Gambar halaman

Telegraphs.—At the close of 1884 the Chinese telegraphs had a length of 3,089 miles, with 5,482 miles of wire. They have since been extended so as to connect all the principal cities near the coast and on the Yangtse-Kiang and carried into the interior to the provinces of Yunnan and Szechuen.

Famine.—In the autumn of 1888 and in 1889 Northern China was afflicted by the most widespread and disastrous famine that has occurred in a period of many years. The resources of the Government were already strained by the Yellow-river disaster, which deprived 1,500,000 persons of their livelihood, exclusive of the great number who lost their lives, and caused the expenditure of $12,500,000 in the endeavor to repair the breach. Then came terrible inundations in Manchuria, which covered nearly the whole face of the country from Moukden to the sea and destroyed one of the sources of the food-supply. In the early summer of 1888 the rains on which the rice and wheat crops depend failed throughout a great part of the province of Kiangsu, one of the most densely populated in China, and in the Luchow, Chinchow, Gnanching, Yangchow, Kiangning, Chuchow, and Chinkiang districts in the Yangtse valley, where the people were obliged to kill their draught cattle for food. Upon that came an unprecedented downpour of rain in August, culminating in a deluge, which swept away the millet, bean, and sorghum crops, and in many villages melted out the foundations and brought down the houses. Manchuria was flooded. On Aug. 18 the river burst its banks near Moukden, and swept the fertile plain, carrying down whole villages. Thousands were drowned, and tens of thousands perished from cold and hunger, to which were added later the ravages of typhus fever. The parts of Honan that were still impoverished by the effects of the Yellow-river inundation of 1887 were again submerged. This river now overflowed also the prefectures of Fungyang, Yungchow, and Shuchow in the province of Anhui. The southern part of the great province of Shantung suffered even more severely, and a portion of Pechili was swept by floods.

In Shantung the people throughout a district covering 6,000 square miles, containing 1,500,000 inhabitants, were reduced to eating wild herbs and chaff and fresh blades of wheat in the autumn, and to selling their clothes and other belongings for a tenth of their value. About 2,000 persons left the stricken district daily, thronging the roads in all directions. In many valleys the mulberry trees were torn up by the roots and the soil was buried under a thick covering of sand and stones. The local authorities remitted taxes. Missionaries and wealthy Chinamen began to distribute relief in November and December. In Honan and the adjacent districts the energetic efforts of the Chinese Government to avert distress in 1888 were continued, and were extended to other places that were brought under the observation of the central authorities. The tribute grain was stopped on its way to Pekin, and employed to relieve the sufferers. Large contributions were raised in London, and China merchants in New York added to the fund, which was expended through the instrumentality of missionary committees

