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The necessity of placing the re. protecting and moderating power ligion of our fathers in security which belongs to the crown, the full against any attack, to maintain in scope of action and force which my kingdom the execution of the public order requires. I have laws, and at the same time to en. caused a project, which will be sure among us the perpetuity of the presented to you, to be prepared priesthood, have induced me, after with care. I invite all the medita. mature reflection, to prescribe the tions of your wisdom to this project, measures which I have felt to be and I confide the discussion of it to necessary

your love of the public good, and to These measures have been ex. your fidelity. Every day gives me ecuted with that prudent firmness fresh proofs of the affection of my which reconciles the obedience due people, and enhances the sacred. to the laws, the respect due to re. ness of the obligation which I have ligion, and the just r gards to which contracted, to dedicate myself to its ministers are entitled.

their happiness. This noble task, Communications will be made to which you, gentlemen, will assist you on the state of our finances. me to fulfil, must daily become You will be happy to learn, that the

more easy. estimates of the revenue for 1828

Experience has dispelled the have been exceeded. This in- charm of insensate iheories.creasing prosperity has not relaxed France, like yourselves, knows on the system of economy in which what basis its happiness reposes, my government must endeavour and those who should seek it any daily to advance farther, without, where but in the sincere union of however, forgetting that useful ex. royal authority and of the liberties pense is also economy.

which the charter has consecrated, Numerous labours will occupy would be openly disowned by it. the session which is opened to-day. You, gentlemen, are called upon You will have to discuss a code to render this union more close and which is destined for the


more solid ; you will accomplish deserves serious attention.

this happy mission like .faithful The law on the endowment of subjects, and loyal Frenchmen, the Chamber of Peers, and many and your efforts will be equally other laws worthy of your attention, certain of the support of your king, will be presented to you. A serious and of the public gratitude. and important project will, above all, call for your solicitude. It has been long since acknowledged, that Law relative to Journals, and perio. there is a necessity for a new muni.


dical writings. cipal departmental law, the whole of which shall be in harmony with

CHARLES, by the grace of God, our institutions. The most diffi. &c. cult questions are connected with We have proposed, the Cham. its organization. It ought to secure

bers have adopted, we have or. to the communes and to the depart. dained, and do ordain, as follows : ments a just share in the manage.

Art. I. All Frenchmen of legal ment of their interests; but it must age, enjoying civil rights, may, at the same time preserve to the without being prev ously autho.

rized, publish a journal or periodi. the branches of knowledge above cal publication, by conforming to specified, provided they do not the requisitions of this law. appear more than twice a week.

Art. 2. The proprietors of every 4th. All periodical publications journal or periodical publication, which are not political, and which shall be bound, before its publica. are published in any other than the cation, to furnish a security.

French language. If the journal or publication ap 5th. Periodical papers exclusive. pear more than twice a week, whe- ly devoted to advertisements, legal ther on a stated day or irregularly, notices, maritime arrivals, and price the security shall be for 6000 francs currents. de rentes.

Every violation of the regulations The security shall be equal to of this or the preceding article, three quarters of the specified sum, shall be punished according to the if the journal be published only 6th article of the law of June 6th, twice a week.

1819. It shall be one half of the above Art. 4. Where there are assonamed security, if the journal ap- ciations, the society shall be one of pear only once a week.

those defined and regulated by the It shall be one fourth thereof, if commercial code. Except where it appear only twice a month.

the journal shall be published by The security for the daily jour. an anonymous society, the asso. nals, published in other depart- ciates shall be bound to choose ments than those of the Seine, the from their body, one, two or three Seine and Oise, and the Seine and agents, who, according to the terms Marne, shall be 2000 francs de of articles 22 and 24 of the comrentes in cities of 50,000 people mercial code, shall have his indi. and above ; and 1,200 francs de vidual signature. rentes in other cities; and the half of If any of the responsible agents those sums for journals which ap. shall, from any cause, withdraw pear less often.

and cease to act, the proprietors Art. 3. The following shall be shall be bound within two months exempted from giving security. to supply his place, or to reduce

