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of Congress, for the civil construc. increase the comforts, and enhance tions upon thirty-seven different the enjoyments of individuals-the public works commenced, eight instruction acquired at West Point others for which specific appropria. enlarges the dominion and expands tions have been made by acts of the capacities of the mind. Congress, and twenty other inci. beneficial results are already expepient surveys under the authority rienced in the composition of the given by the act of 30th April, army, and their influence is felt in 1824, about one million more of the intellectual progress of society. dollars have been drawn from the The institution is susceptible still treasury.
of great improvement from bene. To these two millions of dollars factions proposed by several suc. are to be added the appropriation of cessive boards of visiters, to whose 250,000 dollars, to commence the earnest and repeated recommend. erection of a breakwater near the ations I cheerfully add my own. mouth of the Delaware river; the With the usual annual reports subscriptions to the Delaware and from the Secretary of the Navy Chesapeake, the Louisville and and the Board of Commissioners, Poriland, the Dismal Swamp, and will be exhibited to the view of the Chesapeake and Ohio canals; Congress the execution of the laws the large donations of lands to the relating to that department of the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, public service. The repression of and Alabama, for objects of im. piracy in the West Indian and in the provements within those states, and Grecian seas, has been effectually the sums appropriated for light maintained, with scarcely any ex. houses, buoys, and piers, on the ception. During the war between coast, and a full view will be taken the governments of Buenos Ayres of the munificence of the nation in and of Brazil, frequent collisions application of its resources to the between belligerent acts of power improvement of its own condition. and the rights of neutral commerce
Of these great national under- occurred. Licentious blockades, takings, the Academy at West irregularly enlisted or impressed Point is among the most important seamen, and the property of hon. in itself, and the most comprehen. est commerce seized with violence, sive in its consequences. In that and even plundered under legal institution, a part of the revenue pretences, are disorders never of the nation is applied to defray separable from the conflict of wars the expense of educating a compe- upon the ocean. With a portion tent portion of her youth, chiefly of them, the correspondence of our to the knowledge and duties of commanders on the eastern aspect military life. It is the living armo. of the South American coast, and ry of the nation. While the other among the islands of Greece, disworks of improvement enumerated cover
how far we have been invol. in the reports now presented to the ved. In these, the honour of our attention of Congress, are destined country and the rights of our citi. to ameliorate the face of nature; Zens have been asserted and vindi. to multiply the facilities of commu. cated. The appearance of new nication between the different parts squadrons in the Mediteranean, of the Union ; to assist the labours, and the blockade of the Darda:
nelles, indicate the danger of other preservation for the future uses of obstacles to the freedoin of com. the navy. Arrangements have been merce, and the necessity of keep. made for the preservation of the ing our naval force in those seas. live oak timber growing on the To the suggestions repeated in the lands, of the United States, and for report of the Secretary of the Na. its reproduction, to supply, at fuvy, and tending to the permanent ture and distant days, the waste improvement of this institution, I of that most valuable material for invite the favourable consideration ship building, by the great conof Congress.
sumption of it yearly for the com. A resolution of the House of mercial, as well as for the military Representatives, requesting that marine of our couniry. The conone of our small public vessels struction of the two dry docks at should be sent to the Pacific ocean Charlestown and at Norfolk, is maand South Sea, to examine the king satisfactory progress towards coasts, islands, harbours, shoals, a durable establishment. The exand reefs, in those seas, and to as. aminations and inquiries to ascer. certain their true situation and des. tain the practicability and expedien. cription, has been put in a train of cy of á marine railway at Pensaexecution. The vessel is nearly cola, though not yet accomplished, ready to depart; the successful ac. have heen postponed, but to be complishment of the expedition more effectually made. The navy may be greatly facilitated by suit. yards of the United States have able legislative provisions, and been examined, and plans for their particularly by an appropriation to improvement, and the preservation defray its necessary expense. The of the public property therein, at addition of a second, and, perhaps, Portsmouth, Charlestown, Philadel. a third vessel, with a slight aggra- phia, Washington, and Gosport, vation of the cost, would contribute and to which two others are to much to the safety of the citizens be added, have been prepared, and embarked on this undertaking, the received ny sanction; and no results of which may be of the other portion of my duties has been deepest interest to our country, performed with more intimate con.
