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1. 37. Dr. Arnold's admiration of this closing scene was very great. 'I cannot trust myself,' he used to say, 'to read the account of Christian going up to the Celestial Gate after his passage through the river of death. Stanley's Life, vol. ii, p. 67, note.

P. 145, 1. 13. From this place to be expressed, 1. 5, p. 147, was first inserted in the second edition.

P. 147, 1, 1. the Bells therein to ring. It will be remembered that in his youth Bunyan was much devoted to bell-ringing, the music of which continued greatly to delight him after he had given up the practice as vain.' Grace Abounding, $ 53, p. 305.

Lemand edition

THE SECOND PART.

Poetical Introduction. The second part of the Pilgrim's Progress was published in 1684, six years after the publication of the first part, in 1678. In the poetical introduction entitled 'The author's way of sending forth his second part of the Pilgrim,' Bunyan, after stating the nature and purpose of the work, vv. 1–36, proceeds to answer various objections that had been, or were likely to be, brought against its publication. These objections are four in number. To the first objection to its authenticity, based on the number of counterfeits that had appeared, vv. 37–42, Bunyan replies that he is alive to testify personally to it, vv. 43-60. Objection 2 is grounded on the unpopularity of the Pilgrim in some quarters, vv. 61-64; and is answered by reference to its widespread popularity, among all ranks and ages, and to the foreign countries in which it had gained extensive circulation, vv. 65-118. The third objection, to its obscurity, vv. 119-122, is met by the assertion that its imagery is generally clear to the spirituallyminded, and that the dark sayings in the first would be explained in the second part, vv, 123–148. To the fourth objection, to the allegorical method of the work, vv. 149–153, Bunyan can only answer that tastes differ, and that some like what others loathe, vv. 153–177. The introduction concludes with a poetical description of the dramatis personae, V. 177232, and a prayer that a blessing may rest upon it, vv. 233–240.

P. 154, 1. 16. my firstling. The former part of the Pilgrim's Progress ; Bunyan's first literary offspring.

11. 20, 21. some ... that counterfeit the Pilgrim. It is evident from this objection and Bunyan's answer, 11. 27-32, that the great popularity of the first part of the Pilgrim's Progress, together with the hint given at the end of the verses with which it is concluded, p. 149, 1. 22, that he

might be led to continue the allegory, tempted some literary impostors to publish supposititious continuations under the name of Bunyan and the title of his work. From Bunyan's words these counterfeits appear to have been rather numeroas. According to Mr. Offor, however, all published before the appearance of the second part have entirely disappeared, with the exception of one bearing date 1683, printed 'for Thomas Malthus at the Sun in the Poultry,' under the title of “The Second Part of the Pilgrims Progress.' Mr. Offor calls it a poor and spiritless copy of the inimitable First Part.

P. 155, 1. 3. In naughty-wise, in a bad, scandalous fashion. "Wise' is the A. S. wise, a way, method, a fashion. Cognate with guise. O.F. guise, way, manner; O.H.G. wīsa, Germ. weise. Likewise,' now employed as a synonym for also,' means in like manner,' and is always used in that sense in the A. V.; unless ye repent ye shall likewise perish,' i.e. perish in the same manner, Luke xiii. 3. We have 'lovingwise,' p. 198, 1. 3, and ib. 1. 15, 'wise' and 'guise' end consecutive lines.

1.5. things unwarrantable, for the genuineness of which there is no warrant or guarantee.

l. 15 ff. Within the six years since the publication of the first part the marvellous popularity of the book had caused it to be translated into French and Dutch, and widely circulated in those countries as well as in Scotland and Ireland, and in the American Colonies or · New England.'

1. 29. The reference here is to the handsome bindings conferred on the book in America.

P. 156, 1. 7. An allusion to the popular proverb 'a lark's leg is worth more than a kite's body.'

P. 157, 1. 7. One's fancie Checkle. Checkle is to laugh giddily, a word in imitation of the sound of laughter.

1. 8. Gen. xxix. 10, 11, ' It came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban ... that Jacob kissed Rachel and lifted up his voice and wept.'

1. 28. The promise is here held out that the allegories of the First Part will be interpreted in the Second. This promise can hardly be said to be fulfilled.

P. 158, 1. 3. in all loving-wise, in a loving manner. See note to p. 155, 1. 3. 1. 8 ff. These lines remind us of Shakespeare's

"Some men there are love not a gaping pig;
Some, that are mad if they behold a cat;
And others, when the bagpipe sings i' the nose,
Cannot contain.

Merchant of Venice, iv. I.

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.

(THE SECOND PART.)

Argument.
Introduction, p. 161; Mr. Sagacity enters into converse with the

Dreamer, p. 162; commences the relation of the pilgrimage of Chris-

tiana and her sons, p. 163; Christiana's self-reproach, her dream, the

ill-favoured ones, p. 164; Secret's visit, p. 166; Christiana resolves

to set out, visit of her two neighbours, Timorous and Mercy, pp. 167

169; Mrs. Timorous' talk with her neighbours, p. 170; Christiana and

Mercy start, p. 171; reach the Slough of Despond, p. 173; Mr. Sagacity

leaves the Dreamer, p. 174; the Wicket-gate, pp. 174-177 ; the Dog,

p. 178; the Boys eat of the enemy's fruit, the ill-favoured ones, p. 179;

the Reliever, p. 180; they reach the Interpreter's house, p. 182; the

Muck-rake, p. 184; the Spider, p. 185; the Hen and Chickens, p. 186 ;

the Slaughter-house, the Garden, the Robin, p. 187; the Rotten
Tree, p. 189; they start for the House Beautiful under the conduct of