1st. Journals which appear only the number of the agents, by an monthly, or less often.

act of the same formalities, as that 2d. Journals exclusively devoted by which the association was formto the mathematical, physical and ed. They shall be permitted with. natural sciences, to learned works, in the time above specified, to augand ioquiries to the mechanical ment the number, on complying and liberal arts, that is to say, to with the same formalities. If only the sciences and arts which en. one agent has been appointed, gage the attention of the three they shall appoint another within academies of science, of inscrip- 15 days after his decease ; in de. tions and of fine arts of the royal fault whereof the journal shall be institute.

discontinued, under the penalty of 3d. Journals which do not dis. 1000 francs for every sheet pub. cuss political subjects, and are ex. lished after that time. clusively devoted to letters, and Art. 5. The responsible agents,

or one or two of them, shall super. cations specified in the second pa. intend the publication of the jour. ragraph of article 5, shall also be nal.

the responsible agent of the jour. Each of the responsible agents, nal. shall have the qualifications re. Otherwise, he shall be bound to quired by the 980th article of the appoint a responsible agent, in concivil code, and shall be the pro. formity with article 5. prietor of at least one share of the The journals not liable to fur. concern, and own in his own right nish security, shall be bound to at least one fourth of the security. make the previous declaration pre.

6th. No journal or periodical scribed by number 1, 2, and 5 of publication compelled to give se. the first paragraph of this article. curity by the regulations of this Art. 7th. These declarations law, shall be published without pre. shall be accompanied by a deposite viously making a declaration con. of the surety bonds : they shall be taining

signed by each of the proprietors 1st. The title of the journal or of the journal, or by the source of periodical, and the stated times of power of each of them. They its appearance.

shall be received in Paris, at the 2d. The names of all the pro. direction of the library, and in the prietors besides the editors, their departments at the secretary gene. places of residence, their share in ral of prefecture. the concern.

Art. 8. Each number of the pe. 3d. The names and places of re. . riodical shall be signed en minute sidence of the responsible agents. by the proprietor if he be sole ; by

4th. An affirmation that the pro one of the responsible agents, if it prietors and agents have

have com. be published by an association in plied with the conditions prescribed the collective or partnership name; by law.

and by one of the representatives, 5th. The place of the printing if it be published by an anonymous office where the journal is usually association. printed.

The original signed, shall be de. Whenever any change takes posited at the office of the royal place, either in the title of the jour. procureur in the place of publica. nal, or in the conditions of their tion, or with the mayor, in cities, publication, or among the proprie. where there is no tribunal de pretors, or the responsible agents, a miere instance, under penalty of delaration of it shall be made be. 500 francs upon the agents. Refore the competent authority, within ceipts shall be given therefor at 15 days after the change, by the the offices of deposite. responsible agents. Any neglect The signature shall be printed of this regulation, shall be punished at the bottom of all the copies, under by a fine of 500 francs.

a penalty of 500 francs upon

the The same regulation shall apply printer, without any power of re. if the journal shall be printed in any lief. other printing office than the one The signers of each sheet originally designated. If the pub. shall be responsible for its conlication shall be undertaken solely tents, and liable to all the penalties by one individual, the proprietor, imposed by law, on account of libel. provided he possesses the qualifi. lous paragraphs published, without

prejudice to the prosecution of the Art. 11. If the declaration

preauthors of the libellous articles, as scribed by article 6th is decided to accomplices. Consequently pro- be false and fraudulent in any par. secutions may be had, as well ticular, the journal shall be discon. against the signers of the im- tinued. The authors of the de. pressions, as against the authors of claration shall be punished by a the libels, if the authors are known fine, of which the minimum shall be or prosecuted.

equal to one tenth, and the maxi. Art. 9. The proprietors of ex. mum equal to one half of the secu. isting journals are granted, provi. rity. ded they do not violate the provi. Art. 12. Where the journal is sions of article first, the space of established and published by a sole six months from the promulgation proprietor, if the proprietor should of this law, to appoint one, two or die, his widow or heirs shall be three responsible agents, possess- permitted, within three months, to ing the qualifications required by appoint a responsible agent. This the preceding articles, and also agent must be the owner of real to make the declaration prescribed estate, free from incumbrances, by article 6th.

