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improved processes of Prof. Emil Fischer and known weight of pure ammonium dichromate Dr. Tafel, it ferments rapidly with beer-yeast, with alcohol and hydrochloric acid to chromic evolving abundance of carbonic anhydride at the chloride, and subsequent estimation of the oxide ordinary temperature. It reduces Fehling's so- produced by direct precipitation with ammonia. lution, and differs from natural dextrose and The mean of the values from six experiments lavulose only in being optically inactive. was 52:061.
The synthesis of urea has been effected by Drs. The atomic weight of tellurium has been placed, Behrend and Rosen in a manner which settles after the determinations of Berzelius and Von its constitution as according to the formula of Hauer, at 128. The properties of the substance, Medicus and Fischer. That formula makes it a however, indicate that it belongs to the sulphur simple combination of iso-dialuric acid with the group of elements, and that its position in the elimination of water.
periodic system lies between antimony, atomic Atomic Weights.—Bohuslav Brauner, dis- weight 120, and of iodine, atomic weight 127. cussing the standard of atomic weights, after with a view of solving the problem thus presented, citing Marignac's reasons for preferring O=16, Dr. Brauner has attempted a redetermination of H = 1:0024 to the system which makes hydrogen the atomic weight of tellurium, from which he has the unit and O15-96, asks, “Why should we found it 127.61, still above that of iodine. Hence make our atomic weights dependent on the ratio it seems to come out the first element yet found of hydrogen to oxygen, a value which, besides the properties
of which are not a function of its changing from experiment to experiment, is the atomic weight. Dr. Brauner finds, however, as most difficult of all atomic ratios to determine the result of fractionation that his specimen is accurately, its slightest variation causing all oth- not pure tellurium, but consists of probably three er atomic weights to vary the more the higher elements-pure tellurium mixed with smaller they are One way to get out of the difficulty quantities of two other elements of higher would be to take oxygen as unity, viz., 0 = 1 or atomic weights; and he has since been engaged 0= 100. This would, however, give numbers in studying the nature of these foreign subperfectly impracticable and absolutely impossi- stances, and in the endeavor to isolate pure telble to remember. Would it not be better to as- lurium. In his latest memoir he observes that sume 0 = 16 (without regarding Prout's hypothe- one of the new elements is probably identical sis in its original rough form as correct), so as to with Prof. Mendeleeff's recently predicted dwimake the atomic weights of all elements real'con- tellurium, of atomic weight 214; while the other stants of nature,' depending on a constant basis, constituent is an element closely allied to arsenic and to change their values only when a more ex- and antimony. act determination replaces a previous less exact The atomic weight of palladium--the previous one"
estimations being regarded as too high-has been Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Mr. W. Hibbert have redetermined by E. H. Keiser. The author emsought to determine the atomic weight of zinc ployed the yellow crystalline palladium diamby applying Faraday's law of electrolysis. Amonium chloride, which was dissociated by heatseries of copper, silver, and zinc voltameters were ing in a stream of hydrogen. The mean value arranged in a simple circuit, and the quantity of of two series of analyses-nineteen in all-gave zinc dissolved was compared with the weights of 106-35 as the atomic weight. deposited silver and copper. From the mean ra Organic Chemistry.-Much light has been tio of the equivalents of silver and zinc the atom- thrown on the chemistry of the terpenes and ic weight of the latter was calculated-silver be- ethereal oils and other related compounds by ing taken at 107-93-as 65.44; or if silver is taken the investigations of Prof. O. Wallach, of Bonn at 107-66, as 65.20. The copper sulphate voltam- and Göttingen. Worm-seed oil was found to eter is not as accurate as the silver one. It consist of an oxygen compound of the formula gave, however, the atomic weight of copper be- C10H180, which, as it was isomeric with borneol, ing 63-33, 65-37 as that of zinc.
