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P. 176, 1. 28. they were greatly gladded. "To glad' is an old verb, of which to rejoice' has now taken the place. A. S. gladian, to be glad, to make glad. Wiclif has in the Magnificat, “My spiryt hath gladed in God myn helthe.'
P. 177, 1. 10. what was written over the Gate. The inscription was Knock, and it shall be opened unto you,' p. 25, 1. 29.
1. 28 margin. loud and restless praises. This marginal note was first added in 1687. 'Praises' is probably a printer's error for prayers.'
P. 179, 1. 24. did plash them. Beat them to bring down the fruit, or, it may be, bend them down. The old English word 'plash' was ignorantly altered in 1687 and later editions, to'pluck.''To plash' is used in Lincolnshire and elsewhere for to trim, bend down and intertwine the stems, or boughs, of hedges and trees. Pleach, and plash with this meaning (M. E. pléchen), come from O.F. plecier or plessier, later plesser, to plait, or weave together, young branches.
P. 180, 1. 5. to shift them, to get rid of them. 1. 17. assay, attempt, endeavour.
P. 181, 1. 11. being ye knew, since ye knew. See note to p. 164, 1. 7.
P. 183, 1. 9 ff. In the first part the door is opened by the Interpreter himself, and we hear of no other member of his household holding any intercourse with Christian. Now we find the house occupied by a large company, to whom the pilgrims are introduced, and the door is opened by a maid-servant. It is not easy to decide whether these changes were intended to be significant, or not.
P. 184, 1. 30. a man ... with a Muck-rake in his hand, a rake for scraping up mire and dirt.
'Let not thy nobler thoughts be always raking
Quarles' Emblems, ii. 2.
'Sinner. What black, what ugly crawling thing art thou ?
Spider. I am a spider.
Spider. Not filthy as thyself in name or features,' &c. P. 188, 1. 29. him that soweth Cockle. The cockle' or 'corncockle' is Lychnis (or Agrostemma) Githago, but the word is sometimes used for other corn-weeds. A. S. coccul, coccel, corn-cockle, darnel, tares.
P. 189, 1. 28. These questions addressed to Christiana and afterwards to Mercy, and their respective answers, correspond to the statement of their experience required by Nonconformist bodies from applicants before they are received to full communion.
P. 190, 1. 7. She all-to-be-fooled me. ‘All-to' here means completely, utterly, soundly. She called me an utter fool. All’was formerly used to emphasize the particle combined with a verb, especially the prefix to=asunder : as all to-broken, quite broken in pieces. Later, by form-association, it was extended to other verbs, as = wholly, completely. In Latimer we find all-to-dirtied, all-to-love, and in Spenser, all-to-rent; and in the A. V. all to brake, Judges ix. 53, while all-to ruffled' occurs in Comus, l. 380.
P. 192. The narrative represents, under an allegorical dress, the baptismal purification (Acts xxii. 16), the seal of the Spirit (Eph. i. 13), and the righteousness of Christ (Rev. xix. 3).
P. 193, 1. 1. one Great-heart. By the pilgrims' guide Bunyan intends us to understand a minister of Christ, armed with the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, the helmet of salvation,' and . carrying the shield of faith.' Eph. vi. 14-17.
1. 2. bid him take Sword, and Helmet, and Shield. Kingsley remarks (Life, ii. p. 89), 'When the Pilgrim's Progress was written armour was much gone out, but in Bunyan's boyhood he must have seen everywhere old armour hanging up in every gentleman's and burgher's house, which had been worn and used by the generation before him.
P. 107, 1. 22. Simple, and Sloth, and Presumption. These three men represent three classes ; those who live satisfied with utter ignorance of the truth ; those who know but are too indolent to practise; and those who blindly presume that all will be right at the last, whatever they do or leave undone.