and the Government authorities. The Chinese at home and those settled in all parts of the world gave liberal amounts. The sufferers numbered as many as 10,000,000 people. The worst of the distress and hunger "...] when the early crop of wheat was harvested about the first of June. In August, 1889, the Yellow river again broke its banks, submerging a large part of the province of Shantung. The recent floods have called the attention of the authorities to the subject of arboriculture. China has long been denuded of her forests, and in many parts is almost treeless except for the o: and Cedars growing in the cemeteries. Li-Hung-Chang has been the first to move in the matter of reafforestation, issuing a proclamation requiring officials to plant trees in public places and urging the people to do so on private lands. CITIES, AMERICAN, RECENT GROWTH OF. Brunswick, a city of Glynn County, Ga., on a small peninsula in the southern part of the State. Brunswick was founded by James Oglethorpe a century and a quarter ago, but had no commercial importance, prior to 1871. Its growth, has been mainly within the past four years, in which its population has nearly doubled, and the investment of Northern capital has led to important results. In 1880 it contained 2,900 inhabitants; in 1884, 5,000; in 1889, 10,000. It is surrounded on three sides by salt water, and protected from the ocean by out-lying islands, the largest of which is St. Simon's. Its harbor, with over thirty miles of water-front, is land-locked, and as early as 1837 attracted attention as a desirable location for a United States navy-yard. It was reported on by Commodores Claxton, Woolsey, and Shubrick as the best deep-water harbor for the purpose on the South Atlantic coast, and 1,100 acres on Blythe Island were purchased, under authority of an act of Congress, in 1857, at a cost of $130,000. The appropriation for improving the harbor for 1889 was $35,000, of which $18,000 was expended in dredging and $12,000 in jetty-works. The depth above the bar at high water is 22 feet clear, and the anchorage safe; and as fresh water is sixteen miles distant, unusually healthful conditions prevail. Port charges are low, and railroads deliver cotton direct to ships. The position of Brunswick, at the inward curve of the Atlantic shore, places the port nearer to inland centers than any other point on the coast. It is 500 miles in an air-line nearer San Francisco than is New York, and, in comparison with Savannah, is nearer Montgomery by 77 miles; 135 miles nearer Albany, Ga., by one railroad, and 85 by another, and 24 miles nearer Atlanta. Brunswick has $197,000 invested in shipping. During the year ending Nov. 1, 1888, 312 vessels entered the port (total tonnage, 151,182), of which 117 were from foreign ports: and in the same period 292 were cleared (tonnage, 141,652), half of which were for foreign and half for domestic ports. In 1879 the city owned but a few pilot boats. There is a line of steamers to New York, and one to Savannah. In 1875 the total exports were about $639,000. In 1888 they reached $8,000,000. The chief export has always been lumber, from vast and easily accessible forests of yellow pine and hard woods. In 1888 there were shipped to foreign and coast-wise ports 88,273,847 feet. There has been an increase of 50 per cent. in resin, and over 150 per cent. in jo. of turpentine exported since 1880, the shipments for 1888 being 149,549 barrels of the first, and 57,142 casks of the latter. The cotton trade has developed since 1885. Prior to that date, there were no dealers, but now docks are being built, an immense compress is under construction, and shipments are made not only to New York and other home orts, but direct to England and the Continent. he shipments for 1886–87 were 35,000 bales; for 1887–88, 85,000; and for 1888–89, to June 13, 128,362. Brunswick is the Atlantic terminus of two lines of railroad, the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia and the Brunswick and Western, which renders not only the cotton belt of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida tributary, but also the coal and iron fields of northern Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. Other lines of railroad are contemplated, particularly the Brunswick, Waynesville and {. runswick is supplied with water by nine artesian wells, yielding from 20 to 575 gallons of water a minute; there are fine water works of the Worthington system, gas works, electric lights, and a line of street railway. It has all telegraph and telephone facilities, a volunteer fire department, and a graded system of public schools. The aggreate capital of two national banks is $155,000. There are seven churches for whites, including a Jewish synagogue, and eight belonging to neroes. Prior to 1884 there was not a brick house in the town. In 1889 there were under construction a bank building costing $27,000, an operahouse and stores costing $25,000, a colored Odd Fellows' Hall, $6,500, and a dozen stores ranging from $5,000 to $20,000. Manufacturing enterprises are in process of development. Rich o: its of phosphate have been discovered in close roximity to the city, and it is proposed to estabish extensive works. There are numerous fine drives around Brunswick, and a handsome hotel has been erected for winter visitors. St. Simon's Island is a place of resort, and has a fine hotel. There are many points of historic interest. The last slave-ship, the “Wanderer,” that crossed the ocean, landed at Brunswick harbor with 500 slaves on board. The Brunswick Land Company, chartered in 1888, has a capital of $5,000000. The death rate at Brunswick for 1888 was 8 per thousand. Charleston, the capital of West Virginia, on the northern bank of Great Kanawha river, at the mouth of the Elk. The population in 1889 was about 8,000. Its history is long and interesting. Hither, in the days when pioneering from Virginia and Pennsylvania began, just before the Revolutionary War. came hunters and land-seekers, who had learned the way down the Kanawha. At this point were extensive bottomlands and a great salt “ lick,” or spring, where game thronged. Washington pre-empted land near the present city site in 1774, and some of his kindred still reside in that neighborhood. In 1775 a man of means named Clendennin built a fort and house here (the latter is still occupied), and soon after the Revolution there was a rapid increase of population in the Kanawha valley. Daniel Boone was a resident for eleven years, at this period, opposite the salt lick. This saline spring had been utilized by the Indians and

