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the part of Upper and Lower Cana. suaded that some better expedient da, for ascertaining the proportion than statute labour must be resort. of duties to be paid to this province, ed to for maintaining the roads in has been transmitted to me ; and it
a proper state. must be satisfactory to you to be The sums expended on the useful informed, that on that question, an works now in progress, circulate in equitable arrangement has taken their natural channels, remain in place.
the province, enrich it, and promote The public schools are general. industry. On the extent of protec. ly increasing, but their present or. tion and encouragement afforded ganization appears susceptible of to projects of this kind ;-and on improvement.
your being prepared, by means of Measures will be adopted, I hope, the essential aid of well organized to reform the Royal Grammar institutions, for the reception and School, and to incorporate it with location of every description of set. the university recently endowed by tler, the agricultural interests of his majesty, and to introduce a sys- the colony, and the advance of its tem in that seminary that will open commerce, will be found chiefly to to the youth of the province the depend. means of receiving a liberal and extensive course of instruction. Un. ceasing exertion should be made to Horse-Guards, July 18, 1829. attract able masters to this country, His majesty, being desirous to where the population bears no pro. encourage officers to become set. portion to the number of officers and tlers in the British North American employments, that must necessarily provinces, is pleased to command be held by men of education and that grants of land, in the propor. acquirements, for the support of the tions undermentioned, shall, on the laws, and of your free institutions. recommendation of the general
The expense already incurred in commanding in chief, be made to carrying on the works in the Gore those officers who may be induced and Niagara districts has been con. to avail themselves of the offer, siderable, but few will regret that viz. they have been undertaken. Such
Acres. enterprises can, at first, be seldom Lieutenant-colonel,
1200 duly appreciated. It is obvious, Major,
1000 however, that the value of the pro Captain,
800 ductions of your soil can never be
500 known, unless you have canals, subject always to the conditions of and good internal communications, actual residence, and cultivation of to facilitate your commercial in the land assigned, within a limited tercourse with the vast empire of period. which you form a part.
Officers who shall propose to From the observations of the De. settle in the British provinces of puty Post-Master-General at Que. North America, will, if of a proper bec, to which I shall draw your at. age, and if their service shall be tention, respecting the impossibili considered as entitling them to the ty of forwarding the mails with ei. indulgence, be permitted to dis . ther expedition or safety, I am per. pose of their commissions; and in
order that his majesty's govern. mitted by the governor or officer
Speech of citizen Guadaloupe Victoria, President of the Mexican United States, delivered in the hall of the Congress of the Union, at the regular session, May 21, 1828.
Citizens Representatives and Senators The cry of universal indignation
of the Congress of the Union : drowned that of the discontented, At the beginning of this year, and they plunged themselves into the and of the second term of the con- abyss which they had endeavour. gress of the union, the republic ex ed to open for their country. The perienced a crisis, and the institu. government did not alter its course, tions to which we had pleged our and public spirit being confirmed oath, and which the people has by the triumphs of the cause of maintained, were exposed to a liberty, the congress and the execu. violent attack. The Mexican na. tive were able to devote them. tion achieved its liberty by great selves to the exact discharge of efforts, confirmed its independence their duties, as soon as they had by means of costly sacrifices, and fulfilled the sacred and important felt secure that if danger threat. one, of giving domestic peace to ened, it would be fearlessly met, in the republic. defence of a system which places The very efforts which were our country on a level with the made to disturb the public order, most refined and fortunate nations. only served to give it more stabili. Events have proved the justness of ty, and there is no corner in the this anticipation. By the unani. vast extent of the United Mexican mous expression of opinion, the States, which does not fully en. project of a revolution was con. joy it. demned, and anarchy saw its vain During the session, the treaty of hopes dissipated, and became con. boundaries between this republic vinced of its own impotence. The and the United States of North people, the congress, the govern- America has been approved, and ment, saved the constitution, saved after being ratified by the govern. the political existence of the great ment, has been sent for an ex. Mexican nation,
change of ratifications to our mi.
nister plenipotentiary in that coun. cutive, which has further given the try. The treaty of amity, naviga. necessary directions for its being tion, and commerce, with the same carried into effect. nation, has been discussed in the The public treasury, in conse. representatives' chamber, and quence of the changes in the new when it shall obtain the approba. tariff of maritime customs, which tion of the general congress, will retards the receipt of the duties for strengthen the liberal harmony ninety days more than before, has which now subsists between the suffered some falling off, which has two nations. The proper exequa been increased by the schemes of tur has been granted to the con. speculators. Notwithstanding, no suls named by that government for diminution is remarked in the ar. our ports of Campeche and Ma- rivals of vessels in our ports ; and zatlan.
our domestic markets, in the midst The minister plenipotentiary of of the commercial changes that the republic of Colombia, having have occurred, afford a fair profit fulfilled the most important objects for the goods consumed, and in. of his mission to his government, vite speculators to enterhas presented his letters of recall, prises. and taken leave.