With the report of the Secretary viction of its importance to the fu. of the Navy, will be submitted, in ture welfare and security of the conformity to the act of Congress Union. ot'third March, 1827, for the gra. With the report of the Postmas, dual improvement of the navy of ter General, is exhibi: ed a compa. the United States, statements of the rative view of the gradual increase expenditures under that act, and of of that establishment, from five to the measures taken for carrying five years, since 1792, till this time the same into effect. Every sec in the number of post offices, which tion of that statute contains a dis. has grown from less than two hun. tinct provision, looking to the great dred to nearly eight thousand; in object of the whole, the gradual the revenue yielded by them, from improvement of the navy. Under sixty-seven thousand dollars, which, its salutary sanction, stores of ship has swollen to upwards of a million timber have been procured, and and a half, and in the number of are in process of seasoning and miles of post roads, which, frog
five thousand six hundred and forty. been accomplished. The authori. two, have multiplied to one hundred ty of further legislation is now re. and fourteen thousand five hundred quired for the removal to this tene. .and thirty-six. While, in the same ment of the offenders against the period of time, the population of laws, sentenced to atone by personthe Union has about thrice doubled, al confinement for their crimes, the rate of increase of these offices and to provide a code for their em. is nearly forty, and of the revenue, ployment and government while and of travelled miles, from twenty thus confined. to twenty-five for one. The in The Commissioners appointed crease of revenue, within the last · comformably to the act of 2d five years, has been nearly equal March, 1827, to provide for the ad. to the whole revenue of the depart. justment of claims of persons en. ment in 1812.
titled to indemnification under the The expenditures of the depart. first article of the treaty of Ghent, ment during the year which ended and for the distribution
such on the first of July last, have ex. claimants of the sum paid by the ceeded the receipts by a sum of government of Great Britain un. about twenty-five thousand dollars. der the convention of 13th No. The excess has been occasioned vember, 1826, closed their labours by the increase of mail conveyan.
on the 30th of August last, by ces and facilities, to the extent of awarding the claimants the sum of near eight hundred thousand miles. one million one hundred and nine. It has been supplied by collections ty-seven thousand four hundred and from the postmasters, of the arrear twenty-two dollars and eighteen ages of preceding years.
While cents ; leaving a balance of seven the correct principle seems to be, thousand five hundred and thirtythat the income levied by the de. seven dollars and eighty-two cents, partment should defray all its ex. which distributed rateably penses, it has never been the poli. amongst all the claimants to whom cy of this government to raise from awards had been made, according this establishment any revenue to to the directions of the act. be applied to any other purposes. The exhibits appended to the The suggestion of the Postmaster report from the Commissioner of General, that the insurance of the the General Land Office, present safe transmission of moneys by the the actual condition of that com. mail might be assumed by the de. mon property of the Union. The partment, for à moderate and com. amount paid into the Trea-ry petent remuneration, will deserve from the proceeds of lands, du. the consideration of Congress. ring the year 1827, and the first
A report from the Commissioner half of 1828, falls little short of of public buildings in this city ex. two millions of dollars. The pro. hibits the expenditures upon them priety of further extending the time in the course of the current year. for the extinguishment of the debt It will be seen that the humane due to the United States by the and benevolent intentions of Con. purchasers of the public lands, gress in providing, by the act of limited, by the act of 21st March 20th May, 1826, for the erection of last, to the fourth of July next, will a penitentiary in this district, have claim the consideration of Con.
gress, to whose vigilance and care. more convenient to commence the ful attention, the regulation, dispo- enumeration from an earlier period sal, and preservation of this great of the year than the first of August. national inheritance, has by the PeoThe most favourable season would ple of the United States been in- be the Spring. On a review of trusted.
