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There are 86 commissioned officers. Chili ordered 15,280 judicial notifications, 810,772 Government in 1889 an armor-clad and two cruisers in France, messages, and 22,360,137 newspapers ; together, and two torpedo gunboats in England, The iron- 38,830,461 items of mail-matter. The receipts clad is to have a displacement of 6,000 tons, an amounted to $464,431. armament of four 9-inch guns mounted in two Railroads.-In 1888 there were in operation turrets, and a secondary battery of six 6-inch 1,096 kilometres of state lines and 1,597 private guns. A belt of Creusot steel armor will extend lines; together, 2,693 kilometres. The total cost the whole length of the vessel, which will also of the state lines was $43,992,873 in 1886; in have an armored deck. The speed is to be sev- 1888 it was $48,297,698. The net earnings in enteen knots with natural draught. The new 1886 were $2,406,050. Early in 1888 1,262 kiloiron-clad, to be launched by the French Com- metres of new state lines were projected, estipany of the Mediterranean toward the close of mated to cost $16,200,000, and 894 kilometres of 1889, claims to realize the ideal of offensive pow- private lines. Among the latter is the Chilian er sufficient for running fights, with defensive section of the transandine railroad from San Festrength adequate to the contest of large armored lipe across the Andes to the Argentine frontier, vessels, while at the same time it possesses per- on $5,000,000 of the cost of which the Chilian fect manageability and a moderate displacement. Government has guaranteed 5 per cent. interest The ship is to be named the “ Arturo Prat," for twenty years. On April 5, 1889, President after the captain of the “ Esmeralda," who was Balmaceda laid the first rail on this road at Santa killed in the engagement off Iquique in 1879. Rosa de los Andes. On the Argentine side of Its length will be 325 feet, and its breadth 60 the Andes 1,030 kilometres are in operation; on feet. Its displacement will be 6,800 tons, and its the Chilian, 133. The gap between Mendoza norinal speed, with a horse-power of 8,600, sev in the Argentine Republic and Santa Rosa, is enteen knots. The central tower is composed of 240 kilometres. Out of these, 90 kilometres were four turrets, each containing a gun workable by nearly finished in the summer of 1889, while on hand, and not exceeding 23 tons in weight, which 40 thereof the rails had actually been laid. The is capable of piercing at 100 yards a plate of Cumbre or Uspalata pass will have to be tun18-inch iron. There are four other turrets, each neled on this line a distance of 5 kilometres, at containing two guns of smaller caliber. The an altitude of 3,185 metres above sea-level. The ship also carries four guns for rapid firing, eight pass attains a height of 3,967 metres, and is in mitrailleuses, and four tubes for discharging tor- 33° of south latitude, between the giant Aconpedoes.
cagua (6,834 metres high), and the Tupungato Finances.-On July 1, 1889, the foreign in- (6,178 metres). This important railway will be debtedness of Chili was $39,748,000, while the ready for commerce before 1892. The Governhome debt had been reduced to $23,834,484. ment, on Oct. 17, 1888, made a contract with the The revenue collected by the Government in 1888 “North and South American Railway Construcwas $50,183,938, the expenditure amounting to tion Company” of New York, to build the 1,175 $46,135,501.' Adding surpluses of the kind re- kilometres of state lines authorized by Congress, sulting from former years, the Government had for the sum of £3,542,000, a deposit of $1,000,000 an available fund of savings of $25,000,000 on being made by the company as security that the Jan. 1, 1889. The budget for 1889 estimated contract will be carried out. These 1,175 kilothe income at $50,000,000, and the outlay at metres are to be distributed as follows: Victoria $59,561,880; the receipts for the budget of 1890 to Valdivia, 403; Coihuhe to Mulchen, 43; Tomé were estimated at $56,000,000. Congress had to the line of the Central railroad, 200 ; Constituauthorized the Government to raise money by cion to Talca, 89; Palmilla to Pichilemu, 45; loan in Europe to the amount of £3,000,000 for Pelequen to Peumo, 28; Santiago to Melipilla, railroad material to be purchased for Government 59 ; La Hilera to Cabildo, 78; Los Vilos to Salalines, but it contented itself with floating £1,- manca, 128; Ovalle to San Marcos, 60; Huasco 546,392 44 per cent. bonds at 1014.