the author called cineol. Studies of its behavior The fundamental idea of a method employed with hydrochloric and hydriodic acids, bromine, by W. A. Noyes for determining the atomic and other agents showing that at least one of the weight of oxygen is that by passing hydrogen terpenes could be characterized by chemical reinto an apparatus containing hot copper oxide, actions, the investigation was extended to the and condensing the water formed within the class generally. The first result was to show same apparatus, the weight of the hydrogen can that the oxygen compound contained in cajeput be determined by the gain in weight of the ap- oil, and hitherto known as cajeputol, is identical paratus. The mean result of six determinations with cineol. It was found further that the hymade by this method, the processes of which are drocarbon C10H1x obtained from orange peel, and related in detail in the paper, gives 15.886+.0028; known as hesperidene, is not identical with cinor, if the correction for nitrogen be omitted, ene, as it yielded a different tetrabromide. With 15-867, or almost exactly the same as Cooke's final the knowledge that at least two distinct and easimean (15•869). This makes it seem probable to ly recognizable tetrabromides could be obtained the author that Cooke's hydrogen was contami- from terpenes, Wallach proceeded to the examinated with a trace of nitrogen. The results ob- nation of a large number of ethereal oils, with tained, the author believes, show that the acci- results that are thus summed up: 1. Those terdental errors of the determination have been penes which are obtained from orange-peel oil, made very small.
lemon oil, oil of bergamot, oil of caraway, dill oil, The atomic weight of chromium has been re- erigeron oil, and pine-needle oil are identical. determined by Mr. Rawson, of University Col- This hydrocarbon is the hesperidene above relege, Liverpool, who used a process remarkable ferred to. 2. The terpenes boiling between 180° for its simplicity. This was reduction of a and 182° C., and known as cinene, cajeputene,
caoutchene, and disoprene; that portion of the oil of camphor j, boils between 180° and 182°; the product obtained by heating terpenes to 250° to 270°: and the hydrocarbons obtained by the decomposition of the terpene dichlorhydrate CoH is, 2HCl, melting at 49° to 50°, no matter what the source may be—are all identical. A preliminary paper has been published by Frank D. Dodge on an investigation in which he is engaged of the volatile oils obtained from various tropical grasses of the genus Andropogon. Five of them are-known in commerce—oils of citronella, lemon grass, Indian or Turkish geranium, and vetivert, or cus cus. The Turkish geranium oil has been known and used since at least the time of Alexander the Great. The grass Andropogon squarrosus, Lin., from which oil of vetivert or cus cus is obtained, was probably the “birana” grass with a sweet-scented root mentioned in the Sanscrit classics. It is found in many parts of India and the East, and in the tropical parts of the New World. Mr. Dodge's first paper relates to the examination of citronella oil and its aldehyde, which is found to be easily convertible into a terpene and into cymene, and gives valerianic acid among the oxidation products. The oil of tansy, examined by Bruylants, bears a relation to oil of citronella. It is found to contain an aldehyde, C10H18O, the corresponding alcohol, C10H18O, and a terpene. Oil of Turkish geranium has been examined by Jacobsen, who found it to contain a monatomic alcohol, geraniol, C10H18O. The investigation of these and of the other oils, which are still unstudied, is continued. An investigation has been published by W. E. Stone, of the University of Tennessee, cono: arabinose, a saccharine substance discovered and first prepared pure by Scheibler, from the cellular substance or pulp of sugar beets, or from gum Arabic. It is also found in cherry gum and tragacanth gum. The investigation concerned the relations of arabinose with the carbohydrates and to fermentation and the action of strong acids. The results showed that while galactose, lavulose, dextrose, and sorbose, types of the true carbonates, are all fermentable, arabinose is not subject to alcoholic fermentation. It forms no appreciable quantity of lavulinic acid when treated with strong mineral acids; and when distilled with dilute sulphuric acid yields large and constant quantities of furfurol, which the true carbohydrates do not. The fact that the last property is common to it and xylose, besides distinguishing that substance from the true carbohydrates, points to a relationship between the two. Arabinose and xylose are formed from substances contained in the seed coats of cereals and probably in numerous other natural products. Arabinose also differs from the true carbohydrates in its composition, which is expressed by the formula C5H10Os. When many plants of the higher botanical orders are exhausted with petroleum-ether or alcohol, crystalline compounds may be separated from the extracts. These crystals, obtained from Cascara amarqa and Phlor Carolina, have been analyzed by Helen C. DeS. Abbott and Henry Trimble, who conclude that the compound is a solid hydrocarbon. While liquid hydrocarbons are abundant in the plant kingdom, a similar
occurrence of compounds of this class in a solid or crystalline condition appears not to have been noticed. By treating purified filter paper or fine carded cotton with sulphuric acid, Guignet has obtained a colloidal form of cellulose soluble in water. Before washing the cellulose forms a transparent gelatinous mass which is not affected by contact with acid, but which at 100° C. is rapidly converted into gelatin. The solution of colloidal cellulose in water is slightly milky, is readily filtered, deposits no precipitate, is not altered by boiling, is slightly orange yellow in color, and is precipi; tated, like other colloids, by certain acids and salts. It appears to be the substance with which the pores of parchment paper are filled. iscellaneous. – From experiments with “ photosalts” produced by chemical means which '''''''' identical with those produced by light, Mr. M. Carey Lea came to the conclusion that those substances consist of a silver haloid (normal chloride, bromide, or iodide) combined with the corresponding subsalt, not in equivalent proportions, but