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struction makes the following report concern Insurance. The report of the State Insuring public schools:

ance Commissioner shows that in 1888 there Number between 5 and 17 years in attendance

were 132 insurance companies doing business in daring 1887

185,523 the State, as follows: Fire insurance, 104 comNumber attending during 1888

188,887 Increase

2,864

panies; fire and marine, 12; marine, 33; life. Number between 5 and 17 years who attended

22; life and accident, 2; accident, 1; surety and private schools during 1887

22,661 accident, 2 ; surety, 1; steam-boiler, 2; plate Number attending during 1888

20,768 Decrease..

1,898

glass, 2; title insurance, 1. These companies Number between 5 and 17 years not attending

during 1888 transacted the following business : any school in 1887

66,268 Fire insurance amount written, $352,831,786 ; Number not attending during 1888.

61,345 Decrease.

premiums on same, $6,087,041.48; losses paid,

4,928 Number of all ages enrolled in the public schools

$3,049,030.42; ratio of losses to premiums, 50-1 during 1887

196,907 per cent. Marine insurance-amount written, Number enrolled in 1888 Increase

207,050 $134,273,834; premium on same, $1,752,696.58;

10.143 Average daily attendance in 1857

129,297 losses paid, 955,239.49; ratio of losses to premiAverage daily attendance in 1888

182,227 ums, 54-5. Life insurance-amount written, Total number of schools in 1887.

8,755 Total number of schools in 1888..

new policies, $20,988,358; amount written, re

4,002 Male teachers in 1887

1,803 newed policies, $49,591,520: total, $ 70,579,878; Male teachers in 1888

1,086 total amount of premiums, $2,839,141.80; losses Decrease

217 and endowments paid, $1,205,106.91. Accident Female teachers in 1887

8,856 Female teachers in 1888.

8,852

insurance-amount written, $37,416,772; premiIncrease

267 ums on same, $120,605; losses paid, $35,087.17. School-bouses erected in 1887

Of surety insurance there was $4,382,381 School-houses erected in 1888 Distriets formed in 1888..

Years

Valuation.

Valuation,

Years.
1884

104 written; steam - boiler insurance, $1,902,750; Valne of school property in 1887.

89,484,161 plate-glass insurance, $308,696.67, and title inValue of school property in 1888.

$10,563,780 surance, $3,155,901. Increase ...

$1,079,619 Railroads.--The following table shows the The securities held in trust by the State Treas- assessed valuation of all railroads in the State urer for the School fund, according to the latest for the years 1880 to 1887 inclusive: report by the State Comptroller are State and county bonds, $2,975,500; cash awaiting invest- 1880 $81,174,141 21

$50,746,300 00 ment, $21,127.12; total permanent fund, 2,996,- 1881

84,829,668 00 1885

49,035,750 00 627.12. The interest of this permanent fund,

27,602,813 00 1886

48,051,100 00 1888 40,017,000 00 1887

47,677,453 00 together with the amount derived from State, county, and district-school taxes, constitutes the

The Central Pacific and the Southern Pacific school revenue. The school revenue from all roads, with their branches, constitute more than sources in 1887 was $4,441,770.13; in 1888, $5,two thirds of the railroad wealth of the State. 132,413.67. Amount expended in 1887, $3,889,- these two roads for the above-named years, ex

All the State and county taxes assessed upon 888.17; in 1888, $4,321,381.50.

Of the total school revenue, the amount raised cept so much as the companies saw fit to pay by the State from its property tax, the poll tax, voluntarily, have been lost to the

State after à income of the permanent school fund, and other long litigation, which was decided adversely to sources, and apportioned in 1887 to the schools it in 1888. was $2,024,828.65 or $7.43 for each child be

Industrial.—No satisfactory statistics of the tween five and seventeen years; in 1888 the sum wheat crop for 1888 have been gathered, but it is of $2,168,002.64 was apportioned, or $8.01 for variously estimated at from 830,000 tons to 900,each child.