P. 199, 1. 4. then 'twas clear, and good; but now 'tis Dirty. Bunyan himself explains this allegory in his treatise, The Water of Life: “The river of life is pure and clear as crystal. Is the doctrine offered to thee so? Or is it muddy and mixed with the doctrines of men ? Look man and see if the foot of the worshippers of Baal be not there and the waters fouled thereby? What water is fouled is not the water of life, or at least not in its clearness.'
1. 7. why so envious tro? for I trow, used as an interrogatory expletive.
P. 200, 1. 5. a breathing Hill, a hill to climb which quickens one's breath.
1. 13. a pelting heat, excessive heat. The verb to pelt is perhaps ultimately derived from the Latin pultare, an iterative form of pellere, to drive. We speak of a 'pelting rain,' meaning a beating, or driving rain.
P. 201, 1. 1. a to-side, a mixed compound, combining a side, i.e. on side, and to one side.
P. 202, 1. 22. to back the Lions, to support, encourage them; literally, to stand at their back and urge them on.
1. 24. Grim, or Bloody-man. If by the Palace Beautiful we are to understand a Christian Church, and by the lions the dangers which in Bunyan's days must be encountered by those who desired to join themselves to such a body, we cannot be wrong in interpreting the savage beasts themselves of the various laws and proclamations against Nonconformity, and the other forms of persecution under which Bunyan himself so severely suffered, and the giant who 'backed the lions' of the civil power by which those laws were put in execution. When Faithful passed the lions were asleep; i. e. there was a short suspension of the persecution of the Nonconformists. When the second party of pilgrims passed, by reason of the fierceness of the Lions, and the grim carriage of him that did back them, the way had lain much unoccupied, and was almost all grown over with grass '; i.e. the laws against Nonconformity had been so strictly enforced by judges and local justices, that few had had the courage to unite themselves to those churches. Mr. Offor thinks that the killing of Giant Grim refers to the death of Judge Jeffreys, who had been one of the most violent against the dissenters. This, however, is a mistake. Judge Jeffreys did not die till 1689, and the second part was published in 1684.
P. 203, 1. 15. a down-right blow, a blow coming straight down upon his head.
P. 204, 1. 12. so hearty in counselling, your counsels have been so sincere, coming straight from the heart.
P. 205, 1. 10. they were had into a very large Room. The whole of this passage is to be interpreted of the reception of new members of a Christian church, a company of the faithful, and the partaking together of the Holy Communion. The 'Lamb,' l. 23, signifies the Eucharistic meal.
1. 24. the Porter had heard before of their coming. Bunyan here forgets that he had previously represented the arrival of Great-heart and the pilgrims as a surprise to the Porter, p. 203, 1. 37.
1. 28. that Chamber that was my Husband's, the name of which was Peace.
P. 206, 1. 2. a Noise of Musick. "A noise' was used by our early writers for a band or company of musicians. So Shakespeare, a Henry IV, ii. 4, 'See if thou canst find Sneak's noise,' Cf, Milton, * At a solemn music,' 1. 18:
• That we on earth with undiscording voice
May rightly answer that melodious noise.' P. 210, 1. 5. she can learn you more, i.e. teach you more. Cf. Ps. xxv. 4 (Prayer Book), 'Lead me forth in thy truth and learn me;' Ps. cxix. 66, 'O learn me true understanding and knowledge.' M. E. lernen, leornien, to learn, A.S. leornian, to learn, think out, study. From Teutonic base Lis, to find out, whence also A. S. léran, to teach; as Professor Skeat informs us.
1. 22. in doing, ‘To do’ is not now used absolutely as here; we should say “in doing something.'
1. 33. Hose, clothing for the legs. A. S. hosa. Originally both breeches and stockings were in one, like the pantaloons of our grandfathers, and the term 'hosen' included both. When they became separated the breeches were called upper stocks,' and the modern stockings 'nether stocks,' as in the French, haut-de-chausses and bas-de-chausses, abbreviated into bas. By 'hosen' in Dan. iii. 21, our translators intended the long Eastern trousers, not hose in the modern sense, i.e. stockings merely.
