was a burgh of 1,500 inhabitants. In January, 1889, the population was 6,000; in October of the same year it was estimated at from 8,000 to 10,000. Bailey's and other medicinal springs in the vicinity, have given it reputation as a health resort. The death rate is less than 7 in 1,000. The climate is favorable, that part of Alabama being exempt from extremes of heat or cold. The highest temperature during 1888 was 95.3°; the lowest during the winter 1888–89, 18°. Florence has fine parks and drives, and wide, shaded streets, lighted by electricity, and paved with natural gravel. It has excellent drainage. The State Normal College, Florence Synodical Female College, and Mars Hill Academy are located here, with other public and private schools. A Baptist university is being built and will be liberally endowed. There are numerous churches regular services being held by the Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Catholic, and Christian denominations. Baptist and Cumberland Presbyterian churches, are also projected. Florence has a valuable electric plant; and Cox's, Sweetwater, and Cyprus creeks, furnish the water for its water works and various factories. The city has no debt. The rate of taxation in 1888 was $1.50 on $100. The State Legislature recently permitted an amendment to the charter of Florence, exempting new manufactories from city taxes for ten years. There are 32 manufactories in operation, including cotton-mills, an iron furnace, a manufactory of builders' hardware, a cotton cultivator company, wagon works, corn and flour mills, a shoe factory, stove foundry, spoke and handle factory, ice factory, woodenware factory, bagging factory, sash, door, and blind factory, and blast furnaces. The majority of these were established in Florence within the six months previous to October, 1889. The amount of capital invested during that period is computed at $14,212,500. Her geographical po

(FLORENCE, Fort Worth, FREDERIcton.)

sition necessarily concentrates at Florence the bulk of the industries along the line of her great waterway. In addition to her water transportation for 15,000 miles, in the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi valleys, this city is a railway center for agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and timber interests, having the Louisville and Nashville, Memphis and Charleston. Florence Northern, and the Sheffield and Birmingham, and Tennessee River railways. Lauderdale County is in the cereal belt. Farming, stock raising, and manufacturing are extensively pursued. It has valuable timber, and just south of it are the Warrior coal-fields, Whil. the pine forests of Georgia are within fifty miles of Florence. Immense beds of hematite iron ore lie twenty miles north. The important and costly engineering work, undertaken by the State with Government aid, to overcome the obstruction in the Tennessee river at Muscle Shoals, is practically completed. Locks have been tested, and an aqueduct upon stone abutments bridges the creek for steamboat passage over the shoals. The trough, 60 feet wide, by 1,500 feet in length, is to contain 5 feet of water, the same depth as the canal. This gives Florence direct communication with the steel-making ores of east Tennessee, and the vast coal-beds below Chattanooga. Fort Worth, the county seat of Tarrant County, Tex., in the northern part of the State, on the south bank of Trinity river. The population is about 30,000. The city has an altitude of 825 feet, and 20 miles to the south stretches an unbroken prairie. It has 10 railroads. 6 of which are trunk lines. Two other lines are being built to the coal fields 45 miles westward, and to the iron region in Llano and Mason counties, to the southwest. A fine bed of hematite ore lies 3 miles south of the city, from which it is expected steel will be manufactured in a twelvemonth. There are 7 banks with aggregated capital of $1,960.000, 40 miles of graded streets, 15 miles of street railway, 20 miles of water mains, and 13 of sewerage. The water works are of the Holly system. Artesian wells, 150 in number, also furnish water from a depth of from 150 to 300 feet. One hundred tons of ice are manufactured daily from artesian water. The churches number 15, and there is a fine system of public schools. Tarrant County produces not only cotton, corn, and wheat, but two annual crops of oats and three of hay. It is a fine fruit-growing region. The annual rainfall is 37 inches. The flouring mills of Fort Worth have an elevator storage of 1,000,000 bushels, and grind 1,000 barrels daily. In 1888, 60,000 bales of cotton were shipped from the city, and 80,000 head of cattle. A union stock-yards company has been formed, with capital of $200,000. There is a Union Depot, and a Board of Trade building that cost $110,000. Fredericton, the capital of New Brunswick and of York County, in latitude 45° 55' north, longitude 46° 32' west, on the right bank of St. John river, S5 miles from its mouth as the stream runs, though only 65 by rail. The population in 1881 was 6,218: in 1889, estimated at 7.300. The city proper covers nearly a square mile, and is laid out with great regularity, the streets crossing each other at right angles. The public buildings include the Parliament and departmental buildings, the county court-house, the officers' quarters, stone barracks, the post-office and custom house, the provincial normal school, the city hall, Victoria Hospital, and Government House, the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor. The Parliament Building, erected in 1881 to replace a wooden one that was destroyed by fire, is a handsome structure of gray freestone with a beautiful Corinthian front. Adjoining this building is a fireproof structure containing the legislative library of 10,500 volumes. The departmental building, which has just been finished, is of purplish gray stone found in the neighborhood. The barrack buildings were erected by the Imperial Government about the beginning of the century, and the imperial troops were stationed here till about the time of the confederation of the provinces. The barracks are now occupied by an infantry school. The corps consists of a permanent force of about one hundred young men, with one or two veterans of the imperial service. The normal-school building, erected in 1876, is of brick trimmed with gray freestone, and is surrounded with grounds tastefully laid out. The Victoria Hosital, erected in 1887, to commemorate the §o. Jubilee, is of wood. This institution will be associated with the name of Lady Tilley, to whose efforts it owes its existence. The Government House, which has been used as the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor for over sixty years, is a large, old-fashioned, but very commodious stone building, in beautiful grounds. The Fredericton branch of the New Brunswick Railway connects here with St. John and Maine. The Gibson branch connects with Woodstock, 66 miles from Fredericton, and with Quebec by the Temisconata and Riviere du Loup Railway. The Northern and Western Railway, with its terminus at Chatham, connect with points on the north shore and with Quebec by the International Railway. The Fredericton Railway steel bridge, completed last year, connects the railways on the opposite banks of the river. The Fredericton Boom Company has its headquarters here, and employs hundreds of men to collect and raft all the logs that are cut on the river and its tributaries. The other industries are few. There are 1 large foundry, 5 carriage and sleigh factories, 2 sash-and-door factories, several tanneries, 1 broom factory, 1 canning establishment, and 3 saw mills. The Church of England has a fine cathedral of Gothic architecture. besides a parish church. The Roman Catholic church is a large wooden structure. Adjoining it are two brick buildings, one being a convent and the other the residence of the priests. St. Paul's Presbyterian Church is of limestone, recently erected at a cost of $25,000. The Baptist church is of purplish gray sandstone, erected in 1882. There are several other churches, and the Salvation Army has erected a brick building at a cost of about $4,000. The university was established by provincial charter in 1800, afterward founded and incorporated by royal charter, and reorganized by an amended charter in 1860. The faculty consists of six professors, including the president. The endowment yields annually $8,800. The provincial normal school, established in 1846, has six instructors, includ

