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Shakespeare, 'Send him many years of sunshine days,' Richard II, iv. 1; and again, 'A sunshine day,' 3 Henry VI, ii. 1. In Milton, too, we find • sunshine holiday,' Comus, l. 959; L'Allegro, 1. 98.
1. 21. With this whole passage in which suicide is urged by Despair, we may compare Spenser's stanzas, bk. I. ch. ix. 36, 41, 50.
1. 34. to kill body and soul at once. Bunyan writes of the jailer at Philippi, On Justification, . Even now, while the earthquake shook the prison, he had murder in his heart : murder, I say, and that of a high nature, even to have killed his own body and soul at once.'
P. 107, 1. 25. a Swound. Swound is merely another form of swoon. M. E. swõgen, to sough (as the wind), to swoon ; swāgne, a swoon. A.S. swogan, to sigh (as the wind), of which the pp. geswõgen has the meaning of 'in a swoon. The addition of d after an n preceded by a strong accent is of frequent occurrence in English. See Skeat's Principles of English Etymology, vol. I, p. 370. Compare with sound, a noise, in which the final d is also added. M.E. soun, F. son, L. sonum, acc. of sonus, a sound.
P. 108, 1. 21. to your Den again. For the use of den for a prison, see note on p. 436. In the Holy War, when describing the several regiments of the army of terrible doubters' sent against Mansoul, Bunyan speaks of Captain Damnation' being over the 'Grace doubters.' *His were the red colours : Mr. No-life bore them: his scutcheon was the Black Den.'
P. 109, 1. 7. Much of the description of the opening of the doors and gates of Doubting Castle is borrowed from the history of St. Peter's deliverance from prison, Acts xji. 10.
1. 21. they consented to erect, agreed to erect. “Consent' has only in modern times acquired the meaning of half unwilling acquiescence it now sometimes bears.
1. 31. Lest heedlessness, &c. This line was omitted in the tenth and subsequent editions by a typographical error, this and the following line beginning with Lest.'
P. 111, 1. 4. to be acquainted with us. The reading of the first edition is to acquaint with us. In the N. E. D. we find '1774 H. Walpole Corresp. (1837) III. 111 Though the Choiseuls will not acquaint with you.'
1. 5. the good. Used as a substantive, as in i Chron. xxix. 3, ‘of mine own proper good.'
1. 15, margin. They are shewn wonders. There can be no reasonable doubt from the text of the narrative, ‘Shall we shew these pilgrims some wonders,' that shewn is the correct reading, although all editions up to 1727 read 'sure wonders,' which gives no appropriate sense,
Mr. Offor upholds sure, remarking, “The author's meaning appears to be that those wonders were real, undoubted, sure.'
P. 112, 1. 10. did put out their eyes. "O the unthought-of imaginations, frights, fears, and terrors, that are effected by a thorough application of guilt yielding to desperation. This is the man that hath his dwelling among the tombs with the dead, that is always crying out and cutting himself with stones. Grace Abounding, $ 184.
1. 22. a rumbling noise. "Lumbring' in the first edition, a word we find in the same connexion in the Second Part, p. 177, 1. 25, 'when he heard your lumbring noise.'
1. 28. Alexander, the coppersmith, who greatly withstood' St. Paul's words.' 2 Tim. iv. 14, 15.
P. 113, 1. 9, margin. The Shepherds Perspective glass. First added in the second edition. A perspective glass' is a glass to see through (perspicere), either a telescope or a microscope; here, of course, the former is intended. Milton uses prospective glass' in A Vacation , Exercise in the College, 1. 71 (prospicere, to look forward).
P. 114, 1. 27. out-go him, outstrip, walk faster than another. Mark vi. 33, 'the people outwent them.' 'He outgoes the very heart of kindness.' Shakespeare, Timon of Athens, i. 1.
P. 115, 1. 6. carrying of him back. The full construction would be (a-carrying,' i.e. in the carrying of him back. Of' naturally followed a verbal noun. In many cases we should call the verbal noun a participle, and the of has become unintelligible to us.