000 tons. The season of 1889 has been favorable In 1885 the Legislature provided for the com- to cereals of all kinds, and the yield of wheat will pilation and publication, at State expense, of a

exceed that of 1888. series of elementary text-books for the public 500,000 pounds, or nearly 2,000.000 pounds more

The wool product for 1888 is estimated at 33,schools. In accordance with this act and a sup; than in 1887. 'Of this total 26,500,000 pounds plementary act in 1887, the following named books of the series have been compiled, adopted were received in San Francisco, 3,500,000 pounds by the State Board of Education, and are now

were shipped from interior points, 1,500,000 in use in the schools of the State. One set of pounds were consumed by interior mills, and three readers, one speller and word analysis

, 2,000,000 pounds were of pulled wool

. one set of two arithmetics, one English gram- 1888 of the dried-fruit industries and of the bee

The following statistics show the product for mar, and one history of the United States.

Charities. The accommodations afforded by raising industry: the State for the insane, at its two asylums at Almonds

450,000 Nectarines.ble'ch'd. 60,000 Napa and at Stockton, have for some time been Apples, sun-dried. 100,000 Peaches, bleached, insufficient. At the Napa asylum, which was Apples, evaporated. 250,000 peeled

400,000 designed to provide for 600 patients, there were

Apricots, bleached. 2,500,000 Peaches, bleached,
Apricots, sun-dried. 100,000

unpeeled 2,200,000 in January, 1889, more than 1,500 inmates. The Beeswax.... 20,000' Peaches, sun-dried. 2,000,000 Stockton asylum was similarly overcrowded. Figs, sun-dried 75,000 Pears, sun-dried 25,000 The Legislature has made provision for two new German prunes ....

2,000,000 Plums, sun-dried 200.000

100,000' Plums, bleached 40,000 institutions—the South California Hospital for Grapes, sun-dried.: 2,000,000 Raisins, 20-Ib. boxes 915,000 the Insane, and the Mendocino Insane Asylum. Honey, extracted .. 8,000,000 Walnuts

1,000, At the State Asylum for Feeble-Minded Chil- Honey, comb..... 300,000 dren there were at the beginning of the year The raisin product exceeds that of 1887 by more than 100 pupils.

over 100,000 boxes. Nearly half of the product

Pounds.

Pounds.

comes from the Fresno district. The year is notable for being the first in which shipments have been made to Europe, the goods being sold in London. The vintage of 1888 is estimated at 17,000,000 gallons, distributed among the counties as follows: Napa, 3,000,000 gallons; Sonoma, 2,500,000; Santa Clara and Santa Cruz, 2,000,000; Alameda and Contra Costa, 1,500,000; San Joaquin, 300,000; Fresno, 2,200,000; Los Angeles and south, 3,000,000; Sacramento and north, 1,500,000; other counties, 1,500,000. Of this amount at least 4,000,000 will be distilled, producing about 600,000 gallons of brandy. The balance of 13,000,000 gallons will consist of dry and sweet wines. During the past year over 7,000,000 gallons have been exported, and there was a home consumption of five or six million gallons. Farms.-After a careful examination and numerous inquiries the Governor finds that the average of the holdings of land in the State is as high as 300 acres. Of less than 36,000 farms there are more than 2,500 that have more than 1,000 acres each. The percentage of farms amounting from 500 to 1,000 acres in extent is higher than in any other State. ining.—It is estimated that California's mining industry will show an increase for the year of more than $3,000,000 over the year 1887. This is largely due to the increased attention being paid to mining in Nevada, Placer, and Amador counties, where the interest has received considerable attention from foreign capital. The Los Burros district, in Monterey County, is coming rapidly to the front as a bullion producer. In the mines in Alameda and San Bernadino counties a fine quality of coal is being mined. The output of copper has largely increased during the year; many small mines in Arizona and Nevada have helped to swell the sum total. he receipts of treasure at the port of San Francisco by Wells, Fargo & Co.'s express during the twelve months ending Dec. 31, 1888, were as follow: From the interior, $20,983,483; from the north coast, 529,181; from Mexico (west coast), $1,353,467; total, $22,866,131. Decision.—The State Supreme Court, in May, 1889, in the case of Central Irrigation District vs. De Lappe, rendered a decision similar to that rendered, in 1888, in Turlock Irrigation District vs. Williams, but covering additional questions affecting the validity of the Wright irrigation law of 1887. The court affirms its former decision favorable to the constitutionality of the act, and, by settling other minor questions, renders procedure under it safe and practicable. Up to the beginning of 1889, only four districts had been organized under this law, and only two had actually issued bonds; but it is believed that this decision will lead to a great increase in the number of organized districts. CANADA, DOMINION OF. See Dowision of CANADA. CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. The Cape of Good Hope is a British colony in South Africa. The Legislative Council is composed of 22 members, elected for seven years, and the House of Assembly of 76 members, elected for five years, including 2 representatives of the Transkeian territories admitted to seats under an act of 1887. The right of suffrage belongs to