ing the principal, and an attendance of about two hundred. The collegiate school is under the joint control of the university senate and the city school board. There are seven other schools. All except the normal department are supported by a direct tax amounting to $14,000 annually and by grants to the teachers from the provincial treasury. There are 5 newspapers, including 1 daily, and 4 banks. The ferry boats that formerly plied between the city and Gibson and St. Mary's on the opposite side have given way to a substantial bridge that cost about $70.000. There is a fine water supply by direct oumping from the river. The streets and many ouses are lighted with electricity, though gas is still largely used. The use of the telephone is general. The taxable valuation of real estate (not including provincial, municipal, church, and college property, which are exempt) is $1,754,330; personal estate, $1,161,075. The value of the imports for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1889, was $575,795, and the duty thereon $69,416. The value of the exports, which consist chiefly of lumber, shingles, laths, bark, and railroad ties, was $132,410. Fresno, the county seat of Fresno County, Cal., the exact geographical center of the State, on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, 207 miles from San Francisco. The population is nearly 10,000. The county lies in the valley of San Joaquin river, and contains 2,000,000 acres of land susceptible of irrigation, which was introduced about twenty years ago. From a stock-raising, it became a grain section, and now is especially famous for its fruit. In 1887 there were 1,050 miles of trunk canals in operation, built at a cost of $2,000,000, and capable of watering 720,000 acres. There are 1,000,000 acres of heavily timbered land in Fresno County, and two groves of the big trees. Thirteen saw-mills are in operation, and 15,000,000 feet of lumber were sold from yards in Fresno in 1888. Mining for coal and minerals is also carried on, though not to a large extent. In 1888, 2,541,115 pounds of dried fruit were exported and 1,455,530 of green. Oranges, figs, and olives grow readily, as well as the more hardy fruits. Raisin culture was introduced about ten years since. The total raisin crop of the State for 1888 was 18.300,000 pounds; that of Fresno County, 10,686,270; and that of Fresno proper, 8,300,000. In 1887, 16,786 acres were planted in vineyards, and the annual product of wine is 2,500,000 gallons. A board of trade was established two years ago. The city is built principally of brick, and has fine residences and business blocks, electric lights, teleso water works, a fire department, and a orse railroad. A sewerage system is under construction. There are 3 projected railroads, 4 banks, 2 fine hotels, 9 churches, and a high school. There are 2 daily and 3 weekly newsapers. In addition to the planing mills and umber yards, there are a machine shop and foundry, agricultural implement and cornice works, marble and stone cutting yards, warehouses, the largest Malaga fruit-packing houses in the State, and a flouring mill that grinds 200 barrels daily. The court-house occupies a city block, and cost $60,000. There is a Masonic temple, a club house, and fair grounds. Upon

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