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pletely evacuate the city of Monte by sea and by land. The blockade Video.

shall be raised in the term of forty. Art. 13. The troops of his ma eight hours, on the part of the imjesty the Emperor of Brazil shail perial squadron; hostilities by evacuate the territory of the pro. land shall cease immediately after vince, of Monte Video, including this convention and its ratifications La Colonia del Sacramento, in ihe are notified to the armies, and by precise term of two months from sea, in two days to cape St. Mary, the date of the exchange of the ra. in eight to St. Catherine's, in fiftifications of the present conven teen to cape Frio, in twenty-two tion, and retire to the frontiers of to Pernambuco, in forty to the the empire, or embark, with the ex Line, in sixty to the coast of Afri. ception of a force of 1500 men, ca, and in eighty to the seas of which his said majesty may main Europe. All prizes made subse. tain within the city of Monte Video, quently shall not be considered until the installation of the provin. bona fide captures, and indemnificial government of the province, cation will be reciprocally made under the express obligation of for them. withdrawing this force, in the pre Art. 16. All prisoners taken by cise term of four months, first fol., either party during the war, by sea lowing the installation of said pro. or by land, shall be set at liberty, visional government, at the latest, as soon as the present convention delivery, in the act of evacuation, is ratified and the ratifications ex. the said city of Monte Video, in changed; but those who have not statu quo ante bellum, to commission. secured the payment of the debts ers competently authorized da hoc contracted by them, cannot leave by the lawful government of the the country in which they are. province.

Art. 17. After the exchange of Art. 14. It is understood that the ratitications, both high conneither of the troops of the repub. tracting parties shall proceed to lic of the United Provinces nor appoint their respective plenipothose of his majesty the Emperor tentiaries for the purpose of adof Brazil, which in conformity to justing and concluding the definithe two foregoing articles, are to tive treaty of peace which is to be remain temporarily in the province celebrated between the republic of of Monte Video, must in any wise the United Provinces and the Em. interfere in the political affairs, go- pire of Brazil. vernment, institutions, &c. of the Art. 18. If, contrary to expec. said province. They shall be con. tation, the high contracting parties sidered as merely passive and on should not come to an adjustment observation, kept to protect and in the said definitive treaty of guaranty public and individual li. peace, through questions that may berties and property; and they arise in which they may not agree, cannot operate actively unless the notwithstanding the mediation of lawful government of the province his Britannic majesty ; the repub. require their assistance.

lic and the empire cannot renew Art. 15. As soon as the exchange hostilities, before the expiration of of the ratifications of the present five years stipulated in the tenth convention takes place, there shall article ; nor even after this time be an entire cessation of hostilities can hostilities take place, with

out notification being reciprocally Speech delivered by his Imperial given, with the knowledge of the Majesty, at the opening of the mediating power, six months pre. sessions of the Legislature assem. viously.

bled on the third of May, 1829. Art. 19. The exchange of the August and worthy Representatives ratifications of the present conven of the Brazilian Nation, tion shall be effected in the city of

I open this assembly with the sa. Monte Video, in the term of sixiy

tisfaction of informing you that our days from the date hereof, or soon

relations of friendship with Euro. er if possible.

pean powers continue and become In testimony whereof, we, the un. daily more intimate. The empe. dersigned plenipotentiaries of the

ror of Russia, and the king of government of the United Provin. Saxony, have recognised this emces, and his majesty the Emperor pire. This with the court of Ma. of Brazil, in virtue of our full pow. drid is not the case, and it is the ers, sign the prescit convention

only government of Europe which with our hand, and seal it with the has failed to do so. Treaties of seal of our arms. Done in the city

commerce and navigation with the of Rio Janeiro, on the 28th day of kings of Great Britain and Prussia the month of August, in the year of are concluded and ratified; I final. the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ,

ly inform you that I have comple. 1828.

ted the act of my abdication of the (L. s.] Juan Ramon BALCARCE.