adult male citizens paying rent of £50 or receiving an annual salary of at least that amount. The number of voters registered in 1888 was 70,300. The Governor of the Cape of Good Hope from 1880 till 1889 was Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson, who had previously been Governor of New South Wales and of New Zealand. He was succeeded, on Aug. 1, by Sir Henry Brougham Loch, who was attached to Lord Elgin's mission to China in 1857–60, having served in the army in India and the Crimea, and was Governor of Victoria from 1884 till he received his present appointment. The executive power, except in imperial mat

ters, rests mainly with the Cape ministry, since

responsible government was conferred on the colony in 1872. The Premier and Treasurer of the colony is Sir J. Gordon Sprigg. Area and Population.—The area of Cape Colony, including 14,511 square miles in the annexed territories, is 213,917 square miles. The estimated population of Cape Colony proper in 1887 was 1,001,096. Including the dependencies, Transkei, East Griqualand, and #. the total Polo was 1,377,213. The white population does not exceed 350,000. The capital, Cape Town, had 70,000 inhabitants in 1888. The number of marriages in 1887 was 5,017. Government immigration was stopped in 1886. The net adult arrivals in 1887 were 621. Commerce.—The total value of imports of merchandise in 1887 was £5,036,135, and of exports, including diamonds, £7,719,385. The exrts of wool were £1,614,931; ostrich feathers, £365,587; hides and skins, £366,660; copper ore, £577,053: Angora hair, £268,446; wine, £18,928; diamonds, £4,242,470. The colony had 1,260,000 head of cattle, 13,100,000 sheep, and 4,230,000 goats in 1888. About 5,586,608 gallons of wine and 1,390,052 gallons of brandy were produced in that year. Some of the wine districts have suffered greatly from the ravages of the phylloxera, and the services of a French expert have been engaged to combat the plague, Parliament having voted a considerable sum to carry out his recommendations. Trade has been stimulated by the development of gold mining in the Transvaal. Every branch of industry has recovered from the late commercial depression. The trade returns for the quarter ending March 31, 1889, showed an increase of ten per cent. in the imports, and of twenty-four per cent. in the exports over the corresponding period of 1887. Independent of the Transvaal gold fields, the increased value of the exports for 1888–89 over the preceding year exceeded £1,000,000. The recovery of material prosperity, which is marked throughout South Africa, is largely due to the improvement in the wool and agricultural industries. The export of gold from South Africa, which was £69,543 in 1885, was nearly £1,000,000 in 1888, and for the first quarter of 1889 at the rate of £1,200,000 a year. The number of vessels entered in 1887 was 629, of 848,018 tons, exclusive of coasting vessels, which numbered 1,216, of 1,875,622 tons. The number of vessels cleared for foreign ports was 601, of 818,062 tons, and coastwise 1,231, of 1,890,000 tons. Railroads.