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the army is large or small, there is they will find it by future expeno difference in the plan, though rience. the business may be occasionally My best endeavours have not multiplied threefold.
been wanting, to give success to But, however willing I might the business committed to my care ; have been, heretofore, to subject and I leave the merit of my sermyself to the fatigue and difficulties vices to be determined hereafter, attending the duties of this office, by the future management of it, justice to myself, as well as to the under the direction of another hand, public, constrains me positively to My rank is high, in the line of decline it, under the present ar the army; and the sacrifices I have rangement, as I do not choose to made, on that account, together attempt an experiment of so dan- with the fatigue and anxiety I have gerous a nature, where I see a undergone, far overbalance all physical impossibility of perform the emoluments I have derived ing the duties that will be required from the appointment; nor would of me. I am, therefore, to request double the consideration induce congress will appoint another quar. me to tread the same path over ter master general, without loss of again, unless I saw it necessary to time, as I shall give no order in the preserve my country from utter business, further than to acquaint ruin and a disgraceful servitude. the deputies with the new system, I have the honour to be, &c. and direct them to close their ac.
NATHL. GREENE, counts up to the first of August
Q. M. General. coming.
His Excellency, The two principal characters on Samuel Huntingdon, Esq. whom I depended for support, and
President of Congress. whose appointment, under the for.
This plain and frank letter oc. mer arrangement, I made an ex.
casioned, at first, some feeling in press condition to my accepting congress, but it was somewhat al. the office, are now left out, and layed by an inquiry, on the part of both have advertised me, that they one of the Connecticut delegation, will take no further charge of the whether it was not possible, that the business ; and I am apprehensive reasons urged by General Greene, that many others, who have been
were founded in truth. held by necessity and not of choice, however, now too late to retract; will avail themselves of this oppor. and, as the resignation was deci. tunity to leave an employment, sive, nothing remained except to which is not only unprofitable, but choose a successor to a post thus rendered dishonourable.
environed with difficulties. Col. Systems, without agents, are use. Pickering was appointed on the less things: the one should be ta. 5th of August; and it is a subject ken into consideration in framing of no ordinary praise, that he perthe other. Administration seem formed its complicated and arduous to think it far less important to the duties, so as to acquire the confi. public interest to have this depart. dence of Washington; and that ment well filled, and properly ar. its extensive and intricate accounts ranged, than it really is, and as
were settled after the termination
of the war, to the satisfaction of Philadelphia into the country ; and, congress.
with one of his sons, went into the From the year 1790 to 1794, back woods of Pennsylvania, where, Colonel Pickering was charged, by with the aid of some labourers, General Washington, (then presi. they cleared a few acres of land, dent of the United States,) with sowed wheat, and built a log hut, several negotiations with the Indian into which he meant the next year nations on our frontiers. In 1798, to remove his family. From this he was appointed on a joint commis. condition he was drawn by the kind. sion from Gen. Lincoln and Beverly ness of his friends in Massachu. Randolph, Esq. of Virginia, to treat setts. By their spontaneous libeof peace with the western Indians : rality, in taking a transfer of new and, in 1794, he was appointed sole lands in exchange for money, Col. agent to adjust all disputes with the Pickering was enabled to pay his Six Nations, which were termina. debts, return to his native state, and ted by a satisfactory treaty. to purchase a small farm in Essex
In the year 1791, Gen. Wash. county, on which he lived many ington appointed him post-master years, cultivating it with his own general. In this office he con. hands. tinued till the close of the year At the close of the year 1801, 1794 ; when, on the resignation of Colonel Pickering returned to live General Knox, he was appointed in Massachusetts. In 1803, the secretary of war. In August, 1795, legislature appointed him a senator Mr. Edmund Randolph having re. to represent the state in congress, signed the office of secretary of forthe residue of the term of Dwight state, General Washington gave Foster, Esq. who had resigned. Colonel P. the temporary charge In 1805, he was again elected sena. of that department also. Some tor, for the term of six years. time before the meeting of con. Colonel P. continued to sustain gress, which was in December fol. the office of senator till 1811. Soon lowing, he also tendered to Colonel after, he was chosen, by the legisPickering the office of secretary of lature, a member of the executive state, which was declined, but when council, and, during the late war, congress assembled, Washington when apprehensions were enterhaving nominated him to the se. tained that the enemy contemplated nate, and the senate approving the assailing our towns and cities, he nomination, he accepted the office. was chosen a member of the board He continued in this office until of war, for the defence of the state. May, 1800, when he was removed In 1814, he was chosen a represen. by President Adams, having dif. tative in congress, and held his fered with the president on the seat till March, 1817. policy of his administration, and de. In his retirement, he enjoyed the termined to act with General Ham- respect and esteem of his contempoilton.