P. 211, 1. 13. ill Conditions, bad qualities. Launce says of the maid he is proposing to make up to, 'here is the cate-log of her conditions,' Two Gentlemen of Verona, iii. 1. See infra, 1. 21, &c.
1. 20. I might a had, colloquial for 'I might have had.'
1. 34. her Husband ... cried her down at the Cross. It was at one time a custom for husbands who refused to be any longer answerable for the debts of their wives to have the fact published at the market cross. This was considered a legal publication, as advertising in the newspapers is now. Among the ignorant this crying at the cross' was supposed to relieve a husband of the duty of maintaining his wife. It was a vulgar error, akin to that not yet altogether exploded, that a man may put a halter round his wife's neck and take her to Smithfield, and sell her there.
P. 212, 1. 8. sick of the Gripes. “Gripes' are any violent internal pains which, as it were, seize a man and hold him fast with a sharp gripe or clutch. A. S. gripan, to seize, to clutch, Germ. greifen, to seize, Fr. griffer, to clutch, Ital. grifo, a claw or talon.
1. 12. his Maw, his stomach. Cf. Deut. xviii. 3, they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw.' A. S. maga, stomach.
1, 20. my Brother did plash. See note to p. 179, 1. 24.
P. 213, 1. 3. Ex Carne & Sanguine Christi, “Of the flesh and blood of Christ.' Bunyan's humility and truthfulness appear strikingly in the marginal note “The Latin I borrow.'
P. 215, 1. 20. the Pelican. This bird being in the habit of bringing fish and other food to her young ones in the pouch beneath its beak, the contents of which it forces out by pressing it against its breast, the vulgar error arose that it wounded its breast with its bill, and fed its nestlings with its blood. This absurd notion, it will be seen from the following extract, was not confined to the unlearned. “Some will have a scar in the breast, from a wound of her own making there, to feed (as is reported) her young with her own blood; an action which ordinarily suggests devout fancies.' A Short Relation of the River Nile, edited by the Royal Society, 1673. 'A Pelican in her Piety vulning her Breast' is an ordinary heraldic bearing. The text supplies its mystical interpretation.
P. 217, 1. I, a pair of excellent Virginals. A virginal was a keyed musical instrument of the spinnet kind, but made quite rectangular, like a small pianoforte. Like spinnets they had only one wire to each note. Their name was probably derived from their use by young girls. Queen Elizabeth was a skilful performer on the virginals. The Virginal Book composed for her by William Bird, the organist of Lincoln Cathedral, is still in existence. The expression 'a pair of virginals' corresponds to 'a pair of organs,' which was the common term in the Middle Ages for what we now call ' an organ.' The reason of the designation is obscure. Perhaps it may have been from the double row of pipes seen in early drawings of organs. "A pair,' however, was not always restricted as now to a brace' or 'couple,' but was used for "a set.' A pair of cards’ is common in our Elizabethan dramatists for a pack' (see Skeat, s. v.).
P. 218, 1. 1. a Gold Angel, an ancient gold coin, weighing four dwts., called at first the angel-noble, being originally a new issue of the noble. Its name was due to the device on it, St. Michael standing upon and piercing the dragon.
1. 2. Let thy Garments, &c. A quotation from Eccles. ix. 8. The following words, 'let Mercy live,' &c., is an adaptation of Moses' prayer for Reuben, Deut. xxxiii. 6.
1. 18. Through all my Life, &c. This stanza is from Thomas Sternhold's versification of Ps. xxiii. 6. The succeeding stanza, 'For why, The Lord our God is good, &c., is from the same version of the Psalms, Ps. c. 5.
1. 30. at the Spring, in the spring; as we say' at night' for during the night.
1. 36. desirous to be in, desirable; used improperly for the object, instead of the subject, of the desire. The New English Dictionary shows that other writers have employed desirous in this manner.