-The Government railroad lines at the end of 1887 had a total length of 1,599 miles. There were besides 177 miles of private railroads. The Government lines cost £8,872 a mile, or altogether £14,186,452. The gross receipts in 1887 were £1,271,124, and the expenses £681,837. The Cape Parliament passed new railroad bills in the session that closed on Aug. 14, 1889. The various projects approved by the parliamentary committee on railroad extension and works involve an expenditure of £7,500,000, which must be obtained from London money-lenders. The works on the northern extension of the railroad from Kimberley to the border of the Transvaal Republic have been indefinitely postponed, and the Government has expended a considerable sum in improving the road to the Vaal river, in order to accommodate the traffic. The new railroads will connect the eastern and midland systems, a road will be built to the coal fields on the eastern border, and another will connect Simonstown on Simon's Bay, which is an important coaling station, with Cape Town. The Government is to purchase railroads from Worcester to Ashton and from Grahamstown to Kowie. The Post-Office and Telegraphs.-The number of letters posted in 1887 was 7,435,968; of newspapers, 4,065,524. The telegraph lines had a total length of 4,310 miles in the beginning of 1888. The messages in 1887 numbered 851,294. The receipts amounted to £54,205, and the expenses to £47,393. Finances.—The revenue for the year ending June 30, 1887, exclusive of £142,174 of loans, was £3,160,658, and the expenditure £3,332,907. In 1888 the receipts amounted to £3,426,254. A third of the revenue is derived from railroads, and another third from customs. Of the expenditure the public debt consumes one third, and the expenses of operating the railroads take one fifth. The debt of the colony on Jan. 1, 1888, amounted to £21,194,286, besides £1,323,716 for harbor improvements guaranteed by the Government. The public finances were in a more prosperous state in 1889 than they had been for a long series of years. The docks and fortifications at Table Bay, which have been built at the expense of the colony, will be completed in 1890. The Government has decided to extend the harbor works in order to afford shelter for the imperial navy and for passing vessels. In view of the fact that the British Government uses the repair docks at Table Bay, and that the Simon's Bay works are intended for naval and defensive purposes, and also that the extensive fortified harbors at the Cape of Good Hope are intended to hold the alternative naval route to India open in case of the closure of the Suez Canal, an equitable contribution was asked from the imperial treasury. The home Government, however, adhered to the rule followed in other colonies, that the local Government should construct all the defensive works and the Imperial Government provide the armaments. Money was voted also for dredging and other operations at East London so as to facilitate the great additional trade that is expected when the proposed railroads are completed. After remitting taxation to the extent of £270,000, the Prime Minister estimated the revenue for 1889–90 at £3,889,000, and the expenditure at £3,787,000. The accounts for 1888–89 showed