the former enumerations, it will be Among the important subjects to found that the plan for taking every which the attention of the present census has contained improvements Congress has already been invited, upon that of its predecessor. . The and which may occupy their further last is still susceptible of much im. and deliberate discussion, will be provement. The third census was the provision to be made for taking the first of which any account was the fifth census or enumeration of taken of the manufactures of the the inhabitants of the United States. country. It was repeated at the The constitution of the United last enumeration, but the returns in States requires that this enumera. both cases were necessarily very tion should be made within every imperfect. They must always be term of ten years, and the date from so, resting of course only on the which the last enumeration com. communications voluntarily made menced was the first Monday of by individuals interested in some August of the year 1820. The laws of the manufacturing establishunder which the former enumera.
Yet they contained much tions were taken, were enacted at valuable information, and may, by the session of congress immediately some supplementary provision of preceding the operation. But con. the law, be rendered more effecsiderable inconveniencies were ex. tive. The columns of age, com: perienced from the delay of legis. mencing from infancy, have hither. lation to so late a period. That to been confined to a few periods, law, like those of the preceding all under the number of 45 years. enumerations, directed that the important knowledge would be obcensus should be taken by the mar. tained by extending those columns, shals of the several districts and in intervals of ten years, to the territories, under instructions from utmost boundaries of human life. the secretary of state. The prepa. The labour of taking them would ration and transmission to the mar be a trifling addition to that already shals of those instructions, required prescribed, and the result would more time than was then allowed be. exhibit comparative tables of lon. tween the
passage of the law and gevity highly interesting to the the day when the enumeration was country. I deem it my duty further to commence. The term of six to observe, that much of the imper. months, limited for the returns of fections in the returns of the last, the marshals, was also found even and perhaps the preceding enumethen too short; and must be more rations, proceeded from the inade.
when an additional popu, quateness of the compensation al. lation of at least three millions lowed to the marshals and their as. must be presented upon the returns. sistants in taking them. As they are to be made at the short In closing this communication, it session of congress, it would, as well only remains for me to assure the as from other considerations, be legislature of my continued earnest
wish for the adoption of measures vision which may receive their recommended by me heretofore, sanction during the session, tending and yet to be ac ed on by them ; to the general welfare. and of the cordial concurence on
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. my part in every constitutional pro.
Washington, December 2, 1828.
To RICHARD C. ANDERSON and John SERGEANT, Esqs. appointed Envoys
Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary of the United States to the Congress at Panama.
consistency with all their previous Department of State, conduct and professions, in respect
Washington, 8th May, 1826. to the New American States. The GENTLEMEN: The relations in assembling of a congress at Panama, which the United States stand to composed of diplomatic represen. the other American powers, and tatives from independent American the duties, interests, and sympa. nations, will form a new epoch in thies, which belong to those rela. human affairs. The fact itself, tions, have determined the presi. whatever may be the issue of the dent to accept an invitation which conferences of such a congress, has been given by the republics of cannot fail to challenge the atten. Colombia, Mexico and Central tion of the present generation of America, to the United States, to the civilized world, and to com. send representatives to the congress mand that of posterity. But the at Panama. He could not, indeed, hope is confidently indulged, that have declined an invitation pro. it will have other and stronger ceeding from sources so highly re. claims upon the regard of mankind, spectable, and communicated in the than any which arise out of the most delicate and respectful man. mere circumstance of its novelty ; ner, without subjecting the United and that it will entitle itself to the States to the reproach of insensi. affection and lasting gratitude of bility to the deepest concerns of the all America, by the wisdom and American hemisphere, and, per. liberality of its principles, and by haps, to a want of sincerity in most the new guaranties it may create important declarations, solemnly for the great interests which will made by his predecessor, in the face engage its deliberations. On an of the Old and the New World. In occasion so highly important and yielding, therefore, to the friendly responsible, the president has been wishes of those three republics, desirous that the representation communicated in the notes of their from the United States should be respective ministers, at Washing. composed of distinguished citizens. ton, of which copies are herewith, Confiding in your zeal, ability, and the United States act in perfect patriotism, by and with the advice