to Vallenar, 48. During the summer of 1889 the Abolition of Certain Duties.-A law has company got into financial difficulties, and was been enacted, to take effect four months from declared bankrupt by the Commercial Tribunal Aug. 30, 1889, abolishing import duties on ma- of Santiago. chines and tools for the use of agriculture, min Telegraphs. The number of offices in 1888 ing, trades, and industries; pipes or tubes com- was 313, 240 of them being Government offices. posed of copper, bronze, or iron, galvanized or The length of lines was 17,023 kilometres, of ungalvanized, knees, joints, “ T's” and other such which 11,247 belonged to the state. Over the necessary articles; iron or steel wire, galvanized Government lines 572,383 telegrams were sent in or ungalvanized, up to the number fourteen in- 1887, and of these 95,486 were official dispatchclusive, and copper wire, or insulating composi- es. The receipts in the same year aggregated tion for transmission of electric currents; tele- $480,000. phonic and telegraphic instruments, insulators, Steamship Lines.- In the summer of 1889 iron or steel posts, and other special necessaries there were in operation between Chili and Europe for telegraphs and telephones; the material of the following steamship lines : Two Hamburg iron or steel for the permanent way of either lines; the English Pacific Steam Navigation steam or horse railways and also for portable rail- Company's; the Italian Florio and Rubattino ways; wheels, axles, and felloes of iron or steelline; the French Compagnie Maritime du Pacifor railway vehicles, and the cars for portable fique; the Chilian Compañia Sudamericana de railways; ir in plates.
Vapores (till recently only a coastwise navigaPostal Service. The number of post-offices tion company, but in future to extend its trips to in 1888 was 484, which dispatched during the Liverpool); and the Valparaiso-Liverpool Gulf year 15,491,873 letters, 45,571 sample packages, line.
Commerce.-Chili's foreign trade has of late be a large council, but in recent times there have years expanded as follows, reduced to thousands been only from four to six members. Prince of dollars:
Kung before his disgrace was the dominating spirit, and since then Prince Shun has had the
controlling voice. The social law forbidding a Import
father to serve under his son would require him 40,097 44,170 48,631 60,807 Export 51,200 51,240 59,550 78,000 now to retire from all public functions. The
Chun-chi-chu, like the Neiko, has the right of Excess of export ... 11,163 7,070 10,919
12,193 audience with the sovereign, and to it belongs The export of nitrate of soda amounted in signature. There are six ministries, each pre
the office of framing all edicts for the Imperial 1888 to 775,000 tons, that of copper to 30,000 sided over by two chiefs
, a Manchu and a Chitons, that of wheat to 4,000 tons, while of silver nese, though, in exceptional cases, a single presi$1,600,000 worth was exported. The Chilian ex
dent of higher rank is placed over a ministry. portation of nitrate of soda has been as follows: There is also a ministry for the administration
of subject countries. The commanders of the DESTINATION.
military forces at Pekin are important pub
lic functionaries. Another body of great digTo Northern Europe... 7,950,452 18,350,720 14.965,846 nity is the Board of Censors, one member of To the Mediterranean. 168,092 237,875 161,631 which must be present at every meeting of an To the United States on the Atlantic..
1,486,189 1,532,026 1,482,627 executive department. The superior members To the Cnited States on
of the Neiko in 1889 were Li-Hung-Chang, Olethe Pacific
255,505 229,946 130,921 hopu, En-Cheng, and Yen-Ching-Ming; the asTotal ... 9,805,288 | 15,850,567, 16,741,025 The senior Grand Secretary has always been a
sistant members, Fukun and Chang-Chi-Wan. The American trade with Chili exhibits these Manchu hitherto, and Li 'Hung Chang is the figures:
first Chinese to enjoy that distinction. The members of the Chun-chi-chu were Shito, called the Prince of Li, Olehopu, Chang-Chi-Wan, SunYu-Wen, Hsu-Keng-Shen, and Yen-Ching-Ming.