earliest settlers for salt-making, and about 1784 a few kettles were set up in which to make salt for sale. The crystals were tinged red by iron, and the “strong, red salt of the Kanawha" soon acquired a wide reputation on account of its peculiar meat-preserving power. This led to the establishment of boiling-works on a large scale, and to experiments in boring for wells. Deep boring was then untried, and it was in the course of study and experiment, to which these saltseekers were compelled, that the “slips” or “jars,” the “seed-bag,” and several other tools and devices, without which the vast industry of deep well-boring could never have been developed, were invented. A great number of wells were bored, and salt-making became an extensive industry, supporting a large population for several miles above Charleston, and giving employment to many flat-boatmen. In 1841 there was an important change in the conduct of the business. On Washington's land, eight miles above Charleston, a “burning spring,” or exudation of inflammable gas, had long been a curiosity. A salt-well, bored near by, struck a reservoir of this gas, which drove the water out of the well in an immense geyser. After some trouble, this gas and water were led to a furnace a mile and a half distant, and separated, the gas being fed into the furnace and | water to the kettles. This was the first utilization of natural gas for fuel in America; and the plan was adopted and improved upon in several other furnaces, many wells being subsequently put down to strike the reservoir. Exposures of bituminous coal had been observed by the earliest explorers, but it was not until 1834, when charcoal began to be scarce and costly, that it was used in the saltfurnaces as fuel. Grates having been adapted to it, its use became general, and coal-mining on the Kanawha began. By this time, too, steamboats were ascending the river; but navigation to Kanawha Falls, one hundred miles from the mouth, was uncertain, and the subject of an improvement of the river was much discussed. The French Government proposed to build a magnificent system of canal-locks and tunnels over the Alleghanies, to connect the navigable waters of the Kanawha with those of the James, and thus secure cheap coal for Europe, and its plans would probably have been begun had not the civil war interfered. Charleston now had about 1,500 population, including many rich families of salt-makers and slave-owning farmers, who held the rich bottom-lands along the Kanawha and Elk rivers. These were generally in sympathy with the secessionists of the coast, but the body of the people were Union in sentiment. The salt-making continued profitably during the war; but afterward, deprived of slave labor, and unable otherwise to compete with the new field of production opened in Michigan, it steadily declined. Now all the old furnaces are in ruins, except one small one. Charleston has prospered, however, by the development of other resources. It is the most important commercial point in the large area between the mountains and the Ohio river south of Wheeling, and enjoys the exclusive trade of more than twenty counties. About fifty commercial travelers “drum up" trade for its wholesale and jobbing houses, and extend