after the manner of a “lake”; the subsalts, being unstable substances when isolated, acquiring greater stability by the union. This view was disputed by Dr. Hodgkinson, in England, whose conclusion was that an oxysalt and not a subsalt was formed. Although he regarded the evidence of the formation of a subsalt (subchloride) amply sufficient, Mr. Lea made further experiments, the results of which appear to establish his theory. Prof. J. W. Mallet has found that the greater | of the alum baking-powders in our marsets are made with alum, acid phosphate of calcium, bicarbonate of sodium, and starch: that, giving off very different proportions of carbonicacid gas, they require to be used in different proportions with the same quantity of flour; that, while there is generally an excess of the alkaline ingredient in them, the acid is sometimes in excess; that they yield on moistening small quantities of aluminum and calcium in a soluble condition; that, after baking, they leave most of their aluminum as a phosphate or as a hydroxide, both of which tend to produce an inhibitory effect on gastric digestion, and may robably also bring about partial precipitation in insoluble form of some o!". inorganic matter of food. Hence the conclusion is deduced “that not only alum itself, but the residues which its use in baking-powder leaves in bread, can not be viewed as harmless, but must be ranked as objectionable, and should be avoided when the object aimed at is the production of wholesome bread.” A systematic study of the action of definitely related chemical compounds upon animals has been begun by Prof. Wolcott Gibbs and Dr. H. A. Hare, the first paper on which is published in the “American Chemical Journal” for October. Its object is to determine whether it is possible to trace general laws in the action of definitely related compounds upon the animal organization, so that it will be possible to predict, within certain limits at least, what the action of a given substance will be and what modifications that action will undergo when chemical changes are produced by the replacement of particular elements or groups of elements, or by other definite and generally applicable chemical processes. The experiments so far related were made with ortho, meta, and para nitrophenols, nitranilines, amido-benzoic acids, and nitro-benzoic acids. Notwithstanding the dictum uttered by the French Academy of Medicine many years ago that no arsenic could be detected in the clear glasses met with in commerce, all the arsenic being volatilized during the processes of manufacture, the presence of that substance has been recognized in later years. An investigation by John Marshall and C. S. Potts was instituted to determine the presence of arsenic in glass of American and of foreign manufacture; the action of the caustic alkalies, strong acids, and ordinary laboratory reagents upon the arsenical glass of the bottles in which they were contained; and the occurrence of arsenic in commercial caustic soda, sodium carbonate, and in sodiuson hydrate and sodium carbonate sold as chemically pure. Every sample of clear glass examined except one and all the caustic soda except one sample, which was made by the Solvay process, contained arsenic. The caustic potash, ammonium hydroxide, and the common reagents examined were found to be free from arsenic The strong acids, ammonium hydroxide, and ordinary reagents had no dissolving action upon the surface of arsenical glass bottles, whereas solutions of the fixed alkalies had such solvent action. Additional experiments have been made by W. N. Hartley on the effects of acids upon ultramarine. The author had expressed the conclusion, in the “ British Association ” in 1886, that, in water-color drawings in which ultramarine was mixed with red for the production of certain effects, the colors were liable to suffer from the action of acids such as might be found in the drawing paper, or in the damp atmosphere of towns where much coal is burned. In after experiments, powders of distinctly colored portions of specimens of lapis lazuli exposed to sulphuric acid were attacked, and in nearly every case completely decolorized. Where the blue color was not quite destroyed, examination with a powerful |. showed that blue particles remained which had not been finely enough powdered. Several minute lumps of the color were observed to be etched by the acid, so as to show white spots here and there. Hence the fineness of the powder has much influence on the facility with which the mineral is attacked. Some of the powdered mineral was made red hot and thrown into dilute acetic acid. After waiting for five minutes the blue color was not appreciably diminished. Under these circumstances, however, the color was in considerable quantity, while in the previous experiments the powder was much finer and in a thin layer, and, though there was a slight action immediately, it was about an hour before the color was completely destroyed. The effects were unequally rapid in the different specimens. It does not appear, therefore, to the author that his statement concerning the use of ultramarine as a pigment upon drawing paper *|†. modification. he absorption spectrum of oxygen has engaged attention on account of the important part which that element plays in the world, and on account of the remarkable character of the absorption in exhibiting bands of two different
classes, and variable under varying circumstances of condensation and combination. The study of it is expected to throw light on the nature of the molecular changes brought about by different circumstances. In the experiments in this field described by Liveing and Dewar the absorption of the ultra-violet rays did not extend quite so far down as the limit of the solar spectrum, though it approached it. A diffuse edge of gradually diminishing absorption succeeds the complete absorption, and this, with other facts makes it likely that the limit of the solar spectrum is due to the absorption of ordinary oxygen. Observations on atmospheric air were made under the same circumstances as those on oxygen, and the two sets were fairly comparable. The observations on the absorption of liquid oxygen confirmed those of Olzewski. . #. absorption by ozone extended far below the limit of the solar spectrum, and no identity was traced between the phenomena and those exhibited by ordinary oxygen.