When affairs of high moment are under consid$2.437.325 $2,189,259 eration, the Prince Shun, father of the reigning 2,631,140 2,376,611 Emperor, is called into consultation.
The Emperor is an absolute monarch, whose Merchant Marine.— There were afloat under will is checked only by the accepted code of Conthe Chilian flag in 1888, 38 steamers, with a fucius that lays down the proper conduct for the joint capacity of 20,000 tons; 89 barks, with sovereign as well as for the people, and by the 43,000 tons; 8 ships, with 10,000 tons; 11 brigs, unrestricted and unsparing criticism of the cenwith 3,000 tons; and 33 schooners, with 3,000 sors, who are constantly presenting memorials in tons; together 177 vessels of a joint tonnage of which the acts and projects of the Government 79,000.
are judged and compared with the precedents of CHINA, an empire in eastern Asia. The the past. The present Emperor is Kwangsu, born highest governmental body under the Emperor in 1871, the ninth ruler of the Tsing dynasty, is the Neiko or Grand Secretariat, consisting of who succeeded to the
throne on the death of his six members, of whom three must be Manchus cousin the Emperor Tsung-Chi, who died at the and three Chinese. Two of the members, one of age of eighteen, leaving no heir. The former Chinese and the other of Manchu origin, are called regents, the Empress Tse-Chi and Tse-Ang, assistants, and have the duty of seeing that the chose as successor to the throne Tsait-ien, the acts of the superior members conform to the laws young son of Prince Shun, the Seventh Prince, and precedents. The functions of the Neiko are and proclaimed him Emperor on Jan. 22, 1875, to proclaim the edicts of the Emperor, to regu- under the name of Kwangsu, although the grandlate the laws, and, in general, to counsel the children of Prince Tun, the Fifth Prince, and of Emperor in affairs of state, all in accordance Prince Kung, the Sixth Prince, had better claims with the statutes of the empire. This body has, to the succession. There was much dissatisfacin recent times, lost much of its political impor- tion in the court at the time, but this soon passed tance, the actual direction of affairs having de- away. The two Empresses ruled as joint regents volved upon the Chun-chi-chu or State Council, till 1881, when the Empress Tse-Ang died. Durthe members of which are chosen from among ing the remainder of the Emperor's minority the the imperial princes, the members of the Neiko, Empress Dowager, widow of the Emperor Hiengthe heads of the ministries, and the chiefs of fung, acted as sole Regent. On March 4, 1889, other administrations. The members of the the young Emperor assumed the government, Neiko are in the closest contact with the Em- the Empress Regent retiring from the direction peror, to whom they submit all papers, and from pf state affairs. The Emperor, before taking in whom they receive the replies and instructions his hands the reins of power, married, on Feb. on which the Imperial edicts are drawn up; yet 25, a young woman selected by the Regent, and since they hold other posts that often require was given two young sisters as concubines. The them to reside away from the capital, their col- retiring Empress Regent, who has practically lective influence is small, and the proper func- guided the destinies of China from 1861, when tions of a cabinet devolve more on the modern the empire was torn by civil war and humbled and less dignified body. The Chun-chi-chu was by foreign conquest, and has done much to bring founded in 1730, and was originally intended to about the union and strength that distinguishes