raries, while his devotion to his faBeing in debt for new lands pur. vourite rural pursuits, his extensive chased some years before, and ha. correspondence with eminent and ving no other resources—as soon worthy men in various parts of our -as he was removed from office, in country; his love of literature and 1800, he carried his family from science, and his zeal in promotion
of the interests of our best institu. estate opposite St. Michael's Mount, tions, furnished his mind with active called Bartel, which, although employment.
small, was amply competent for the The activity of his life, and the supply of his limited desires. It magnitude and variety of his pub. is probable, therefore, that his prolic labours, left him little leisure fession, which was that of a carver for solitary and continued applica in wood, was pursued by him as an tion to the pursuits of science and object rather of amusement than of literature. He made no pretensions necessity, although in the town and to either,-yet few public men neighbourhood of Penzance there possessed knowledge so various remain many specimens of his art; and extensive. The productions and among others several chimney: of his pen bear testimony to his pieces, curiously embellished by his ability, power, elegance, and vigour chisel. as a writer.
Sir Humphrey Davy was born at In public life, he was distinguish. Penzance, in Cornwall, on the 17th ed for energy, fidelity, firmness, of December, 1778. Having re. promptitude, perseverance, and ceived the rudiments of a classical disinterestedness.
education under Dr. Cardew of His manners were plain and sim. Truro, he was placed with a reple, his morals pure and unblem. spectable professional gentleman ished, and his belief and profession of the name of Tonkin, at Penof the Christian religion was, zance, in order that he might ac. through a long life, accompanied quire a knowledge of the profes. with practice and conduct, in ac. sion of a surgeon and apothecary. cordance with its divine precepts. It is not difficult to understand
When the last indisposition of how it happened, that a person, enColonel Pickering induced him to dowed with the genius and sensi. call a physician, he remarked that bilities of Davy, should have had that was the first occasion he had his mind directed to the study of had for the services of that profes. mineralogy and chemistry, when sion since the siege of Yorktown. we consider the nature and scene. Till the last moment of his life, he ry of the country in which accident enjoyed the possession of his men. had planted him. Many of his tal faculties in unabated strength friends and associates must have and vivacity.
been connected with mining specu. lations ; shafts, cross courses, lodes,
&c. were words familiarized to his SIR HUMPHREY DAVY.
ears; and his native love of in. May 30th, 1829.-A1 Geneva, quiry could not have long suffered Sir Humphrey Davy, aged 50. such terms to remain as unmean
The name of Davy is of ancient ing sor nds. Nor could he wander respectability in the West of Eng, along the rocky coast, nor repose land. Sir Humphrey's paternal for a moment to contemplate its grandfather had considerable land. wild scenery, without being invited ed property in the parish of Ludg. to geological inquiry by the genius van, in Cornwall; and his father, of the place; for, were that science Robert Davy, possessed a paternal to be personified, it would be im
possible to select a more appro- compromising Plutonist, while pro. priate spot for her local habitation fessor Hailstone was as decided a and favoured abode.
Neptunist. The rocks of Cornwall This bias he cultivated till his were appealed to as affording supfifteenth year, when he became the port to either theory; and the two pupil of Dr. Borlase of Penzance, professors, who, although adverse an ingenious surgeon, intending in opinion, were united in friend. to prepare himself for gradua. ship, determined to proceed toge. ting as a physician at Edinburgh. ther to the field of dispute, each At this early age, he laid down hoping that he might thus convict for himself a plan of education, the other of his error. which embraced the circle of the logical combatants arrived at Pen. sciences;- and by his eighteenth 'zance; and Davy became known year he had acquired the rudi. to them, through the medium of ments of botany, anatomy, and phy. Mr. Gilbert. Mr. Watt was also siology, the simpler mathematics, enthusiastic in his praise ; and it metaphysics, natural philosophy, so happening that at that time Dr. and chemistry. But chemistry soon Beddoes had just established at arrested his whole attention. As Bristol his “ Pneumatic Institu. far as can be ascertained, the first tion,” for the purpose of investiga. original experiment performed by ting the medical powers of the dif. him at Penzance was for the pur. ferent gases, he proposed to Mr. pose of investigating the nature of Davy, who was then only nineteen the air contained in the bladders of years of age, but who, in addition sea-weed. His instruments, how. to the recommendations that have ever, were of the rudest descrip- been mentioned, had prepossessed tion, manufactured by himself out the professor in his favour by an of the motley materials which fell essay in which was propounded a in his way; the pots and pans of new theory of heat and light, to the kitchen were appropriated with suspend his plan of going to Edin. out ceremony, and even the phials burgh, and to undertake the super. and gallipots of his master were intendence of the necessary expe. without the least remorse put in re. riments. This proposal Davy eaquisition.