their business into Kentucky and Ohio. The Provincial Building, erected in 1843, contains annual wholesale trade amounts to about $2,- the parliamentary rooms and library, the provin500,000. This has grown to its present propor- cial museum, and the offices of the local govtions mainly within the past fifteen years, since ernment. The court-house, built in 1876, conthe opening of the coal mines, which are now tains the apartments of the Supreme Court, the worked in great numbers, from Charleston to probate courts, and the registry offices. The about sixty miles up the Kanawha-New valley, Dominion Building, completed in 1887, contains and which, with their coke-ovens and attendant the customs-office, the post-office, and the Doindustries, sustain 50,000 people. All of these minion Savings Bank: adjacent to these stands derive their supplies mainly from Charleston, the public market. A new city hall was comand many of the managers dwell there, while her pleted in 1888. An asylum for the insane and citizens have large investments in the mines. two well-equipped hospitals are here. The The State contains a vast area of almost un- Young Men's Christian Association has a comtouched forest, and enormous quantities of logs modious and well - appointed building near are sent down the Elk and Kanawha rivers-an Queen's Square. The city is lighted by elecindustry of great value to the city. Finally, tricity, and has an excellent system of water there is every prospect of recovering the flow of supply, costing $177,000, and an efficient fire natural gas, which gradually ceased to come department with apparatus costing $26,000. from the old salt-wells in serviceable quantities The assessed valuation of the city on Dec. 31, several years ago, through the choking (it is sup- 1889, was $2,620,000, and the exempted property posed) of the uncased wells. One excellent gas amounts to $1,561,444.51. The city debt is well has been struck. If these experiments are $289,700, including the cost of water-works, successful salt-making will be resumed, great $177,000; and the assets are valued at $306,700. iron-making establishments can be set up, and The educational institutions are the Prince of general manufacturing entered upon under Wales College and Normal School, 3 city pubvery advantageous circumstances. Petroleum is lic schools, having 35 teachers and an average known to exist, and experimental boring in the daily attendance of 900, St. Peter's Church neighborhood is being done. The Kanawha is schools (Anglican), a business college, 2 conin course of improvement by the Government, vent schools, and, in the suburbs, St. Dunstan's which has already expended $7,500,000 upon Roman Catholic College. Charlottetown is the permanent works, mainly after the French sys- seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. There are 9 tem of movable dams, which can be erected at churches - 1 Roman Catholic, 2 Anglican, 2 low water and lowered out of the way of boats Presbyterian, 2 Methodist, 1 Baptist, and 1 when the river is high enough to make them un- Christian ; their property has a total valuation necessary. There is even better navigation than of $188,000. There are 2 daily and 5 weekly on the upper Ohio, and, as the locks are free, the newspapers, 7 hotels, and 4 banks, including the rates of traffic are cheaper than on the Monon- Dominion Savings Bank, with deposits amountgahela. Hence the coal and other products of ing to nearly $3,000,000. Charlottetown is headthe Kanawba valley can be sent to the Western quarters for the Prince Edward Island Railroad, cities cheaper than can those of the northern and is connected by telephone and telegraph valleys of West Virginia. The Chesapeake and with all parts of the island. It has steamship Ohio Railway runs along the whole length of communication daily with Pictou, on the mainthe Kanawhà valley, and affords a direct route land, and weekly with Montreal, Halifax, and from Charleston to the Atlantic coast and west- Boston. For the fiscal year ending June 30, ward to Cincinnati. The Kanawha and Ohio 1889, there were

entered, from foreign ports, 371 Railroad now runs from Charleston to the Ohio vessels, having 59,852 tonnage, and 17,726 tons river, and connects with the Ohio railway sys- of cargo, and 3,096 coastwise vessels, tonnage tem. This road is to be continued eastward and 420,449. Of the vessels that cleared, 426 were northward into the lumber regions, to connect, from foreign ports, tonnage 70,049, with 24,289 up the Gauley valley, with the West Virginia tons of cargo. There were 3,072 coast wise vesCentral Railroad; while a road down the Elk is sels, tonnage 415,094. The customs report shows intended to connect Charleston with the great imports amounting to $565,717; duty, $166,grazing and lumbering interior north of her, and 858.65; exports, $709,139. These figures reprewith the Baltimore and Ohio Railway. Charles- sent only about 40 per cent. of the actual imton is beautifully located and well built up. ports and 50 per cent of actual exports, as the The Capitol is a handsome building, costing large inter-provincial trade is not reported. As $350,000, which occupies a pleasant park. The a summer resort Charlottetown is justly popular. financial condition of the town and its surround Cleveland, a city and the county seat of ing country is good.