The specific gravity of a large series of samples of fats and oils has been examined by C. A. Crampton, of the laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture, by means of the Archimedian method. While the plummet of a Westphal balance is used, the weighings are made with an ordinary balance. The densities of certain fats which are solid at 35°, were taken with an adaptation of the ordinary specific-gravity flask. The specific gravities were thus taken of the more important samples, including both the harder fats and the lards and oils. The co-efficients of expansion were also ascertained in all cases. Many of the samples being typical, the author has published a table of the results obtained, which he thinks may prove valuable in establishing standards. The results add testimony to the accuracy of the Archimedian method for taking specific gravities.
The International Chemical Congress met in Paris, July 29, under the presidency of M. Berthellot. It was predominantly attended by Frenchspeaking chemists. The proceedings related largely to nomenclature. Some of the results were of narrow technical application, and others were most interesting to French chemists. Among those of more general interest and application were the conclusions that the two carbon atoms in ethylene and the two hydrogen atoms in urea shall be distinguished by the letters a and b; that the aldehydes shall be named after their corresponding alcohols; that the suslix -ol shall be reserved as far as possible for alcohols, and in the hydrocarbons shall be replaced by the ending -ene; and that the prefix bi- shall in future be reserved for bodies formed by the union of two radicals; while the prefix di- shall be used, as at present, to denote bodies formed by double substitution. An international committee was constituted to promote uniformity of chemical nomenclature, on which Prof. Ira Remsen was invited to represent the United States.
Mr. Thomas B. Warren has found that pea-nut oil, when electrified, becomes extremely sensitive to heat. Even slightly touching the finger to a glass inclosing the experimenting tube, caused deflection of the galvanometer; and this while the space between the two glasses was half an inch and packed with non-heat-conducting material. Even the best solid conductors—such as copper and silver—do not show such remarkable ... to heat, and no other oil behaves in so pronounced a manner; but a mixture containing pea-nut oil shows the susceptibility in a degree proportional to the quantity of that substance present.