Portuguese crown, which l an. [L. s.] Tomas Guido.

nounced to you on the opening of (L. s.] MARQUEZ DE ARACATY. the session of 1826. Equal rela. (L. s.] Jose CLEMENTE PEREIRA.

tions of friendship and good intelli. (1. s.] JOAQUIN D'OLIVERA ALVA


exist between this empire and the principal states of the Ame.

rican continent. The government ADDITIONAL ARTICLE.

of the United States has nominated Both the high contracting pår. instead of the one who left this, as

a Chargé d'Affaires to this court, ties oblige themselves to employ

I all means in their power in order

announced to you on the opening that the navigation of the river of the last session. Plate, and of all others that empty the government of the Republic of

I have negotiations pending with , may use of the subjects of both nations, basis of a just and decorous con

Buenos Ayres, establishing the for the space of fifteen years, in the form that may be agreed upon in vention, such as the national ho. the definitive treaty of peace.

nour and the dignity of my impeThe present article shall have

rial crown demand. If this repubthe same force and vigour as if it lic refuses to acquiesce in the highhad been inserted word for word in ly liberal and generous proposithe preliminary convention of this tions which proclaim to all the date.

world the good faith and moderation

of the imperial government, whatDone in the city of Rio Janeiro,

ever may be the regret of my im&c. &c.

perial heart, it will be necessary


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to continue hostilities, and to con. as from every individual who comtinue them with redoubled energy ; poses it, the most perfect harinony this is my immutable resolution. I and mutual confidence between it rely upon the general assembly for and the government. Upon this the most firm and loyal co-opera. perfect harmony and mutual contion in sustaining the national ho. fidence, which on the part of the nour and glory, lest they suffer in government will be unalterable, I this affair.

boldly say, depends the welfare of With respect to the internal af. the constitutional system, the orfairs, I congratulate myself and this derly march of administration, and assembly upon the order and tran. the national property, on which last quillity which reign in all the pro. rests the glory of my imperial vinces of this empire, which con. throne. The session is opened. vinces me in the highest degree, Constitutional emperor and perthe monarchial constitutional regi. petual defender of Brazil. men is rapidly strengthening, I again call the attention of the

MESSAGE TO ASSEMBLY, APRIL, 1829. chambers to the administration of finance and justice, which I so much August and worthy Representatives recommended to their cares in the of the Brazilian Nation,late session.

“ The depreciation of the notes The finances and public credit of the Bank of Brazil, so injurious will receive a beneficial impulse to the interests of the state, as well from the law for funding the public as detrimental to the developement debt: but very prompt and efficient of public wealth, has occupied the legislative ineasures are necessary attention of the General Legislative to harmonize the different branches Assembly, during the two last ses. of their administration. The judi. sions. In both, the superabundance cial power has not yet received the or excessive amount of notes in cir. least improvement, and it is urgent. culation was acknowledged as the ly necessary that in the course of cause of that same depreciation; or this session it should be regulated rather of the agio of metallic specie ; according to the principles of the of the fall in the exchange ; of the constitution of the empire ; that rise in all kinds of merchandise ; judgment may be awarded on con. of the increase in some branches of stitutional principles, which, insuring the national expenditure ; of the to my subjects the security of pro. afflictions endured by numerous perty which the constitution gua. families; of the shifts to which the ranties to them under this head, public functionaries are driven, as will cause them to bless the sys. well as of private misery. tem, and assist me to maintain it. “ The law of the 15th November, The ministers and secretaries of 1827, by prohibiting new issues on state will present to the chambers, the part of the bank, and authoriz. with the exactness compatible with ing the calling in of 6,000 contos, the actual circumstances, the state at least, of the notes in circulation, of the various branches of the ad. most assuredly would have dimi. ministration.

nished, if not removed, that cause, I expect from the loyalty and if the means pointed out for the wisdom of this assembly, as well buying up or exchange of those

notes had not failed when reduced be, delivered over to the bank. to practice, it being found impos. At the same time the government sible to sell government securities endeavoured to interest the board at par, bearing an interest of five of bank directors in the urgent per cent., according to the terms operation of calling in the notes, of article 22 of the said law. As, by allowing, for that purpose, only therefore, the means of calling in the sale of the precious metals the notes became impracticable, existing in its own coffers, and rethe prohibition of fresh issues could quiring the pledge of a real aid and not of itself suffice to repress intervention in the enterprise of the influence of the superabun- calling in as far as four thousand dance already existing and ac. contos of notes. Documents No. knowledged.