Bradley County, Tenn., on the East 'Tennessee, Charlottetown, capital of the province of Virginia and Georgia Railroad, twenty-eight Prince Edward Island, at the confluence of three miles northeast of Chattanooga; population in rivers-Elliott, York, and Hillsborough-on a 1889, about 4,000. It is in a gently rolling refine harbor, in latitude 46° 13' 55" north, and gion, about 800 feet above sea-level, and the clilongitude 63° 7' 23" west, about fifty miles from mate is both healthful and delightful in a high Pictou, Nova Scotia. The population in 1881 degree. This town is the business center of sevwas 11,485; in 1889 it was estimated at 14,000. eral counties, and also of the adjacent counties The streets are broad and run at right angles. of Northern Georgia, reached by the branching There are four spacious public squares and a fine railroad to Rome, Ga., and southward. Clevepark. Near the center of the city, surrounded land contains much wealth, as is attested by by the well-kept gardens of Queen's Square, the unusual elegance of its public buildings and stand the imposing Government buildings.' The mansions, and by the well-regulated appearance

of its streets. Fine roads radiate from it through a beautiful country, and the accommodation for visitors is good. Cleveland, consequently, is coming to be a favorite resort for summer visitors from the far South, and for winter residents seeking to escape the chill of the North. Many Northern families are found among its permanent population. A railroad has recently been surveyed from Cleveland to Murphy, N.C., which will give direct communication with the Atlantic coast, and open the Ductown copper mines, forty miles distant, which are now reached only by a picturesque road along the gorges of the Oconee river. Two banks have a combined capital of $300,000. There is a woolen-mill making 60,000 yards of jeans a month; stove-works turning out 10,500 stoves a year; a flouring mill equal to 125 barrels a day; large fire-brick and terracotta works; a chair factory and several woodworking establishments; and two large tanneries. A woodenware factory to employ 300 to 500 hands is being established. Eleven churches have buildings. The public schools have been largely increased and stimulated within the past two years, and are now in superior condition. Besides them, two institutions for the education of young ladies are flourishing, one having one hundred pupils. There is a fine opera house, and the town is supplied with gas, street cars, and telephones, and water-works are about to be introduced. The valuation of city property in 1888 was $1,250,000. Columbus, a city of Muscogee County, Ga., at the head of navigation on the Chattahoochee river, where it becomes the boundary line of the State, 100 miles from Macon, 115 from Atlanta, and 250 from the Atlantic coast. The population in 1887 was 27,469. Columbus is surrounded by a tributary territory of the richest mineral, timber, and agricultural lands. An exposition was held here in the autumn of 1889, to exhibit the products and resources of the Chattahoochee valley. Cotton, grain, and fine fruits are raised. An acre of ground will produce 1,000 of the famous Georgia watermelons. Truck-farming is profitable. Large quantities of building stone exist. The increase of taxable property in Columbus in 1887 was $1,104,327. The transportation facilities include four lines of steamers in regular service on the Chattahoochee river to the Gulf of Mexico, and six complete railroads. Two others are building. A dummy line through the city and suburbs connects with all roads entering the city. There is a fine general freight and passenger depot. For 45 miles above Columbus the Chatahoochee has a fall of 125 feet in two miles and a half, giving 1,000,000 horse-power at lowest water, and double that amount at average stage. The power within the city limits is 36,940 horse-power, of which about one tenth is utilized by three cotton mills, one of which, the Eagle and Phenix, is claimed to be the largest in the South. It has 48,000 spindles, 1,500 looms, a capital of $1,250,000, and employs 1,800 operatives. The yearly product is between $1,500,000 and $1,750,000. Other mills are run by steam. The total of capital invested in 43 manufactories in Columbus in 1888, all of which were paying dividends, was $5.564,109 : 4,596 operatives were employed, with a monthly pay roll of $95,317. The cotton receipts average 100,