A series of experiments upon combustions in nitric-acid vapor have been described by Prof. P. T. Austen. A glowing chip of wood was inflamed and burned energetically, much as in oxygen; but, as the red tetroxide of nitrogen—N2O4–was formed by the reduction of the nitric acid, a ruddy halo was seen to play around the flame. Charcoal burned brilliantly, and the scintillations in the red tetroxide gas produced a very fine effect. A steel watch-spring may be burned when started with sulphur, |. with an effect different from that in oxygen; a red halo is formed around each melted globule of iron as it falls. Phosphorus burns with great beauty, with a dazzling white flame, passing into deep red at the edges. Most beautiful effects are obtained by the combustion of readily oxidizable gases from jets suspended in the nitric-acid vapor. Hydrogen burns with an intensely white flame, very different from the flame in oxygen, surrounded by a deep-red envelope. Coal gas continues to burn . white center, enveloped, as in the case of hydrogen, with a red halo. When first introduced, the flame becomes musical; then it degenerates into a series of rapid, slight explosions, and at length, after a certain amount of nitrogen tetroxide has formed, burns quietly. Sulphureted hydrogen burns with a bright-yellow flame, and the flask becomes filled with a cloud of minute chamber-crystals, resulting, from the action of the sulphur dioxide and water formed upon the tetroxide of nitrogen simultaneously produced. Ammonia burns with a flame consisting of a bright-yellow nucleus, surrounded by a greenish-yellow envelope. This passes into an outer envelope of carmine red, which deepens as
the amount of tetroxide of nitrogen increases. CHEWREUL, MICHEL EUGENE, a French chemist, born in Angers, France, Aug. 31, 1786; died in Paris, April 9, 1889. He was the son of a physician of high repute, who held a chair in the old University of Angers, was a prolific writer, and died at the age of ninety-one. His mother, Madeliene Bachelier, was a woman of ability, survived her husband, and died at Angers after attaining her ninety-third year. The boy assed his childhood at home, and after the revoution spent five years at the Central School. Among |. recollections of those early years, he mentioned the guillotining of two young girls who were accused of hiding some refractory riests, and he was a witness of the battle of Murs Rock between the Vendeans and the Republicans, which he saw from the country home of his parents on the banks of the Loire. In 1803 he went to Paris, where he entered the laboratory of Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, who was then Professor of Chemistry in the faculty of medicine. So rapid were the advances made by Chevreul that three years later the entire direction of the laboratory was given to him. He became preparator of the chemical course in the Museum of Natural History in 1810, and in 1813 was made Professor of Chemistry at the Lycée
Charlemagne. About this time he began his studies in organic chemistry—then an almost unknown science—and gave to the Academy of Sciences his results, which were collected into his “Recherches chimiques sur les corps gras d'origine animale’” (1823). He showed that oils and
MICHEL EUGENE chevreul.
fats, which till then had been regarded as pure immediate principles, were formed of substances among which were margarine, oleine, and stearine. The latter substance, by furnishing stearic acid, gave rise to the manufacture of stearine candles. His labors on fatty bodies, and his theory of saponification, created new industries and opened wider horizons to the theories of organic chemistry. According to J. B. Dumas, his great contemporary, this work formed a perpetual model for chemists, and demonstrated the method by which hundreds of millions of artificial substances could be prepared. In 1824 he was appointed director .." the dye-works and special
rofessor of Chemistry at the Gobelins factory, and thereafter he devoted his attention largely to the study of color. He showed that the harmonies of colors are due to immutable laws, which he revealed, and the certainty of which is demonstrated by calculation; he also discovered the laws of the simultaneous or successive contrasts of color; the theory of colored shadows; and the art of defining, by means of a chromatic circle, every shade by a figure. His publications on this subject include “Leçons de chimie appliquée à la teinture" (1823–31); “De la loi du contraste simultané des couleurs et de l'assortements des objets coloriés” (1839): and “Des couleurs et de leurs applications aux arts industriels a l'aide des cercles chromatiques” (1864). The appointment at the Gobelins he held until his death, and a few years ago, when asked to give way to a younger man, he refused, claiming that he was still sufficiently active to do the work. In 1830 he succeeded Vauquelin as Professor at the Museum of Natural History, and continued in that place until 1883. He took up his residence in the
uarters assigned to him near the Jardin des
lantes, and there he died. During the FrancoPrussian War he endured the privations of the siege, and did not leave Paris. \!. than eighty Prussian bombs shattered the galleries and broke the cases of his museum, some of them even