China at the present day, once before resigned Protestant Christians increased from 19,660 in ostensibly the control of affairs when her son, 1881 to 33,750 in 1887. the late Emperor Tung-Che, married and en China Proper is divided into eighteen proytered on his reign; yet, when he dismissed his inces, while Manchuria, from a comparatively Prime Minister, Prince Kung, the Regents in- recent date, has ranked as the nineteenth, and, terposed, and rescinded the imperial decree, as the result of the French war, the island of The Empress, in order to remove all doubts of Formosa has lately been endowed with a separate her final retirement and of the unquestionable administration. The provincial administration authority of the Emperor after his marriage and is as carefully organized as the central. As assumption of power, has issued a series of proc- members of the official hierarchy, the rulers of lamations explaining that a female regency was the provinces are subject to transfer, removal, only a last resort to prevent abuses such as took or disgrace, but the Government is decentralized place in previous dynasties, and that constitu- to such an extent that there is almost no supertional usages can now be reverted to without vision or control over their executive acts. The detriment to the safety and well-being of the provinces of Pechili and Szechuen are each adempire. When one of the Censors, notwith- ministered by a Tsungtuh or Chetai, called in standing these plain assurances, proposed that English a viceroy. Other viceroyalties are comhenceforth certain memorials be made out in posed of groups of two or more provinces, Liang; duplicate, in order that the Empress Dowager Kwang, or the two Kwangs (Kwantung and might have a copy as well as the Emperor, he Kwangsi), forming one; Liang-Kiang, or the two received a severe rebuke from the retiring Re- Kiangs (Kiangsi and Kiangsu, with Anhwei), gent, and was ordered to report himself for pun- another; Min-Cheh (Chekiang and Tuhkien), a ishment to the proper board. In accordance with third ; Yunnan, including Kweichow, a fourth; the privilege enjoyed by all officials of offering Houkwang (Hupeh and Hunan), a fifth ; and suggestions as to measures to be adopted, honors last, Kansuh and Shensi. There are twelve to be conferred, or censures to be passed on other Futais, or governors, in charge of single provofficials, a high functionary named Wu, who had inces under the Tungchus, and four Futais, lately succeeded in stopping the breach in the who administer independently the provinces of Yellow River, set forth in a memorial his view Shansi, Honan, Shantung, and the island of Forthat high titles of honor should be bestowed on mosa. Manchuria was converted into a vicePrince Shun. This proposal was likewise sternly royalty in the reign of the late Emperor Tungreprobated by the Empress, who gave to the pub- che, but the military administration of the lic in the same number of the “Official Gazette "a Manchus is still essentially in force. memorial from Prince Shun, presented when his Civil Service Examinations. — There are son was first proclaimed Emperor, but withheld 20,000 officials in the various grades of the civil from publication at the author's request until service at Pekin, about one fourth being Manthe Emperor assumed personal control of the chus and the others Chinese. They are actively Government in this memorial the Prince ex- employed and subject to close supervision, inpresses his desire that no honors should be given curring for the smallest mistake the loss of steps to him, and that persons proposing them should in the order of seniority, affecting their rank and be treated with ignominy as dangerous charac- pay. The salaried offices in the provincial adters, intriguing to curry favor for the sake of ministrations do not exceed 2,000, but the yatheir own advancement. The young Empe mens are filled with unpaid subordinates and ror, who has received a thorough Chinese clas- hangers-on who have passed the examinations sical education, under his father's supervision, qualifying them as candidates for Government and the accustomed physical training in archery office, and who, while waiting the chance of an and horsemanship, is described as slow and hesi- appointment which falls to but few, obtain a tating in speech, phlegmatic in temperament, livelihood from bribes and blackmail. Although strong of will, and not easily diverted from opin- admission to the public service has been surions that he has formed.