000 bales yearly, of which 30,000 are consumed in local mills. There are three large compresses for shipment direct to Europe. Columbus has also large iron-works, manufacturing, with other machinery, an absorption ice-machine; foundries; a bagging factory turning out 3,000 yards daily; a barrel factory; a flour mill, with capacity of 600 barrels and 2,000 bushels of meal; planing and oil mills; knitting works; a clothing factory; fertilizing, ice, and refrigerating companies; and other industries. There are 4 banks with an aggregate capital of $1,600,000 and surplus of $815,000, here are 2 daily and 2 weekly newspapers, gas and electric lights, a street railway, and water works that supply water by gravitation from mountains four miles west of the city. The fire department is supplied with an electric alarm. The bonded debt of the city is less than $500,000, and taxation is 1 per cent. Public schools have been in existence seventeen years. A new public-school building for boys cost $40,000. ere are fine o schools also, a female college, two orphan omes, a public library, and a prosperous Young Men's Christian Association. There are nine churches for whites, including a Jewish synagogue, and several for colored people. The opera house has a seating capacity of 1,300. The annual mean temperature is 65°. The city has never been quarantined against yellow fever. Dalton, a city and the county seat of Whitfield County, Ga.; population, about 4,500. It is at the iunction of the Western and Atlantic and the #" Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroads. It is doing a mercantile business of over $1,250,000 annually, and has $500,000 invested in prosperous factories, the largest of which are flour mills and lumber mills. The principal products of the country are cotton, corn, grains, forage plants, and fine fruits. Of cotton the annual receipts amount to about 16,000 bales, and the dealings in this make Dalton one of the leading cotton markets of the State. Churches and schools are numerous, and the latter are supplemented by a female college. Both county and city are thoroughly opposed to the liquor traffic. Prohibitory laws prevail and are sustained. No liquor is sold in the city. “Prohibition,” writes a citizen, “ has been proved to be a benefit to the county and city. More goods are sold now than ever before: the farming element is in a better condition, with more fine stock and good, substantial homes, and the latest agricultural implements are noticed in use since the change has taken place. Our county jail is almost deserted.” Water works and electric lighting have lately been introduced, and a soldier's monument has just been unveiled in one of the parks. The streets are wide and well shaded. Dayton, a city of Rhea County, east Tennessee, on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad ; population in 1889, about 7,000. As the town lies at the foot of Walden Ridge, at a point where rich coal deposits crop out, close to Tennessee river, and is surrounded by rich, yet sparsely cultivated lands, excellent for farming and fruit-raising, it seems strange that it became noticeable only so late as 1880. About that time the Cincinnati Southern came through the village and connected it with Chattanooga, and the Dayton Coal and Iron Company began a development of the mineral resources of the locality, which has not yet ceased. This company erected two large blast-furnaces, and now employs more than 1,000 men. The property valuation, excluding the coal company and the railroad, approaches $350,000. A foundry, a broom factory, a medicine-making company, two roller-process flouring mills of large capacity, and several other manufacturing industries have arisen. A bank, an opera house, several churches, and the usual benevolent societies have been organized there. Nearly 100 business firms are represented in the mercantile list, and a large local supplying business is done. The situation of the town between the hills and the river is extremely pleasant; and so great a number of springs of both pure and mineralized water gush out of the rocks at the foot of Walden Ridge that wells are hardly a necessity. Dover, a city and port of entry of Strafford County, N. H., on Cocheco river, a branch of the Piscataqua. The central part of the city is at the head of tide-water at Cocheco Falls, where are located the Cocheco Cotton Mills and Print Works. The population in January, 1890, was 17,000. It is 63 miles northeast of Boston, on the Boston and Maine Railroad, and is connected by rail also with Portsmouth, 10 miles distant, and by railroad north to the lake and mountain region, so that four railroads center here. Horse-car tracks are laid in the principal streets. The grammar and high schools rank the highest in the State; free text-books are furnished to all the pupils in the public schools. There are also a flourishing academy for private students, a large public library, and ten churches. The coasting trade is very large. Twelve first-class schooners are owned by the Dover Navigation Company, and these, with numerous others, bring immense quantities of coal and lumber here. The Cocheco Cotton Mills, the Cocheco Print Works, and the Sawyer Woolen Mills are the chief manufacturing establishments, but an extensive business is done in the manufacture of boots and shoes of the best grades. There are also extensive machine shops and foundries and a belt factory. There are five banks. Dover is the shire town of the county, and the oldest town in the State, having been settled in 1623. The water power is extensive and valuable, but in addition to that a large amount of coal is used in running the manufacturing establishments. Public water works have been established. It has a fine court-house and a new city hall, and is to have a Government building for the post-office, which now does more business than that of any city in the State except Manchester. There are 3 daily newspapers and 3 weekly. There are 5 cotton - mills, with 108,416 spindles and 2,492 looms, which manufacture 31,500,000 yards of cloth per annuin, employing 900 women and girls and 300 men and boys. The print works were rebuilt and much enlarged during 1887, and printed 50,227,894 yards of prints in 1889; they employ 500 men and boys and 100 women and girls; these works are run wholly by steam, and use 7,000 tons of coal per annum. The Sawyer Woolen Mills have 40 sets of machinery, employ 500 hands, use 2,500,000 pounds vol. xxix.-10 A