2 to 6 contain the correspondence, “ During the last session, the which, on this subject, passed be. General Assembly had occasion to tween the treasury and the bank. observe that, notwithstanding for “ Finally, from the month of six or eight months the amount of October in last year, the govern. notes in circulation had been sta. ment resolved not to issue, as in tionary, the difficulty on that ac. fact it has not done up to the precount was not the less aggravated. sent moment, any amount in bills The value of the precious metals of exchange from this place on Lon. did not cease to rise, and the rate don, or beyond the territory of the of exchange to fall; whilst, as no empire, at the same time taking legislative measure was enacted every due measure for the exact and before the close of the session, in necessary payment of the Brazilian order efficaciously to remedy the and Portuguese loans, contractcause of the evil, it was consequent. ed in England, in the manner that ly to be expected and feared that it will be made known to the Assemwould go on increasing.

bly in due season. The government, aware of the Although these measures sus. impending calamity, in time busied tained the exchange at 30, during itself to adopt preventive measures.

the two last months in the past year, After hearing the opinion of the they could not, nevertheless, any Council of State, it began to pur. longer answer the end for which chase notes of the bank, in order they were proposed, and the go. to withdraw them from circulation, vernment beheld with regret the agreeably to the 1st section of arti. inefficiency of the means left at its cle 21 of the aforesaid law of 15th disposal to dispel the torrent of November, confirmed by the de. discredit attending the bank paper. cree of the 20th of August in last In a word, the agio which in Januyear; and, as shown by documentary, 1828, was, in reference to copNo. 1, it was able to sell, in Decem- per, silver, and gold, 20, 48, and ber in last year, and January in the 100 per cent., now became 40, 110, current one, as far as the amount and 190 ; whilst the exchange, of 1,934,600,000 reis of govern- which was then at 32, fell as low as meni securities, bearing an interest 20, and scarcely has it, at this of 6 per cent., which, at the price present time, attained 23, as may of 65, produced 1,257,490,000 reis, be seen from document No. 7; which, already have, or shortly will and this at a moment when the


amount of notes in circulation, far year, attests that in 1827, 29,787 from having been increased, has, slaves entered this port; in 1828, on the contrary, experienced some 43,555; and that during the three reduction, owing to the calling in of first months of the present year, not them, which had already commen yet quite complete, we have reced.

ceived 18,459. “In the opinion of the govern. “ Document No. 11, shows that meni, this phenomenon is no o her the mint of the city, established in than the necessary eífect of the 1803, has coined, from the period causi. liselt, so long ago acknow. of its opening to the 230 March in led od, and at present aggravated the current year, 7,875,184,413 by some excess of inpor ation ; by reis in copper, viz., from its esta. the late effort in the slave trade ; blishment to the end of December, by the forced issue of copper 1825, 2,633,529,350, and from the money, and by the failure of specu. commencement of January, 1826, lations, encouraged by the war and to the 23d of the last month, spoiled by the peace.

5,241,654,563. “ Document No. 8, exhibiting the “ These are the circumstances, annual

of the custom beyond all doubt, which have ren. house in this city, from the month dered the situation of the state of January, 1825, to the 26th of more difficult than it was fifteen March, in the current year, shows, months ago. To private interest in the year 1828, compared with and time it belongs to remedy the 1827, an increase of revenue equal evil which arose out of the exces. to 1,775,350,167 reis, which sup. sive importations of goods and poses an excess of imports amount. slaves ; whilst on the legislative ingro 11,836,000,000 reis, calculat. body alone it devolves to provide ing the duties at 15 per cent., and, against that resulting from a preat the same time, barring contra. judicial coin, by destroying the band and favourable valuations ; cause which rendered it neces. whereas, on te other hand, docu sary. ment No. 9, exhibiting the annual • Even where any other proof revenue of the Export Board, dur. were wanting to the government, ing the same period, only shows in the painful experience of two years the year 1828, compared with 1827, would be sufficient to point out the an increase of 80,928,577 reis, urgent necessity of an heroic which supposes anexcess of exports measure, in the crisis in which we amounting to 4,046,000,000 reis, are placed. duties being levied at 2 per cent. ; “ The report of the committee of and it is not to be presumed that inquiry, instituted by the decree the contraband articles, including and instructions of the 3d June in precious stones and metais, can last year, satisfying with every posscarcely amount to the difference sible exactitude the queries of the of 7,990,000,900 reis resulting in chamber respecting the situation of favour of the importation.

the bank, furnishes at the same time “ Document No. 10, containing the most clear data at once to show a return of the slaves imported into the necessity of the salutary inthis place from January, 1820, to Auence of the legislative body in the 26th of March in the current the administration and affairs of

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