## The Practical Railway Spiral |

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Halaman 67 - The minutes in the left-hand column of each page, increasing downwards, belong to the degrees at the top ; and those increasing upwards, in the right.hand column, belong to the degrees below.

Halaman 15 - An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two opposite interior angles.

Halaman 7 - Heretofore, it has been customary to design spirals with the degree of curvature varying uniformly from zero at the flatter end to the degree of main curve at the sharper end. This idea would be almost correct if there were no flange clearance, if the wheels were loose and if the superelevation were gained at an exactly uniformly varying rate throughout. But, as has been previously stated, none of these ideal conditions actually exist.

Halaman 3 - Effect of Clearance on Straight Run.Off. When straight track is inclined transversely, as in a run.off on tangent, all wheels slip to the lower rail. Upon approaching a curve under such conditions, all trucks are flanging the inner rail. Here the rigid axles come into play and carry the wheels straight ahead until the opposite flanges strike the outer rail. A shock is then produced which knocks the track out of line and an outward kink is the result.

Halaman 6 - The .recisely .. track, lertia of :idied' is nditions e allow. i;n such ise and the rigid axles come into play and carry the wheels straight ahead until the opposite flanges strike the outer rail. A shock is then produced which knocks the track out of line and an outward kink is the result.

Halaman 3 - ... inch. This clearance is necessary for free running, making allowance for irregularities in the gauge, and is required on curves where wider gauge is needed by two or more axles coupled together...

Halaman 10 - But a spiral of uniformly varying degree, which provides the desired flatness at the beginning, would be of such great length that it would be discarded as impractical.

Halaman 10 - ... depends upon the weight of wheel and load, and the train velocity, and also upon the angle between the rail and the direction of motion at the Tangent -Run.offСurve 1 Сurve Tangent Curve Tangent Inner Rail Fio.

Halaman 11 - Divide the spiral length into six equal parts: attain 5 per cent of the desired degree of curvature in the first part: in each of the next four equal parts...

Halaman 7 - In order to eliminate the aforementioned difficulties due to a run.off on straight track, it has been the custom to introduce a curve easement or spiral.