rounded with every conceivable difficulty, such Area and Population. The total area of is the desire for rank and office that hundreds the eighteen provinces of China proper is 1,297,- devote their lives to the vain pursuit to every 999 square miles, and the population, according one who succeeds in entering the regular service. to the latest official data, is 382,978,840. The A preliminary examination is held once a year dependencies of China are Manchuria, with an in every prefecture. Those who are successfularea of 362,310 square miles and about 12,000,- and they are less than 1 per cent. of the appli000 inhabitants; Mongolia, 1,288,000 square cants-must go through a severer examination miles, with a population of 2,000,000; Tibet, before obtaining the degree, of siutsai. This 651,500 square miles, with a population esti- entitles them to come forward at the triennial mated at 6,000,000 ; Djungaria, 147,950 square examination held at every provincial capital for miles, with 600,000 inhabitants; and Eastern the degree of ku jin, which confers a claim to Turkistan, 431,800 square miles, with 580,000 office that is still only a chance, for the successinhabitants. The number of foreigners residing ful candidates are many more than the vacanat the treaty ports in the beginning of 1888 was cies. Many men, trying again and again, reach 7,905, of whom 3,604 were British, 855 Amer- old age before they win the second degree, and ican, 651 Japanese, 597 German, 515 French, many lives are passed in futile studies. About and 475 Spanish. About one half of the for- 90,000 candidates present themselves every three eigners reside in Shanghai. The Roman Cath- years, and an average number of 1,300 are sucolic Church_counted in 1881 about 1,094,000 cessful. There is opportunity for favoritism and members. There were 41 bishops, 664 European corruption in the examinations, it is said, and priests, and 559 native priests. The number of certainly in the bestowal of offices on the suc
cessful candidates. Those ku jin who obtain no eign invasion. It is pronounced by most critappointments may compete for the higher degree ics to be a fairly efficient body of troops for of tsin sze every three years at Pekin, but if they the work that it has to perform—that is, for defall below a certain standard, they lose the de- fending fortifications. The garrison of Pekin is gree that they have, and may be forbidden to composed of the choicest material to be found present themselves again. The highest literary in the Chinese Empire, the élite of the Manchu degree is that of hanlin, to be won by a fourth and Mongol Banners, men selected for high statexamination, which, if successfully withstood, ure and splendid physique, who are inspired by confers membership in the Imperial Academy, the martial traditions and pride of their race, accompanied with a fixed salary: The doctors and developed athletically by the old military of the Hanlin Yuen enjoy the highest considera- system of hardening and exercise. This force is tion and respect, but they must not allow their always under the command of a Manchu of high learning to become rusty, otherwise they fail in rank, having stood recently under the personal the periodical examinations, and are dropped orders of Prince Shun himself. Its organization, from the rolls of the college.
however, is defective and out of date, and little Finances. The revenues of the Imperial attempt has been made to fit it in armament and Government are only known by estimates. The training to cope with European troops. Wangordinary receipts are estimated to amount to chi-chang, a high official who has recently been 71,900,000 haikwan taels, of which 20,000,000 appointed chief-justice of the Canton province, taels represent the land tax, payable in specie; in a recent memorial, suggested radical changes 2,800,000 taels, the rice tribute ; 9,600,000 taels, in the system of military exercises and comsalt duties: 20,500,000 taels, the maritime cus- petitive examinations. Instead of practicing toms; 6,000,000 taels, the native customs; 11,- archery and lifting heavy weights, he recom000,000 taels, transit duties; and 2,000,000 taels, mends that the competitors should be required license taxes. The receipts of the custom-house to shoot at a target with a rifle, and that the alone are published. The collection of duties is highest honor should be awarded to the best in charge of an Englishman, who has European marksman, who should be appointed to teach and American as well as Chinese assistants. The rifle practice to the people of his town and neighcustoms receipts in 1887 amounted to 20,541,399 borhood, in order that all the people should haikwan taels, of which 4,645,842 taels represent eventually acquire skill in the use of firearms. the prepaid likin tax on opium. The Chinese He proposes that promotion in the army should Government since 1874 has raised various loans be made to depend on superior accuracy in riflein the European money markets, amounting shooting. In the same memorial he suggests altogether to about $25,000,000. The last was a that the Chinese should be encouraged to build loan of $1,250,000 placed in Germany in Feb- and to own steamships that would be available ruary, 1887.