Great-heart, p. 193; the Sepulchre, ibid. ; Simple, Sloth and Presump-

tion hanged, p. 197 ; Hill Difficulty, pp. 198–202 ; Giant Grim is slain,

p. 203 ; they are received at the Palace Beautiful, p. 204; the Boys are

catechized, pp. 207-210; Mercy courted by Mr. Brisk, p. 210; Matthew

sick of the gripes, cured by Mr. Skill, p. 212; they are shewn the rarities,

p. 216; Great-heart returns to them, and they start, p. 217; Valley of

Humiliation, the Shepherd Boy's Song, pp. 219-223; Valley of Shadow

of Death, pp. 223-226; Giant Maul attacks them and is slain by Great-

heart, pp. 226–228 ; Old Father Honest, p. 229; Mr. Fearing, pp. 231-

236; Mr. Selfwill, pp. 237-239; arrive at Gaius' house, p. 240; Matthew

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is betrothed to Mercy, p. 242; the Supper, p. 243 ; Giant Slaygood assaulted and slain, p. 247; Feeblemind rescued, p. 248 ; Matthew is married to Mercy, and James to Phæbe, p. 250; Mr. Ready-to-halt, p. 251 ; they reach Vanity Fair, p. 253; entertained by Mnason, p. 254; conversation before supper, pp. 255-257; marriages of Samuel and Joseph, p. 257; the Monster, p. 258; they set forward again, p. 259 ; reach the river, p. 260 ; Doubting Castle demolished and Despondency and Much-afraid rescued, p. 261; the Dance, p. 263; they arrive at the Delectable Mountains, p. 264; the Looking-glass, p. 267; Turnaway, p. 269; Valiant-for-Truth beset with thieves, pp. 267–274; the Enchanted Ground, p. 275; the Arbor, p. 276; Heedless and Too-bold, p. 277 ; Standfast-his story, pp. 279-282; the land of Beulah, p. 282; Christiana crosses the river, her parting words, pp. 283–285; Mr. Ready-to-halt and Mr. Feeble-mind summoned, p. 286; Mr. Despondency and Much-afraid sent for, p. 287; Mr. Honest and Mr. Valiant cross, p. 288; Mr. Standfast's last words, pp. 289-290.

P. 161, 1. 18. having taken up my Lodgings in a Wood about a mile off the place. This is ordinarily supposed to refer to the village of Elstow, which is about a mile from Bedford, in the jail of which town the first part was written. But there is no evidence that on his release Bunyan returned to his native place. Mr. Offor says, 'he raised his family in an humble cottage at Bedford.

P. 162, 1. 2. I was as if, it seemed to me that.

1. 23. our Country rings of him. This paragraph testifies to the extraordinary popularity the first part had attained.

P. 163, 1. 10. his Prince ... will shortly come into these parts, i.e. at the Day of Judgement.

1. 15. This and the next marginal note were added to the edition of 1687.

P. 164, 1. 7. being we are ... going ... together. Since we are going together. The full form is it being the case that,' &c., the participle used absolutely. Bishop Pearson, as a rule, employs this form in his Exposition of the Creed, e.g. being they are certainly contained in the Scriptures'; 'being God is of universal knowledge.'

P. 165, 1. 10. the Light of Light. Altered after Bunyan's death into 'the Light of Life.'

1. 13. Wo worth the day; an exclamation of sorrow, meaning woe

be to the day, borrowed from the A. V. Ezek. XXX. 2. M. E. wurden, to become, A. S. weorðan, to become.

1. 34. the Pav'd-work; borrowed from Exodus xxiv. 10, 'under His feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone.'

P. 166, 1, 1, no man living could tell what they said. See Rev. xiv. 3, 'no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand.

P. 167, 1. 9. by root-of-Heart. This seems to be an unusual combination of the common expressions to learn by rote' and 'to learn by heart.' 'Roote' is the old form of rote,' as in Chaucer

'Every statute couthe he [knew he] pleyn by roote.' • Rote' comes through M. E. from O. F. rote, a way, a beaten track.

P. 168, 1. 2. stun'd, astounded, astonished. See p. 462, note on p. 142, 1. 34.

1. 11. would a had him, would have had him. In the second part the shortened a for have is very frequent. Bunyan wrote as he and his neighbours spoke.

1. 24. Prithee, an ordinary phrase of entreaty smoothed down from 'I pray thee.'

P. 169, 1. 22. a Fool of the greatest size. "Size,' which is now only used for actual magnitude, had formerly a more extended meaning. Herbert has 'anguish of all sizes' (xvii. Sin'), and Shakespeare 'malice of as great a size,' Henry VIII, v. I.

P. 170, 1. 8. this Sun-shine Morning. See note to p. 106, 1. 17, on p. 457.

P. 171, 1. 12. dumpish, melancholy. We still speak of a man being ' in the dumps' when he is low-spirited.

1. 23. I dare say. The change in the meaning of this expression will be noted. We now use it to introduce something that is probable, but not certain, 'I daresay he'll come to-day. Bunyan employs it in its fuller sense, 'I have no hesitation in saying.'

1. 32. young Mercy. In the poetical introduction to the second part Mercy is called “a little tripping maiden,' p. 158, 1. 34.

P. 172, l. 6. how shall I be ascertained, made certain, assured. We have this I ascertaine you,' in Udall's St. Matthew, and Dryden writes, “it ascertains us of the goodness of our work.' The word 'ascertain' has now been much weakened, and is used for becoming acquainted with a fact.

P. 173, 11. 23–26. Bunyan is here reproaching those ministers of the Gospel who employ unscriptural methods of consoling despondent sinners. 1. 29. the Steps, God's promises.

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