a surplus revenue of £400,000, which was utilized to cover the deficits of previous years. Change of Governors.-Sir Hercules Robinson was the prime mover in the annexation of Bechuanaland and the extension of the sphere of British influence to the Zambesi; yet, far from agreeing with the advocates of an imperial policy who prevailed on the British Government to expel the Boer settlers from Bechuanaland in the hope of peopling, the country with British colonists, he is regarded at the Cape as the enbodiment of the idea of “Africa for the Afrikanders,” and is anxious to have Bechuanaland transferred to colonial rule as soon as possible. On taking leave of absence for a visit to England, he defined in a notable speech the policy that he desired to represent if he continued in his post. “From a very early period of my administration,” he said, “I cast longing eyes upon the high, healthy, central plateau to the north of Cape Colony, which, as the gate to the interior of South and Central Africa, seemed to me of infinitely greater importance than the feverstricken mangrove swamps on the east coast or the sandy, waterless fringe on the west. I accordingly devoted my best efforts to the acquisition of that territory. For a time my advocacy was as the voice of one crying in the wilderness; but the ultimate result has been that instead of the Cape Colony being, as it were, hide-bound, and shut in on the north by a foreign power, we have to-day in that direction —first, the Crown colony of British Bechuanaland, next the Bechuanaland protectorate, extending to the twenty-second degree of south latitude, and beyond it the exclusive sphere of British influence extending to the Zambesi. The true British policy for South Africa seems to me to be what may be termed colonialism through imperialism, in other words, colonial expansion through imperial aid, the home Government doing what the colonies can not do for themselves, having constitutionally no authority beyond their borders. . There are three competing influences at work in South Africa. They are colonialism, republicanism, and imperialism. As for the last, it is a diminishing quantity, there being now no longer any permanent place in the future of South Africa for direct imperial rule on any large scale.” He scouted the idea of a “South African India in the Kalihari,” of a Governor-General “who is to administer, as in India, a system of personal, as distinguished from parliamentary rule, and round whom the ...]". and states are to rally.” All the Imperial Government can do in South Africa, he thinks, is “by means of spheres of influence, protectorates, and Crown colonies, to gradually prepare the way for handing native territories over to the Cape and Natal so soon as such transfers can be made with justice to the natives and advantage to all concerned.” The Cape Colonists had no cause to feel aggrieved, in his opinion, at the denial of their request for the annexation of British Bechuanaland ; for the country is British, the trade route is secure, and the land is as available for every Cape Colonist who desires to purchase it at one shilling an acre as if it were already a part of the colony. The territory must sooner or later revert to the Cape, and meanwhile the British tax-payers are supporting the burden of its administration and improvement. Colonialism and republicanism are the forces that are contending for future supremacy, and in the contest British colonialism is heavily handicapped by what the Governor calls “the well-meant, but mistaken interference of irresponsible and ill-informed persons in England,” whose meddling is injurious in the long run to the natives, “while it makes every resident in the republics, English as well as Dutch, rejoice in their independence, and converts many, a colonist from an imperialist into a ..". Sir Hercules Robinson's remarkable speech, which stirred the io of a strong section of the Tory party in England, rendered impossible his return, and made it difficult for the Imperial Government to find a suitable man to succeed him. The Governor left for England on May 1, leaving the question of his return or retirement open until he had expounded his views to the British Government. His programme being rejected, he gave in his resignation, which was accepted at once. The entire press of Cape Colony applauded the sentiments of Sir Hercules Robinson. The imperialist party at the Cape, which was co of English merchants and speculators who hoped for material advantages through the patronage of the Imperial authorities, has practically ceased to exist. On motion of the Prime Minister, both houses of Parliament o passed a resolution expressing regret that the Governor's resignation had been accepted, and the hope and belief that the future policy of the Imperial Government would be in accordance with the views that he had enunciated, which were held by a vast majority of the people, “as a divergence from them would be detrimental to the interests of South Africa and of the Empire.” After Sir Hercules Robinson's retirement from the governorship, the office was offered to several persons, and the Government was almost driven to the alternative of sending Sir Hercules Robinson back on his own terms, namely, that South Africa should be allowed to work out its own political future without English interference. Finally Sir Henry Loch, the popular Governor of Victoria, was induced to accept the posts of Governor of Cape Colony and High Commissioner of South Africa. Until his arrival, shortly before the end of the year, General Smyth acted as administrator of Cape Colony. Customs and Railway Convention.—Delefo from Cape Colony, Natal, and the Orange ree State met early in 1889 at Bloemfontein to discuss the extension of railroads into the Free State and a customs convention. The delegates of the Cape and of the Orange Free State insisted on the scheme of a customs union adopted at a conference at Cape Town between the Colony and the Republic in 1888, and since ratified by the two legislatures. The Natal delegates were unable to agree to that basis of discussion, as the people of Natal desired to continue the low rates of duty that have given them an advantage in the trade with the Dutch republics and the native communities, especially in view of the existing commercial prosperity and growth of revenue. They therefore withdrew from the conference on the understanding that Natal might come in later if she should so choose.