of wool per annum, and manufacture 1,500,000 yards of woolen goods of various kinds, but all of the best grades used in Inaking suits for men and boys. The whole amount of capital invested in the various manufactures is about $5,000,000.

Findlay, the county-seat of Hancock County, Ohio, in the northwestern part of the State. The population in 1885 was 4,879; in 1887 about 14,000; in February, 1889, 27,500. Natural gas has given rise to a rapid development of manufactures. Gas was known to exist in 1836. In December, 1885, the first well was sunk, and on June, 1, 1889, there were 43 in operation. 30 belonging to the city, yielding 66,500,000 cubic feet a day, and 23 the property of private comanies, yielding so cubic feet. The arg well, averaging 12,000,000 a day, was the largest known in the world prior to the drilling of the Tippecanoe in November, 1888. The daily yield of this well, which is private property, is estimated at 31,000,000 feet. The gas field of Ohio is 36 miles long and 9 miles wide. Gas is found in the Trenton limestone at Findlay, at a depth of from 1,092 to 1,312 feet. The corporation limits of the city are four miles long and six miles wide, and gas can not be piped out of the city. Valuable gas lands outside are owned by lease, and held in reserve by the city against emergency, which, however, is not likely to arise, as there are no signs of weakening flow. There is a Board of Gas Trustees. The center of the oil field of Ohio lies in Hancock County also, west of Findlay. The production of the whole territory for 1888 was 30,000,000 barrels. The oil is refined at Findlay, and produces 60 per cent. of lubricating oil. The soil of Hancock County is rich; there are exhaustless beds of clay, suitable for common and pressed brick, and stone for building and for |. Deposits of sand and gravel are abundant, and lumber is plentiful. Building is progressing rapidly. In the eighteen months to June, 1889, $2,101,305 were expended upon residences and business blocks, and at that date over 800 dwelling-houses were building. There are 5 railroads operating through Findlay, and the New York, Chicago and St. Louis (Nickel Plate) touches the city on the north. There are 4 street railroads, with 19 miles of track. A Holly system of water-works is in operation, costing $300,000, and a similar amount was expended upon a city gas-plant. There are electric lights also. Houses are supplied with gas for heating, cooking, and illuminating purposes at cost of piping merely, $10 or $15 yearly. There is a paid fire department. There are 4 banks and 3 daily and 7 weekly newspapers. The schools number 16; 56 teachers are employed, and the total cost of the buildings is $150,000. Classical, scientific, and English courses are given by the high school. Findlay College, built by the Church of God, at a cost of $150,000, is non-sectarian. Its enrollment is 250. There are 18 churches, and a fine Young Men's Christian Association hall. The court house, recently built, cost $305,000, and the new bridge across Blanchard river $35,000. In 1887 Findlay had $679.500 invested in manufactures, employing 941 men. On June 1, 1889, her manufacturing capital was $10,932,000, and 6,694 hands were employed. Among the most notable of the new factories are 11 glass facto

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »