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ductor of Prince Alexander, who has since lived in Russia and organized the conspiracies of Bourgas, Silistria, and Rustchuk for the overthrow of the Bulgarian Government. The Bulgarian authorities, in order to diminish the danger of the plottings of banished conspirators in communication with malcontents at home, issued a decree o: caution-money from Bulgarians oing abroad. Ex-Ministers Radoslavoff and vantchoff, chiefs of the regular |..." and probable successors of the Stambuloff ministry, published in their newspaper, the “Narodni Prava,” a telegram sent to Prince Ferdinand, complaining of compulsion put upon voters by Stambuloff's officials during the last elections. For this they were tried and condemned on April 8 to a year's imprisonment for libeling. the Premier and insulting the sovereign, but appealed from the decision of the court. In August, the semi-official “Plodiv " in Philippopolis, raised the question of the proclamation of Bulgarian independence, and committees were formed to work for this end and for the formal recognition of Prince Ferdinand by the powers. From London and Vienna Stambuloff received remonstrances against this perilous movement, and in consequence he disavowed the committees" and put a stop to the agitation. The Bulgarian Government made earnest representations to the Porte to induce it to recognize Prince Ferdinand, an object that has the moral support of the English and Austrian governments, but is firmly resisted by Russia. Count Kálnoky at first disapproved the intention which the Porte is said to have formed to issue a circular note to the powers, inviting them to concur in the union of Bulgaria with Eastern Roumelia and in the formal recognition of Prince Ferdinand. After the Servian elections, however, the Austrian official press urged the Porte to persevere in its purpose. Prince Ferdinand left Bulgaria in October, taking the unusual step of nominating Stambuloff as Regent, as though he might not return. He was at Munich during the Czar's visit in Berlin, and Prince Bismarck is said to have made overtures to the Czar for a meeting and reconciliation with the Prince, but without success. While Ferdinand was absent, Prince Dolgorukoff appeared in Sofia, and attempted with lavish use of money to organize a revolutionary movement, but was expelled.

Postal Convention with Turkey.—Turkish and Bulgarian delegates signed a postal convention on April 29. The Ottoman Government agreed to satisfactory postal and telegraphic connections, and withdrew the annoying refusal to : recognize Bulgarian stamps on letters mailed from places in Eastern Roumelia. The Turkish officials often lacked the geographical and lini. knowledge that would enable them to istinguish such letters, and therefore the order to charge double postage on South Bulgarian letters as though they bore no stamps was not universally observed. The Porte, in recognizing Bulgarian postage stamps as valid in South Bulgaria, performed an act of neighborly good will without yielding its reservations on the political question of the amalgamation of the two Bulgarias. On this account the convention was concluded without any official formalities.

Suppression of Brigandage.—Brigandage has been stamped out except on the Macedonian frontier, where the robbers have been able to escape the pursuit of the Bulgarian military and obtain refuge and succor from their friends in the Turkish dominions. Recently the Turkish authorities have loyally co-operated with the Bulgarians. In the early months of 1889 they conducted a systematic hunt, and broke up a band nearly every week. At Serres, a band led by the dangerous outlaw Ilia was destroyed, and near Drama a larger company containing some of the robbers who had captured the railroad officials at Bellova. In the same district a troo of twenty-seven individuals was surrounded an captured. The Rilo band, which carried on its depredations in the vicinity of Bellova, was broken up by the Bulgarian authorities, but not before they had threatened to expel the monks of Rilo, who sheltered the bandits, and to tear down their monastery. Five robbers, of whom four were brothers, were sentenced to death by a court-martial, and two to imprisonment. These men pretended to be working in the interest of Russia. Two noted robbers—Yako and Omer— the latter a Mohammedan, were captured on Turkish soil, and handed over to be tried by court-martial for crimes committed in Bulgaria. Several young men of the town of Dupnitza were taken by the gendarmes as they were about to seek the Turkish frontier to recruit the band of the robber chief Kosta Gurdshuklia.

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CALIFORNIA, a Pacific-coast State, admitted to the Union in 1850; area, 158,360 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 864,694; capital, Sacramento.

(Hovernment.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, R. W. Waterman, Republican : Lieutenant-Governor ea officio, Stephen M. White, President pro tem. of the Senate ; Secretary of State, W. C. Hendricks: Comptroller, John P. Dunn: Treasurer, Adam Herold; Attorney-General, George A. Johnson; Surveyor-General, Theodore Reichert; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Ira G. Hoitt;

State Engineer, William H. Hall: Railroad Commissioners, A. Abbott, P. J. White, J. W. Rea; Insurance Commissioner, J. N. E. Wilson : Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, W. H. Beatty; Associate Justices, J. D. Thornton, John Works; J. R. Sharpstein, Jackson Temple, (who resigned in May, and was succeeded on June 25 by Charles N. Fox, by appointment of the Governor), A. Van R. Patterson, T. B. McFarland. Finances.—The State Treasurer reports a balance in the treasury on July 1, 1886, of $1,103,680.87: the total receipts for the year ensuing were $5,454,419.97, and the total expenditures for the same time $5,243,430.89, leaving a bal

ance on July 1, 1887, of $1,314,669.95. For the year ending July 1, 1888, the total receipts were $7,194,693.59, and the total expenditures $6,962,929.29, leaving a balance of $1,546,434.25. A large part of the total receipts is derived from the following sources: From the tax on property for the year ending July 1, 1887, $4,064,938.37; for the year ending July 1, 1888, $5,134,103.75; from the $2 poll-tax for the former year, $305,643.23; for the latter year, $316,744.02; from the sale of school lands for the former 3. $133,828.56; for the latter year, $229,954.98; from the rent of wharves, tolls, etc., in San Francisco harbor, $258,527.18, and $274,819.91 in each year respectively. Among the expenditures for the two years are the following:


iTEMs. 1887. Legislative Department......... $215,575 87] .......... Judicial De ent . . . . . . . . . . . . 228,178 85; $229,697 13 National Guard expenses ........ 69,121 20, 127,491 34 San F harbor improvements ... . . . . . . . ............... 130,912 88 237,989 29 Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum...! 53.987 35 52,585 16 Adult blind............ ........ ,486 79,445 23 Insane Asylum at Stockton...... 199,824 85 ,588 Insane Asylum at Napa ......... 174,432 64 210,526 89 Asylum for chronic insane....... 154,412 78 80,102 19 Home for feeble-minded children. 7,860 56 40,018 57 Transportation of insane..... ... 82,120 11 26,094 30 State Prison at San Quentin...... 199,S24 85 420,478 06 State Prison at Folsom..... ... 135,535 49' 107,920 82 Transportation of prisoners...... 28,699 36, 20,528 71 "...i. half orphans, and abanoned children ................ 231,266 44, 230.91475 Aged and indigent ....... ...; 173,148 89. 142,908 03 Veterans' Home .... -- 9,668 95 27,271 21 State University ................ 135,746 35 820,813 84 State Normal School, San J -- 86,797 07 43,006 65 State Normal School, Los Angeles. 24,525 77 19,060 75

Support of common schools...... 1,982,442 18, 2,180,160 27

The condition of the various funds held by the State, to which the receipts accrue, and from which the ...]". are made, is as follows: General fund—balance on July 1, 1886, $62,247.51; receipts for year ensuing, $2,347,668; iš. $2,338,190.54; balance on o 1, 1887, $71,724.97; receipts for year ending July 1, 1888, $3,281,471.72; expenditures, $2,853,383.89; balance on July 1, 1888, $499,812.80. School fund—balance on July 1, 1886, $358,103.73; receipts for year go."; $1,892,737.87; expenditures, $1,983,408.16; balance on July 1, 1887, $267,433.44; receipts for year ending July 1, 1888, $2,209,050.32; expenditures, $2,198,541.81; balance on July 1, 1888, $277,941.95. Interest and sinking fund—balance on July 1, 1886, $229,019.53; receipts for year ensuing, $418,582.66; expenditures, $179,380; balance on July 1, 1887, $468,222.19; receipts for year ending July 1, 1888, $195,913.30; expenditures, $420,630; balance on July 1, 1888, $243,505.49.

The State debt remains unchanged, consisting of $2,698,000 bonds of 1873 bearing 6 per cent. interest and due in 1893. These are *i; the State in trust for its school and university funds. There are also $5,500 of earlier bonds yet unpaid, on which interest has . The balance in the sinking fund, $243,505.49, is entirely insufficient to meet this debt at maturity.

For 1889 the total assessed valuation of the State was fixed by the State Board of Equalization at $1,102,059,276, against $1,064,802,225 for 1888. The same board established the tax rate for 1889 at 72 cents 2 mills on $100, distributed

as follows: General fund, 49 cents 2 mills; school, 19 cents 3 mills; Grammar-School Course, 7 mills; interest and sinking fund, 2 cents; university tax, 1 cent; total, 72 cents 2 mills.

The rate for 1888 was 50 cents and 2 mills, the increase being due to the fact that the running expenses of the Government will be $2,000,000 more this year than last. For 1887 the rate was 60 cents 8 mills.

Legislative Session. — The twenty-eighth legislative session began on Jan. 7 and ended on

arch 16. Both branches were controlled by the Democrats. It made provision for a new board of Supreme Court commissioners, to assume the duties of the present board when its term of office shall expire. The new board will consist of five members, to be chosen by the Supreme Court, holding office for four years, with a salary equal to that of the judges. An act was d requiring proper drain and ventilation in work-shops, factories, and mercantile establishments, that they shall be otherwise suitable and healthful for employés, and that seats shall be furnished for the use of woman employés. The Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics is charged with the duty of enforcing this act, and his powers and compensation are increased proportionately. Another act provides that no person under eighteen years of age shall be employed more than ten hours a day, or sixty hours a week, in any mannfacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, and that no child under ten years shall ever be employed in such establishments. An amendment to the State Constitution was proposed enabling cities having fewer than 100,000 and more than 3,500 inhabitants to frame their own charters, subject to the approval of the Legislature upon each of them as a whole. Cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants already have such power. A new law for the government of State prisons provides for a board of five directors, appointed by the Governor and holding office for ten years, who shall have the control of prisons of the State. It shall appoint all prison officials, and determine the number and salary of their subordinates, audit all claims for supplies and services at the prison, and make annual reports to the Governor. At least three of the directors shall visit the prison once each month, and carefully inspect the management. All contracts for supplies shall be made by the board, who shall advertise for proposals and let to the lowest bidder, if the price is fair. All work of convicts shall be on the account of the State, and at the San Quentin prison no articles shall be manufactured for sale except jute fabrics. For good behavior a deduction may be allowed in the term of imprisonment of two months in each of the first two years, four months in each of the next two years, and five months each year thereafter. The Governor, under his authority to veto separate items of appropriation bills, cut off the annual appropriation for the State Board of Silk Culture, on the ground that the board had accomplished nothing during its existence of four years, and that, under present conditions, California could not hope to compete with the cheap labor of India and China in silk production. A bill proposing to introduce the Australian ballot system was debated, but failed to pass both houses.


The legislation includes an unusual number of acts establishing new institutions. The sum of $350,000 was appropriated for constructing a new asylum in Southern California, to be known as the South California State Hospital for the Insane. Another asylum was established at Ukiah, Mendocino County, to be called the Mendicino Insane Asylum ; and provision was made for the levy of a special tax to raise $175,000 in each of the years 1890 and 1891 for the purchase of land and for building. At Ione City, Amador County, was established the Preston School of Industry for Youthful Criminals, and $160,000 was appropriated for land and buildings. At Los Angeles the State Reform School for Juvenile Offenders was established, with a construction fund of $200,000. The sum of $170,000 was appropriated for a site and buildings for the California Home for FeebleMinded Children. Other appropriations were as follow: For completing the Normal School buildings at Chico, $40,000; for erecting buildings at the State Home for the Adult Blind, $155,000; for additional buildings at the Hosital for the Chronic Insane at Agnew's, $205,§. for building and furnishing the Home for Soldiers' Widows and Orphans and Army Nurses, $25,000; for constructing two infirmaries at the Napa Asylum for the Insane, $28,000; for buildings at the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum, $79,500; for improvements in and about the State Capitol, $63,370. The total amount to be raised by taxation of property was fixed for 1889 as follows: For the General fund, $4,822,970; for the School fund, $1,893,500; for the Grammar-School Course fund, $75,000; for the Interest and Sinking fund, $200,000. For 1890 the general fund levy is $3,199,040; the figures for the other funds are the same, and for the special Mendocino Insane Asylum fund, $175,000 is added. Other acts of the session are collected below.

Changing the time for the meeting of presidential electors to the second Monday of January. . [But this conflicts with the Constitution of the United States.— Editor.] Enlarging the duties of the State Board of Horticulture, an . annual reports. Punishing seduction under promise of marriage by imprisonment for not more than five years, or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or both. A subsequent marriage of the parties is a bar to prosecution for the offense. Providing for changing the boundaries of irrigation districts. Imposing a penalty for fraudulently obtaining registration of cattle or other animals. - Directing the Surveyor-General to direct and establish by survey the eastern boundary of the State, near Lake Tahoe, adjoining Nevada, and inviting the cooperation of the latter State. Declaring that any person who obtains food or accommodation at an inn, or boarding-house without paying therefor, with intent to defraud the proprietor or manager thereof, or who obtains credit at an inn or boarding-house by the use of any false pretense, or who, after obtaining credit or accommodation, absconds and removes his baggage, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Adding the 9th day of September to the list of legal holidays. Providing that streams not navigable may be de‘. public highways for the floating of logs and tlinber.

Allowing towns, cities, or counties to establish a fund to provide pensions or benefits for the relief of aged, infirm, or disabled firemen.

Creating the county of Orange out of the southeastern part of Los Angeles County.

Authorizing the Governor to proceed with an investigation of the State Prison authorities, at the expense of the State.

oi. cities and counties of the management of their public parks, by providing that all local boards of park commissioners in such places shall

i. appointed by the Governor, and regulating their uties. Amending and revising the public-school law. Providing for the burial at public expense of exUnion soldiers, sailors, and marines, if they die without means to defray such expenses. Granting to the United States certain tide-lands in Humboldt Bay to enable the Government to construct a breakwater and otherwise to improve the bay. Imposing a penalty for the capture or destruction of blue crane, and for destroying the visit of any white or blue crane. Providing for the appointment, in any county where it is deemed advisable by the county authorities, of a sheep commissioner, who shall seek to prevent or eradicate contagious diseases among sheep. Raising the age of consent in girls from ten to fourteen years. Appropriating $100,000 to be used as a fund for the purchase of jute for the State prisons, said fund to be maintained by reimbursement out of the proceeds of the sale of manufactured goods. Appropriating $2,000 to enable the fish commissioners to import into the State, and to distribute for purposes of propagation, certain game birds, and providing a penalty for destroying such birds. Establishing a Board of Harbor Commissioners for the Bay of San Diego, and giving it control of the harbor, wharves, and shipping of ão bay. Providing for publication by the State of an elementary book on civil government, to be used in the common schools in connection with other text-books heretofore issued by the State. Providing for the formation of reclamation districts, for the purpose of reclaiming large tracts of swamp or overflowed land. Authorizing the creation of bonded indebtedness by counties. Imposing a penalty for furnishing intoxicating liquor to any person who is addicted to the inordinate use of such liquors, provided the person furnishing the liquor has been notified of the intemperate habits of the other. To enable incorporated cities and towns to ac$. maintain, and improve public parks and boulevarols. Authorizing the State Board of Health to declare a quarantine against the entry of domestic animals from localities where contagious diseases exist. Organizing the National Guard of the State into six brigades, each commanded by a brigadier-general. Appropriating $20,000 for the erection at San Quentin State Prison of a building for the criminal insance. Providing for a commission to examine the rivers and harbors of the State, and to report plans for rectifying and improving them. Granting charters to the cities of Los Angeles, Oakland, Stockton, and San Diego. Assenting to the act of Congress establishing agricultural experiment stations in the several States, and designating the State University as the benefiClar v. Recognizing the Veteran's Home at Yountville as a State home for disabled veterans, and designating it as beneficiary under the act of Congress providing aid for such homes.

Education.—For the school years ending in 1887 and 1888 the Superintendent of Public In

struction makes the following report concerning public schools: Number between 5 and 17 years in attendance

during 1887 ---........ ..................... 185,523 Number attending during 1888 ................. 188,387 Increase . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... 2,864 Number between 5 and 17 years who attende private schools during 1887... -- 22,661 Number attending during 1888. 20,768 Decrease .................. -- 1,893 Number between 5 and 17 years not attending any school in 1887 ....................... ... 66,268 Number not attending during 1888.............. 61.345 Decrease............... .................. 4,928 Number of all ages enrolled in the public schools during 1887 -- 196,907 Number enrolled in 1888 7.050 Increase .............. 10,143 Average daily attendance in 1887 ..... - - - - 129,297 Average daily attendance in 1888 ............... 182,227

Total number of schools in 1887.......... ---- 8,755

Total number of schools in 1888. 4,002 Male teachers in 1887 . 1,303 Male teachers in 1888 . 1,086

Decrease ......... 217 Female teachers in 1887 -- 8,585 Female teachers in 1888........................ 8,852

Increase --------.......................... 267 School-houses erected in 1887 .. 147 School-houses erected in 1888 154 Districts formed in 1888........ 102 Value of school property in 1887 $9,484.161 Walue of school property in 1888. ... $10,563,780

Increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... $1,079,619

The securities held in trust by the State Treasurer for the School fund, according to the latest report by the State Comptroller are State and county bonds, $2,975,500; cash awaiting investment, $21,127.12; total permanent fund, 2,996,627.12. The interest of this permanent fund, together with the amount derived from State, county, and district-school taxes, constitutes the school revenue. The school revenue from all sources in 1887 was $4,441,770.13; in 1888, $5,132,413.67. Amount expended in 1887, $3,889,SSS.17: in 1888, $4,321,381.50.

Of the total school revenue, the amount raised by the State from its property tax, the poll tax, income of the permanent school fund, and other sources, and apportioned in 1887 to the schools was §§§ or $7.43 for each child between five and seventeen years; in 1888 the sum of $2,168,002.64 was apportioned, or $8.01 for each child.

In 1885 the Legislature provided for the compilation and publication, at State expense, of a series of elementary text-books for the public schools. In accordance with this act and a sup

lementary act in 1887, the following named rooks of the series have been compiled, adopted by the State Board of Education, and are now in use in the schools of the State. One set of three readers, one speller and word analysis, one set of two arithmetics, one English grammar, and one history of the United States.

Charities.—The accommodations afforded by the State for the insane, at its two asylums at Napa and at Stockton, have for some time been insufficient. At the Napa asylum, which was designed to provide for 600 patients, there were in January, 1889, more than 1,500 inmates. The Stockton asylum was similarly overcrowded. The islature has made provision for two new institutions—the South California Hospital for the Insane, and the Mendocino Insane Asylum.

At the State Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children there were at the beginning of the year more than 100 pupils.

Insurance.—The report of the State Insurance Commissioner shows that in 1888 there were 132 insurance companies doing business in the State, as follows: Fire insurance, 104 companies; fire and marine, 12; marine, 33; life. 22; life and accident, 2; accident, 1 ; surety and accident, 2.; surety, 1; steam-boiler, 2; plate glass, 2; title insurance, 1. These companies during 1888 transacted the following business: Fire insurance—amount written, $352,831,786; premiums on same, $6,087,041.48; losses paid, $3,049,030.42; ratio of losses to premiums, 50:1

er cent. Marine insurance—amount written, śso premium on same, $1,752,696.58; losses o 955,239.49; ratio of losses to premi


ums, Life insurance—amount written, new policies, $20,988,358; amount written, renewed policies, $49,591,520: total, $70,579,878;

total amount of premiums, $2,839,141.80; losses and endowments paid, $1,205,106.91. Accident insurance—amount written, $37,416,772; premiums on same, $120,605; losses paid, $35,087.17. Of surety insurance there was $4,382,381 written; steam-boiler insurance, $1,902,750; plate-glass insurance, $308,696.67, and title insurance, $3,155,901. Railroads.-The following table shows the assessed valuation of all railroads in the State for the years 1880 to 1887 inclusive: *

Years. Valuation. Years. Valuation. 1880 ......... $31,174,141 21 1884 ......... $50,746,500 00 1881 .. 668 00 1885 . 49,035,750 00

ois on isso ... soilio to - ... 40,017,000 00 1887. ... 47,677,458 00 The Central Pacific and the Southern Pacific roads, with their branches, constitute more than two thirds of the railroad wealth of the State. All the State and county taxes assessed upon these two roads for the above-named years, ex. so much as the companies saw fit to pay voluntarily, have been lost to the State after a long litigation, which was decided adversely to it in 1888. Industrial.—No satisfactory statistics of the wheat crop for 1888 have been gathered, but it is variously estimated at from 830,000 tons to 900,000 tons. The season of 1889 has been favorable to cereals of all kinds, and the yield of wheat will exceed that of 1888. The wool product for 1888 is estimated at 33,500,000 pounds, or nearly 2,000,000 pounds more than in 1887. Of this total 26,500,000 pounds were received in San Francisco, 3,500,000 Polo were shipped from interior points, 1,500,000 pounds were consumed by interior mills, and 2,000,000 pounds were of pulled wool. The oil. statistics show the product for 1888 of the dried-fruit industries and of the beeraising industry:

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comes from the Fresno district. The year is notable for being the first in which shipments have been made to Europe, the goods being sold in London. The vintage of 1888 is estimated at 17,000,000 gallons, distributed among the counties as folIows: Napa, 3,000,000 gallons; Sonoma, 2,500000; Santa Clara and Santa Cruz, 2,000,000; Alameda and Contra Costa, 1,500,000; San Joaquin, 300,000; Fresno, 2,200,000; Los Angeles and south, 3,000,000; Sacramento and north, 1,500,000; other counties, 1,500,000. Of this amount at least 4,000,000 will be distilled, producing about 600,000 gallons of brandy. The balance of 13,000,000 gallons will consist of dry and sweet wines. During the past year over 7,000,000 gallons have been exported, and there was a home consumption of five or six million gallons. Farms.-After a careful examination and numerous inquiries the Governor finds that the average of the holdings of land in the State is as high as 300 acres. Of less than 36,000 farms there are more than 2,500 that have more than 1,000 acres each. The percentage of farms amounting from 500 to 1,000 acres in extent is higher than in any other State. ining.—It is estimated that California's mining industry will show an increase for the year of more than $3,000,000 over the year 1887. This is largely due to the increased attention being paid to mining in Nevada, Placer, and Amador counties, where the interest has received considerable attention from foreign capital. The Los Burros district, in Monterey County, is coming rapidly to the front as a bullion producer. In the mines in Alameda and San Bernadino counties a fine quality of coal is being mined. The output of copper has largely increased during the year; many small mines in Arizona and Nevada have helped to swell the sum total. he receipts of treasure at the port of San Francisco by Wells, Fargo & Co.'s express during the twelve months ending Dec. 31, 1888, were as follow: From the interior, $20,983,483; from the north coast, 529,181; from Mexico (west coast), $1,353,467; total, $22,866,131. iyecision. The state Supreme Court, in May, 1889, in the case of Central Irrigation District vs. De Lappe, rendered a decision similar to that rendered, in 1888, in Turlock Irrigation District vs. Williams, but covering additional questions affecting the validity of the Wright irrigation law of 1887. The court affirms its former decision favorable to the constitutionality of the act, and, by settling other minor questions, renders procedure under it safe and practicable. Up to the beginning of 1889, only four districts had been organized under this law, and only two had actually issued bonds; but it is believed that this decision will lead to a great increase in the number of organized districts. to No. DOMINION OF. See DoxiiNION of CANADA. CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. The Cape of Good Hope is a British colony in South Africa. The Legislative Council is composed of 22 members, elected for seven years, and the House of Assembly of 76 members, elected for five years, including 2 representatives of the Transkeian territories admitted to seats under an act of 1887. The right of suffrage belongs to

adult male citizens paying rent of £50 or receiving an annual salary of at least that amount. The number of voters istered in 1888 was 70,300. The Governor of the Cape of Good Hope from 1880 till 1889 was Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson, who had previously been Governor of New South Wales and of New Zealand. He was succeeded, on Aug. 1, by Sir Henry Brougham Loch, who was attached to Lord Elgin's mission to China in 1857–60, having served in the army in India and the Crimea, and was Governor of Victoria from 1884 till he received his present appointment. The executive power, except in imperial matters, rests mainly with the Cape ministry, since responsible government was conferred on the colony in 1872. The Premier and Treasurer of the colony is Sir J. Gordon Sprigg. Area and Population.—The area of Cape Colony, including 14,511 square miles in the annexed territories, is 213,917 square miles. The estimated population of Cape Colony proper in 1887 was 1,001,096. Including the dependencies, Transkei, East Griqualand, and Tembuland, the total population was 1,377,213. The white population does not exceed 350,000. The capital, Cape Town, had 70,000 inhabitants in 1888. The number of marri in 1887 was 5,017. Government immigration was stopped in 1886. The net adult arrivals in 1887 were 621. Commerce.—The total value of imports of merchandise in 1887 was £5,036,135, and of exports, including diamonds, £7,719,385. The exports of wool were £1,614,931; ostrich feathers, £365,587; hides and skins, £366,660; copper ore, £577,053: Angora hair, £268,446; wine, £18,928; diamonds, £4,242,470. The colony had 1,260,000 head of cattle, 13,100,000 sheep, and 4,230,000 goats in 1888. About 5,586,608 gallons of wine and 1,390,052 gallons of brandy were produced in that year. Some of the wine districts have suffered greatly from the ravages of the phylloxera, and the services of a French expert have been engaged to combat the plague, Parliament having voted a considerable sum to carry out his recommendations. Trade has been stimulated by the development of gold mining in the Transvaal. Every branch of industry has recovered from the late commercial depression. The trade returns for the quarter ending March 31, 1889, showed an increase of ten per cent. in the imports, and of twenty-four per cent. in the exports over the corresponding period of 1887. Independent of the Transvaal gold fields, the increased value of the exports for 1888–89 over the preceding year exceeded £1,000,000. The recovery of material prosperity, which is marked throughout South Africa, is largely due to the improvement in the wool and agricultural industries. The export of gold from South Africa, which was £69,543 in 1885, was nearly £1,000,000 in 1888, and for the first quarter of 1889 at the rate of £1,200,000 a year. The number of vessels entered in 1887 was 629, of 848,018 tons, exclusive of coasting vessels, which numbered 1,216, of 1,875,622 tons. The number of vessels cleared for foreign ports was 601, of 818,062 tons, and coastwise 1,231, of 1,890,000 tons. Railroads.-The Government railroad lines at the end of 1887 had a total length of 1,599

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