After the withdrawal of Natal the Cape and Free State representatives revised the convention in accordance with the interests of their own governments irrespective of Natal. The conference separated on March 28. The customs union between the Cape and the Free State went into operation in July. The railroad from Orange river to Bloemfontein is expected to be opened for traffic before the end of 1890. It will probably be extended eventually to the Vaal, through Johannesburg to Pretoria, and thence into the gold regions iod the boundaries of the Transvaal The extension from Colesberg to Orange river, authorized in the session of 1888, was completed and opened for traffic in June. The continuation of the railroad to Bloemfontein had been authorized by the Orange Free State Volksraad in No. The line is being constructed by the Cape Government at the cost of the Free State. The Cape Government was deterred by protests of the South African Republic from proceeding with the construction of the northern extension authorized in 1888 from Kimberley to the Vaal river. President Krüger opposes this railroad not merely because he wishes to establish independent communications with the sea, but in order to prevent the British, in the event of another war, from putting down a force of regulars on the Transvaal frontier at the first outbreak of hostilities. The Natal Government o: forward its railroad system to the borers of both republics. Natal.-The maritime British colony on the east coast of South Africa possesses representative government under the amended charter of 1879. It is not ready to undertake the rights and duties of responsible government, which would throw upon it the burden and risk of defending its borders against the savage peoples on the frontiers. Negotiations on this subject are pending between the colonial and home governments. It is proposed to annex Zululand to the colony, with guarantees for protection of the rights of the Caffres and the reservation of land for their occupation. The Governor is assisted in the administration by an Executive Council, composed of the Chief Justice, the officer commanding the imperial forces, the Treasurer, Attorney-General, and Secretary for Native Affairs of the Colony, the Colonial Engineer, and two nominated members. The Legislative Council, which shares the lawmaking power, under an act passed by the British Parliament in 1883, consists of thirty members, of whom 7 are nominated by the Crown and 23 elected by the counties and boroughs. The present Governor, who is also Governor of Zululand, is Sir Arthur Elibank Havilock, appointed in October, 1885. The total population in 1887 was 477,100, consisting of 35,866 Europeans, 32,312 East Indians, and 408,922 natives. The European population has increased by 50 per cent., the Indian population by 100 per cent., and the native population by 32 per cent. since 1879. Durban, the capital, had 16,943 inhabitants on July 31, 1887, and Pietermaritzburg 15,767. The imports by sea in 1887 amounted to £2,263,920, and the exports to £1,056,959. The main part of the exports, especially wool, which constitutes nearly half of the total, are the produce of the neighboring Dutch republics, which absorb about one third of the imports. The export of gold during six months of 1888 was £191,439. The export of sugar from Natal declined nearly half between 1881 and 1887. The tonnage entered and cleared at the seaports in 1887 was 466,791. The Fo crops are sugar and grain. Of the total area of the colony 2,000,000 acres are reserved for the natives, 8,000,000 acres have been sold to Europeans, and 2,778,000 acres remain the property of the Crown. There are large coal fields, as yet undeveloped, in the northern part of the colony, and iron ore of good quality has been found in their vicinity. Silver ore was discovered in 1889, near Greytown. Trade has grown rapidly since the gold discoveries in Wo. The returns for the first half of the year 1889 show an advance of one third in both imports and exports on the trade for 1888. The revenue of the colony in 1887 was £816,680, and the expenditure £363,154, not reckoning £104,575 expended on public works and defrayed by loans. Next to customs, which yielded £231,411 in 1887, the largest source of revenue is the native hut tax, producing in that year £73,273. The public debt on Dec. 31, 1887, amounted to £4,035,126. During the six months ending June 30, 1888, the receipts of the Treasury from ordinary sources amounted to £205,034 and the disbursements to £363,154. There was a surplus of £431,000 at the end of 1888. The revenue for 1889 was estimated at £1,200,000, exceeding the estimated expenditure by £172,000. The increase in the revenue is chiefly due to the Transvaal gold fields, and in order to develop that trade as much as possible the Natal Government hastened to extend the railroads. The length of the lines in operation on Jan. 1, 1888, was 220 miles. The Legislative Council in the session closing on March 22, 1889, authorized the extension of the system to the Free State and Transvaal borders. The Natal Government has contracted to build the Free State railroad as far as Harrismith, where the Republic will collect duties from July 1, 1889. The line to the Transvaal border is expected to reach Newcastle before the end of 1890, and Coldstream a year later. The Legistive Council sanctioned bills for raising £1,500,000 by a loan, for building the railroads. The Legislative Council was convened again in April to consider the question of joining the Cape and Free State conventions. The Natal delegates at the Bloemfontein Conference had taken part in framing the railroad convention, and to this the Council gave its adherence. The Governor negotiated for a compromise after the dissolution of the conference without being able to obtain terms that were considered satisfactory for Natal. The Colonial Secretary therefore concurred with the resolve of the Council to adhere to a free-trade policy. The railroads are expected to support the Government of Natal without taxation, and, with Durban a free port, the merchants of Natal hope to monopolize the trade of the interior. The alliance between Cape Colony and the Free State was condemned as an unholy one, taxing other parts of Gouth Africa for the benefit of the two governments. On May 7 the Legislative Council unanimously de