and paying 500 francs direct taxes, If the responsible agents do not if the journal be published in the possess in their own right the departments of the Seine, of the fourth of the security, they shall be Seine and Oise, and of the Seine permitted to prove, that, besides and Marne, and 150 franks in the their share in the undertaking, they other departments. are true and legal proprietors of The agent appointed by the real estate, paying, at least, 500 widow or heirs, must possess the francs direct taxes, if the journal is qualifications prescribed in art. 980 published in the departments of of the civil code. Within 10 days the Seine, of the Seine and Oise, after the decease, the widow or and of the Seine and Moine, and heirs shall appoint an editor, who 150 francs in the other depart. shall be responsible for the journal ments. The real estate must be until the agent shall be accepted. free from all incuinbrances.

The security of the deceased This fact must be expressly proprietor shall be liable until the mentioned in the declaration.

completion of the business. Art. 10. In case of any dispute Art. 13. The pecuniary penal. as to the regularity or sincerity of ties, decreed against the responsi. the declaration prescribed by arti. ble signers, or against the authors cle, sixth and the securities, it of libellous paragraphs, shall be le. shall be decided by the tribunals, vied (prélévées) 1st. upon that part at the instance of the prefect, sum of the security, belonging to the marily, and without expense ; the responsible signers : 2d. upon the party or his counsel, and the pub. residue of the security, where that lic minister, having been heard. shall be insufficient, without preju.

If the journal has not yet ap- dice, for the surplus, after the rules peared, the publication shall be prescribed by articles 3 and 4 of suspended until the judgment, the law of June 9th, 1819. which shall be executed without Art. 14. Penalties other than appeal.

those imposed by this law, which


shall have been incurred for the ings, where the doors are ordered crime of libelling through a journal to be closed, they shall not, under or periodical publication, shall not the same penalty, publish any thing be less than double the minimum but the passing of the sentence. imposed by the laws relative to re. Art. 17. When, in pursuance of pressing the offences of the press. the last paragraph of the 23d arti.

Art. 15. In case of a repetition cle of the law of May 17th, 1819, of the offence by the same agent, the tribunals shall, on account of and in the case provided for, by defamatory evidence foreign to the article 58 of penal code, besides

reserved, either a public the provisions of the 10th article prosecution or a civil action be. of the law of June 9th, 1819, the tween parties, the journals shall tribunals may, according to the not, under a similar penalty, publish gravity of the offence, decree the the evidence, nor extracts from the suspension of the journal, for a pe. records containing it. riod not exceeding two months, and Art. 18. The law of March 17th, not less than 10 days. During this 1822, concerning the police of time, the security shall remain in journals and periodical publica. deposite a la caisse des consigna. tions, is repealed. tions, and shall not alter its charac. This law, having been discussed, ter.

deliberated, and adopted by the Art. 16. In all proceedings re chamber of peers, and by that of lative to defamation, if the tribunals the deputies, and sanctioned by us decree according to the provisions this day, shall be carried into effect of article 64 of the charter, that the as a law of the state. discussion shall take place with Given in our Chateau de St. closed doors; the journals shall Cloud, the 18th day of July, in the not, under the penalty of 2000 year of grace 1828. francs, publish the facts of the de.

CHARLES. famation, nor give extracts of the By the king. Keeper of the records, or any writings which con. Seals, Minister Secretary of State tain them.

of the department of justice. In all civil or criminal proceed.




PROTOCOL RELATIVE TO THE AF government upon this subject with

his majesty the emperor of all the

Russias ; and his Imperial majesty, His Britannic Majesty having on the other hand, being equally been requested by the Greeks to animated by the desire of putting an interpose his good offices, in order end to the contest of which Greece to obtain their reconciliation with and the Archipelago are the theatre, the Ottoman Porte-having, in con- by an arrangement which shall be sequence, offered his mediation to consistent with the principles of that power, and being desirous of religion, justice, and humanity, the concerting the measures of his undersigned have agreed :

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