for the Government in time of war, besides inThe Army.-The military forces of the Em- creasing the national wealth; that the Governperor number nearly 1,000,000 men; but, to a ment should purchase machinery for forging iron large extent, the arms are antiquated, and the and manufacturing cannon, in order to be indetroops are untrained in the methods of modern pendent of foreign supplies that may be cut off warfare, except two new corps that are of great by blockade and neutrality laws; and, as a preimportance for the defense of China against for- ventive of war, that machinery for manufactureign attacks, viz., Li-Hung-Chang's trained regi- ing cotton cloth on a scale sufficient to supply ments and the garrison of Manchuria. The regu- the whole empire should also be purchased, for lar imperial forces are still divided under the having lost their business in cottons foreigners system adopted at the time of the Manchu con- will of their own accord return to their homes. quest in the middle of the seventeenth century In Manchuria and Central Asia the Governinto three separate bodies, composed of the races ment is rapidly developing a large force capato which they belong. The Manchus, number- ble of withstanding an invasion of the westing 678 companies of 100 men, and the Mon- ern frontiers. A few years ago the garrison of gols, who furnish 80,000 fighting men, form to- Manchuria consisted of local levies armed with gether what is called the Tartar or Banner bows and spears. The troops are still drafted army, The Chinese or Green Flag army num- from the Tartar tribes, who surpass in bodily bers between 600,000 and 700,000 men; but no vigor and native courage the well - disciplined attempt has been made to organize this force for garrison of the Pechili province. They are bemodern war. Nor is the esprit de corps strong ing armed and organized in the modern way or elevated, owing to the inferior position occu- under instructors from Li-Hung-Chang's army. pied by the military in the Chinese community. There are now in Manchuria alone 200,000 Banwhich prides itself on literary education and nermen, and of these one third are armed with civil pursuits. Yet the most efficient corps now Winchester and other rifles, and are trained in existing in China, Li - Hung - Chang's model garrison duty at Moukden, Kirin, and the posts troops, organized after the European fashion, on the Ussuri river. and instructed and disciplined for twenty years Commerce. — The net imports in 1887 by foreign officers, among whom Germans pre- amounted to 102,263,669 haikwan taels (of the dominate, is mainly recruited from the Chinese average value of $1.17), and the total net exports population. This body, known as the Black to 85,860,208 taels. The imports from HongFlag Army, consists of about 50,000 men, and is Kong were of the value of 57,761,039 taels; from intrusted with the special duty of garrisoning Great Britain, 25,666,477 taels; from Japan, Port Arthur, the forts on the Taku and Peiho, 5,565,305 taels; from India, 5,537,375 taels ; and Tientsin, and of defending the capital and from the United States, 3,398,390 taels; from the metropolitan province of Pechili from for- the Continent of Europe (exclusive of Russia),
2,587,548 taels. The value of the exports to Navigation. The number of vessels entered Hong-Kong was 31,393,189 taels; to Great Brit- and cleared at the ports of China in 1887 was 28,ain, 16,482,809 taels; to continental Europe, 11,- 381, of 22,199,661 tons. Of these 23,439, of 21,545,406 taels; to the United States, 8,915,920 149,526 tons, were steam vessels. Of the total taels; to Russia in Europe and in Asia, 7,651,353 number 15,917, of 14,171,810 tons, were British; taels; to Japan, 2,113,137 taels. Hong-Kong is 8,298, of 5,670,123 tons, Chinese ; 2,749, of 1,480,a center for the import trade in opium, salt, cot- 083 tons, German; 409, of 306,196 tons, Japanton goods, and other articles, and for the export ese; 255, of 66,539 tons, American; and 121, of trade in tea and silk About one half of the 180,890 tons, French. There is a very large trade of which this port is the intermediary is coasting trade in which foreign vessels as well as with Great Britain, and the rest is divided be- Chinese junks and steamers take part. The tween India, the United States, Australia, Ger- steamers belonging to the Chinese Navigation many, and minor countries. The imports of Company also engage in the foreign trade. cotton goods into China in 1887 were valued at Railroads. The introduction of railroads 37,047,931 haikwan taels; opium, 27,926,865 into China has encountered not only superstitaels; metals, 5,797,367 taels; woolens, 5,424,561 tious prejudices, but the powerful opposition of taels. The exports of silk, raw and manufact- the classes engaged in the carrying trades. An exured, had a total value of 31,690,214 taels; tea, perimental railway between Shanghai and