clined to join in the Bloemfontein convention, and approved the proposal of the Natal delegates in favor of imposing a transit duty of 5 percent. The import duties were reduced to a uniform rate of 5 per cent. ad valorem, the free list was enlarged by the addition of timber and other articles, and the Governor was empowered to make special reductions at his discretion on goods going to the interior. The new duties went into operation immediately. The Cape Parliament, in adopting the convention tariff. conferred on the Government similar powers of granting rebates in order to place Cape merchants on an equality with those of Natal. The Natal Government asked the colonial authorities in England to veto the convention, on the ground that it was injurious to the interests of Natal, and received a reply from Lord Knutsford refusing to disallow the customs union, which §.fhad the o o to join but declined. Žilin." e entire Amazulu Kingdom was formally incorporated in the British Empire by proclamation on May 14, 1887. Its area is about 8,000 square miles. The population has greatly decreased as the result of wars and consequent famines. There are no returns regarding the number of Zulus remaining. The proclamation of British sovereignty was not followed by any attempt to set up an effective government. sibepu, a protégé of the English and rival king, who had been driven from Zululand by the Usutus or adherents of the dynasty, and was replaced in power over a part of the country under the settlement of 1887, was emboldened to plunder the artisans of Dinizulu, the son of Cetewayo and inheritor of his father's royal dignity in the eyes of the Zulus, upon which Dinizulu collected his warriors to attack the followers of Usibepu. British troops put an end to the feud, and Dinizulu fled to the Transvaal. He surrendered himself after the arrest of his uncle Undabuko and others of his chiefs, and was placed under arrest on the charge of murder, which was afterward withdrawn, on Nov. 15, 1888, the day after his arrival in Pietermaritzburg. A special court was held at Etshowe, which passed severe sentences on all members of the Usutu party that were brought before it. Dinizulu appealed against a warrant transferring him from Natal to the jurisdiction of this tribunal, which tried. his generals Undabuko and Tshingana and himself on the charge of high treason, and on April 27, 1889, found them Fo and sentenced them to fifteen, twelve, and ten years' imprisonment respectively. The court-house was surrounded by a military guard to prevent a o rising when the sentence was delivered, and the court at once adjourned on disposing of the case. Usibepu was afterward brought before a magistrate }. a murder that had been committed during the troubles. The charge was dismissed, but the Governor was not satisfied with this disposal of the case, and ordered a further investigation. The harsh sentences passed upon Dinizulu and his friends, the unequal treatinent of Usibenu, and the dissatisfaction prevailing among the Zulus impelled the Aborigines' Protection Society and other friends of the natives to press for justice and mercy to the chiefs, under sentence, a satisfactory apportionment of lands among the Zulus, and a readjudication of the rival claims

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