Happily, the chief part of our atThe treaties of union, league, tention has hitherto been occupied and perpetual confederation, con in the interior of the republic; and cluded at Panama between the ple. if the government has until now nipotentaries of the American re- given itself much anxiety to attend publics, have been examined by with the fidelity and promptitude the chamber of representatives, which the national honour demands, and I confidently hope that the to the loans of foreign houses, we congress will devote its first la. may now be assured that the firm bours to the conclusion of a mat. determination of the government, ter, which has excited the attention seconded harmoniously by the inof the world.
defatigable zeal and activity of the The general congress having congress, will accomplish the ob. approved of the treaty of amity, ject in view. To this end, the eighth navigation, and commerce, with his part of the receipts of the maritime majesty the king of the Nether. ports is appropirated, and this lands, it has been forwarded for return will produce an alleviation, the exchange of ratifications. An 80 that the interruption that has exequatur has also been granted been suffered in the operation of for a commission of Mexican con. the sinking fund and the payment sul, executed by the president of of dividends will cease. the Swiss Diet in favour of Senor The executive has also trans. Carlos Lavater.
mitted to the two chambers proThe law for the naturalization jects of a law whereby the pay. of foreigners, which the best inte. ment will be expedited, so that we rests of the republic have so long shall be able to repeat the evidence demanded, has been passed in the of that good faith which charac. session which is now concluded; terizes the Mexican nation. The it has also been signed by the exe. urgency of these duties demands,
gentlemen, that your time of re. Should the odious Spanish flag laxation should be very short. appear in sight of our ports, or
The administration of justice should the enemy presume to tread in the tribunals of the federation, upon our shores, they will be hum. and in those of the districts and terri. bled and overthrown. You have tories, has occasioned among you given power to the executive; the important and luminous discussions. people offer their arms and their You will, doubtless, complete your fortunes.
fortunes. A great people is invin. work, which is one truly worthy of cible when it is determined to be the national gratitude. The exe. free. cutive will use its exertions, as it You retire, fellow citizens, only has hitherto done, to introduce all to return to the task which the na. possible regularity into this depart. tion has imposed upon you as a ment, and to supply the defects of duty, and has given you as a law. the existing law. The law regula. Your country owes you much; re. ting the proceedings againstvatire with the satisfaction of having grants, visibly operates to improve done her service. public morals, and to preserve them from the attacks continually made Decree of the Legislature of Mexico. upon them by the idleness of this Art. 1. Spaniards who capitulaclass of men; and the government ted, whatever be the terms of their hopes soon to see united, by this capitulation, and other Spaniards provision, the honour and the spirit mentioned in the 16th article of the of the republican system.
treaty of Cordova, shall leave the Our ecclesiastical affairs have territory of the republic within the hitherto been somewhat embarrass. term the government may fix, not ed for want of convenient arrange. exceeding six months. ments with the apostolic see, but Art. 2. Those, notwithstanding they will soon be regulated upon their capitulations, may depart, or a basis established by the general may remain, who, 1stly, are mar. congress. The executive has en. ried with Mexicans ; 2dly, who have deavoured to form his instructions children here that are not Spanish; to the newly nominated minister to 3dly, widowers who have children Rome, in exact accordance with that are not Spanish ; 4thly, who this basis.
are sixty years of age; 5thly, who The army preserves its former suffer from any durable physical system, equipment, and discipline. impediment; 6thly, those who by The national marine has harrassed their capitulations, may remain in the the enemy on the coasts of Cuba, republic. and the brigatine Guarrero was Art. 3. All Spaniards, who, since lost in a combat of immortal glory the declaration of independence, for the Mexicans. You, gentle- have entered secretly, or unlaw. men, have displayed the national fully, shall leave the territory of gratitude to the brave defenders of the republic within the term which the flag of the republic, and the the government may fix. whole nation has resolved on the Art. 4. In like manner, those construction of another ship that shall depart, within the term the shall maintain our glory and be the government may designate, who avenger of our injuries.
have entered since the same pe.
riod, with passports, provided they the governors shall have qualified have not obtained letters of natura. any Spaniard as notoriously disaf. lization or citizenship.
fected, the government shall order Art. 5. Also, the Spanish cler him to leave the federation within gy, who are not comprized in the the term fixed upon for that pur4th and 5th exceptions of the second article.
Art. 9. The transportation of the Art. 6. Spaniards of every class, Spanish clergy who may leave the who are notoriously disaffected to. territory, shall be paid out of the wards independence, and the es. funds of their order. tablished system of government, Art. 10. To such of the capitu. shall depart from the territory of lated as receive no pay from hold. the republic within the term which ing a civil or military office, the the government may designate, government shall order to be given carrying with them their effects, out of the public fund, what it may paying the established exportation esteem just for their removal from duties.
the territory of the federation. Art. 7. Those Spaniards shall Art. 11. The expenses of civil be considered notoriously disaffect. and military officers shall be paid ed to independence, and the at the cost of the federation, to existing form of government, who, the place which the government 1stly, have returned to the republic, may designate ; and, moreover, after having emigrated at the time one year's pay shall be given them of the establishment of indepen. at the time of their embarkation. dence, or of the adoption of the Art. 12. To the Spanish ecclesi. federal republican form of govern- astics in employment shall be ment; 2dly, who may be regarded given, at the time of their embar. as suspicious, on account of ser. kation, the sum which the govern. vices done to the Spanish govern. ment may determine, correspond. ment, contrary to the independenceing to one year's income, and, of the nation; and those who, al. also, the expenses of transporta. though positively decided in its tion. favour, have obstinately propagated
Art. 13. All Spaniards expelled sentiments in favour of a constitu. in virtue of this law, shall have tional monarchical system, and of power to return to the republic, inviting to the throne any foreign and enjoy their offices, after Spain prince ; 3dly, those who have been has recognised its independence. expelled from any of the states, Art. 14. The discretionary pow. by virtue of laws passed by their which this law embraces, respective legislatures.
shall be understood as granted for Art. 8. The governors of the six months only, counting from the states shall determine the qualifi- publication of it. cations to which the preceding Art. 15. After the publication of article refers, respecting Spaniards this law, all the movements which that are subjects of the states : the have been made, with the view of general government, notwithstand. expelling the Spaniards, shall be ing, having power to judge of consigned to oblivion ; so that, on them in regard to such as inhabit this account alone, none of those any part of the republic. When who have been the authors of them,