Woo30,041,100 taels; straw braid, 3,738,310 taels; sung that was opened in 1876 was purchased by sugar, 1,869,583 taels; clothing, 1,306,820 taels; the Government in the following year for the paper, 1,216,563 taels; chinaware, 1,113,019 taels. purpose of tearing it up. A railway for the The quantity of tea exported was 2,096,097 conveyance of coal from the mines at Kaiping to piculs, of 1334 pounds, of which 793,747 piculs the river Petang has been working for some went to Great Britain, 607,376 piculs to Russia, years. It was continued in 1888 to Tientsin by 274,112 piculs to the United States, 172,306 way of Taku, making its total length 85 miles. piculs to Hong-Kong, and 147,543 piculs to Aus- The whole line was opened for traffic in October, tralia. The raw silk export has varied in ten 1888, after being inspected and approved by years from 51,772 piculs in 1885 to 80,170 piculs Li-Hung-Chang, Governor-General of Pechili. in 1880, the average quantity being about 65,000 An imperial decree was issued ordering its expiculs. The trade in wild silk has sprung up tension from Tientsin to Tungchow, only twelve within a few years, the export increasing from miles from Pekin; but suddenly, on account of 4,289 piculs in 1879 to 13,868 piculs in 1886, and the strong objections of the conservative party from that to about 73,000 piculs in 1888. The at court, the project was dropped altogether for export of silk waste has increased fourfold since the time. It came under discussion again in 1879, amounting to 59,125 piculs in 1887 and 1889. But the Censors declared against the 52,757 piculs in 1888. The export of silk cocoons project. The destruction by fire of a very sacred fluctuates according to conditions of silk culture temple, the Tien Tan, or Altar to Heaven, at in southern Europe. It was 4,318 piculs in 1879, Pekin, in September, 1889, was attributed to the 1,324 piculs in 1885, 11,092 piculs in 1887, and railroads by their superstitious opponents, some 8,981 piculs in 1888. The trade in silk piece- of whom, it is suspected, may have set the buildgoods has risen steadily from 13,808 piculs in ing on fire for the purpose of laying the blame on 1872 to 23,016 piculs in 1888. The raw culti- the foreign innovation. On August 27 an impevated silk is exported from Shanghai and Canton, rial decree was issued sanctioning a railroad from which in the reverse order are also the sources of Pekin to Hankow. In the edict the Emperor dethe silk manufactures. Wild silk and cocoons clares his opinion that to make a country powerare shipped mainly from Newchang, Canton, and ful railroads are essential. Recognizing that the Chefoo. The total value of the imports for 1888 people will have at first doubts and suspicions, is reported by the Maritime Customs Office to he orders the viceroys Li-Hung-Chang and amount to $150,000,000, showing an improve- Chang-Chitung, who are to build the line, and ment of 12 per cent. over the previous year, the governors of the provinces of Pechili, Hupeh, exclusive of the junk trade with Hong-Kong and Honan, through which it will pass, to issue and Macao, which forms a part of the total for proclamations exhorting and commanding the the first time. The trade of the treaty ports people to throw no impediments in the way, as it amounted to $125,500,000. The total value of is the Emperor's desire that all should work tothe exports by sea was $112,000,000. Tea and gether to make this great work a success. The silk account for more than two thirds of the to- line will have a length of nearly 800 miles, and tal exports. The ocean tea trade has fallen off, is estimated to cost 16,000,000 taels. When Liowing to the competition of India and Ceylon, Hung-Chang's favorite project was defeated, and in part to the growth of the overland ex- owing chiefly, it is supposed to the machinations ports to Asiatic Russia. The silk exports, on the of officials who derive illicit profits from the other hand, have increased 50 per cent. since transport of tribute rice between Tientsin and 1885. There is a growing export of raw cotton Pekin, the Emperor, induced probably by Prince and of products destined for the consumption of Shun and the ex-Empress Regent, sent orders to Chinamen abroad. Cotton goods constitute 35 high officials, among them Tseng, Viceroy of per cent. of the imports. The increased import Nankin, Chang, Viceroy of Liang Kwang, and of Indian opium accounts for two fifths of the the Viceroy of Min-Cheh, to report on the conimprovement in the total value of imports. The struction of railroads in China. Strengthened in next most important articles are rice, of the value his purpose by their reports, he announced the of $11,750,000; metals, $8,500,000; woolens, new policy of railroad construction, and ordered $6,000,000; fish, $3,150,000; kerosene oil, $2,- this important trunk-line to Hankow to be built 650,000.
as soon as possible.