gerly accepted. Before the formation of the Ge. Davy was now constantly en. ological Society of London, which gaged in the prosecution of new exhas been the means of introducing periments; in the conception of more rational and correct views in which, as he himself candidly in. the science over which it presides, fórms us, he was grealy aided by geologists were divided into two the conversation and advice of his great parties,-Neptunists and Plu. friend Dr. Beddoes. He was also tonists; the one affirming that the occasionally assisted by Mr. W. globe was indebted for its form and Clayfield, a gentleman ardently at. arrangement to the agency of wa. tached to chemical pursuits, and ter, the other to that of fire. It so whose name is not unknown in the happened, that the professors of annals of science ; indeed it apOxford and Cambridge ranged pears that to him Davy was indebt. themselves under opposite banners: ed for the invention of a mercurial Dr. Beddoes was a violent and un air-holder, by which he was ena
bled to collect and measure the va. ced a series of lectures before its rious gases submitted to examina. members; which he continued to tion. In the course of these inves. deliver every successive session for tigations, the respirability and sin. ten years, modifying and extending gularly intoxicating effects of ni. their views, from time to time, in trous oxide were first discovered; such a manner as the progress of which led to a new train of research chemical discovery required. These concerning iis preparation, compo discourses were published in the sition, properties, combinations, year 1813, at the request of the and physiological action on living president and members of the beings; inquiries which were ex board; and they form the only tended to the different substances complete work on the subject of connected with nitrous oxide, such agricultural chemistry. as nitrous gas, nitrous acid, and He has treated the interesting ammonia ; when, by multiplying subject of manures with singular experiments, and comparing the success; showing the manner in facts they disclosed, Davy ultimate which they become the nourish. ly succeeded in reconciling appa
ment of the plant, the changes pro. rent anomalies ; and, by removing
duced in them by the processes of the greater number of those diffi. fermentation and putrefaction, and culties which had obscured this the utility of mixing and combining branch of science, was enabled to them with each other. He has al. present a clear and satisfactory his. so pointed out the chemical princi. tory of the combinations of oxyGEN ples upon which depends the im. and NITROGEN.
provement of lands by burning and These interesting results were fallowing; he has elucidated the published in a separate volume, theory of convertible husbandry, entitled, “Researches, Chemical founded on regular rotations of dif. and Philosophical, chiefly concern. ing Nitrous Oxide and its Respira. In the year 1803, Davy was electtion ; by Humphrey Davy, Super. ed a Fellow of the Royal Society; intendant of the Medical Pneuma. he subsequently became its secre. tic Institution.” Of the value of tary, and lastly its president. this production, the best criterion The first memoir presented to is to be found in the admiration the Royal Society by Mr. Davy, which it excited ; its author was was read on the 18th of June, 1801; barely twenty-one years old, and and is entitled, “An Account of yet, although a mere boy, he was some Galvanic Combinations, form. hailed as the Hercules in science, ed by the Arrangement of Single who had cleared an Augean stable Metallic Plates and Fluids, analo. of its impurities.
gous to the new Galvanic Appara. On obtaining the appointment of tus of Volta ; by Mr. Humphrey Professor at the Royal Institution, Davy, Lecturer on Chemistry in Mr. Davy gave up all his views of the Royal Institution; communica. the medical profession, and devo- ted by Benjamin, Count of Rum. ted himself entirely to chemistry. ford, V.P.R.S.”
In 1802, Mr. Davy, having been An interval of nearly five years elected Professor of Chemistry to now elapsed before Davy threw the Board of Agriculture, commen. any further light upon this branch