bursting in the vicinity of his laboratory. In- addresses of congratulation. The Society of Nadignant at this treatment, he caused to be en- tional Agriculture, of which he was the only tered in the proceedings of the Academy of Sci- president until his death, gave him a medal. A ences, on Jan. 9, 1871, this protest : “ The garden banquet was given at the Hotel de Ville, in which of medicinal plants, founded at Paris by an edict three hundred and fifty guests participated, and of Louis XIII, in the month of January, 1626, be- a special representation of the opera was held in came the Museum of Natural History, by a de- his honor. The inhabitants of the Rue Chevreul cree of the Convention, June 10, 1793, was bom- illuminated their houses and sent a deputation barded under the reign of William Í, King of with an address to him. He was active in other Prussia, Count Bismarck, chancellor, by the than scientific directions. For many years he Prussian army on the night of Jan. 8-9, 1871; held the office of Maire of L'Hay near Bourg-laup till when it had been respected by all parties Reine, where he owned a large farm. He was a and by all national and foreign powers. E. captain in the National Guard. He was fond of Chevreul director.” These words, carved in society, was a regular attendant at the Théâtre marble, have been placed in the Jardin des Francais and the Opera Comique, and even unPlantes. At the close of the war he presented til recent years he could be seen at the winter two papers to the Academy, in which he described balls given at the Elysée. From boyhood he was his experiences during the siege, and complained a strict abstainer from all alcoholic liquors and of the interference of his studies. His first sci- from tobacco, and he attributed his long life and entific paper, published in 1806, related to a vigorous health to his simple and regular habits. chemical examination of fossils found in the de- His funeral was conducted with elaborate cerepartment of Eure and Loire. His other re- monies at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, and was searches include the application of oleic acid to participated in by delegations from scientific sothe preparation of wool for cloth, the practice of cieties and representatives of the Government. charring the interior of water-casks, and a great The body was entombed in the family vault at number of technical researches. His last paper, L'Hay. For a list of his publications see “ Prinentitled “The Part played by Nitrogen in Vege- cipaux Travaux de Monsieur Chevreul" (Paris, table Economy," was presented to the Academy 1886).-His only son, HENRI, who was born in on May 22, 1888. All the articles on chemistry 1820, and died in Dijon, in March, 1889, lived in the “ Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles with his father until late in life, when he settled were written by him, and he was an editor of the in Dijon, where he was made mayor. In 1888 * Journal des savants." He published, besides he visited Paris to obtain better medical treatthe books already mentioned, “Considérations ment, but his father resented his fragility of consur l'histoire de la partie de la médicine qui con- stitution, and observed that he never expected to cerne la prescription des remèdes” (1865); “ His- raise that child. toire des connaissances chimiques » (1866); and CHILI, an independent republic of South others pertaining to chemistry. Several of his America. (For details relating to area, territoworks have been translated in English, German, rial divisions, and population, see “ Annual Cyand other languages. He was a member of the clopædia” for 1884 and 1888.) international jury at the World's Fair held in Government. The President is Don Manuel London in 1851, and was then awarded a pre- Balmaceda, whose term of office will expire on mium for the benefits that he had conferred upon Sept. 18, 1891. The Cabinet is composed of the humanity by his researches. Until 1855 he was following ministers: Foreign Affairs, Don Isia member of the jury at every French exhibition, doro Errazuriz; Interior, Don Ramon Donaso and in 1853 he was awarded the Argenteuil prize Vergara ; Treasury, Don Pedro Lucio Cuadra; of twelve thousand francs by the Société d'En- Industries and Public Works, Don Pedro Moutt; couragement pour l'Industrie Nationale for his War and Navy, Don Juan Castellon; and Jusinvestigations on fatty substances. He passed tice, Señor Ismael Valdes. The Chilian Minthrough the various ranks in the Legion of Hon- ister to the United States is Don Emilio C. or, until he attained that of the Grand Cross in Varas. The Consul-General in New York is 1875. Honorary degrees of M. D. and LL. D. were Don Federico A. Beelen. The Consul-General conferred upon him by several universities. In for California, Nevada, and Oregon, resident at 1826 he succeeded Proust in the chemical section San Francisco, is Don Juan de la Cruz Cerda. of the Academy of Sciences, and was thereafter a The United States Minister to Chili is Patrick regular attendant every Monday at its meetings. Egan; the American Consul at Valparaiso is He was early chosen a foreign member of the James W. Romeyn. Royal Society of London, and most of the lead Army.—The strength of the permanent army, ing scientific societies of the world had his name in 1888, was 5,610, consisting of eight battalions on their rolls. In the United States he was one of infantry, three regiments of horse, two regiof the foreign associates of the National Academy ments and one battalion of artillery, and one batof Sciences and an honorary fellow of the Asso- talion of engineers. There are 960 commissioned ciation for the Advancement of Science, which officers. The National Guard numbers 48,854; distinction-but twice conferred—was given him 40,641 being infantry, 1,730 mounted, and 6,483 on the celebration of his hundredth birthday. artillery. His centenary was celebrated in 1886 with great Navy.—The navy consists of two armored frigrejoicing. At the Academy of Sciences a bronze ates, one monitor, three corvettes, two gunboats, bust of him, executed by Paul Dubois, was pre- three cruisers, and three pontoons, mounting sented to him by his colleagues ; and at the Mu- together 85 guns, registering 16,200 tons, with seum of Natural History a statue of him by an aggregate horse-power of 4,200, and being Guillaume was unveiled, and representatives manned by 1,573 sailors. There are also five from scientific societies the world over presented small steamers and twenty-five torpedo boats.