1. 32. white as a Clout. See note on p. 434, to line 147 of the poetical introduction. 1. 38. strook, a once common form of the preterite struck. So Dryden :
“He like a patient angler ere he strook,
Astraea Redux, 171. P. 116, 1. 8. to scrabble on his way. Scrabble' has been unwarrantably replaced by scramble in some later editions, scramble being the nasalized form of the word. They are frequentatives of scrape, prov. E. scrapple, frequent. of scrape. Bunyan uses it again in his Grace Abounding, $ 334, p. 395. In the only place where it occurs in the A. V. 'he (David) scrabbled on the doors of the gate,' ı Sam. xxi. 13, it stands for 'scribbled' or 'scrawled.'
1. 14. his spending Money. Bunyan develops the distinction drawn here between Littlefaith's 'spending money' and his jewels' in his Grace Abounding, p. 367, § 232.
P. 117, 1. 8. poor heart, once a common expression for an object of
commiseration, as dear heart was, and sweetheart is still, for an object of affection.
l. 18. upon whose head is the Shell, and p. 118, 1. 29. "To talk like one who has got the shell on his head' is still used as a proverbial expression for one who speaks without understanding a matter. Lapwings and some other birds of the brisker sort' are said to be able to move about the moment they are hatched, before they have got themselves free from the shell. Shakespeare uses the simile, * This lapwing runs away with the shell on his head.'
Hamlet, v. 2. And Bishop Hall, “These lapwings that go from under the wing of their dam with their shell on their heads run wild.' Sayings concerning Travellers, No. vii.
Ib. margin. Christian snibbeth his fellow. Snib, sneb are other forms of the modern snub, to check, to put down, to rebuke. M. E. snibben, snubben, to reprove. The word is Scandinavian in origin, the root-idea being to snip off the end of a thing; allied to the obsolete English sneap, to pinch, to nip. We have it in Chaucer, one of the merits of whose Parson it is that
• But it were eny persone obstinat,
Prologue, 521-523. 1. 28. why art thou so tart, sharp, from the A. S. teart, severe, tart: very tart vinegar, Sir T. Elyot; "a little tart against the Wiclivites,' Fuller; "the tart reply,' Cowper. (Richardson.)
1. 34. that Caitiff did. Caitiff now denotes one of a base abject disposition. Originally it meant no more than captive.' Old Northern French caitif,,caitive, captive, weak, miserable; Latin captīv-um, captive. Aristarchus, St. Paul's fellow-prisoner, appears in Wiclif's version as * Aristarch myne evene caytyf' (concaptivus meus, Vulg.), and we find in Holland's Plutarch, - Avarice doth tyrannize over her caitiff-slaves.'
P. 118, 1. 37. have stood one brush with them. A brush is a short but smart encounter. Cf. 'the brushes of the war,' Troilus and Cressida, v. 3.
P. 119, 1. 9. Journeymen-Thieves, not master thieves robbing on their own account, but serving under another. A journeyman,' Fr. journalier, is one who works by the day. Journeywork is work done by the day, not by the job.
1. 25. I tro. I believe, I warrant you. See note, p. 433, 1. 102. P. 120, 1. 1. throw up his heels, trip up his heels. A metaphor taken
from wrestling. “Young Orlando that tripped the wrestler's heel,' As You Like It, iii. 2.
1. 5. he should say, was reported to have said, like the Germ. sollen, to be reported.
1. 8. Heman, the psalmist, grandson of the prophet Samuel, to whom Psalm lxxxviii. is ascribed. The printers, not being acquainted with the name, altered it to the more familiar Haman in the third and later editions. More recent editors, Southey not excepted, somewhat startled at finding Haman transformed into one of the champions of faith, have with much ingenuity and more audacity substituted the name of Mordecai, to whom the description is hardly more appropriate. The change occurs in an edition by D. Bunyan, 1768.
1. 15. their King is at their Whistle, ready to come to their aid when they whistle for him.
P. 122, 1. 2. a man black of flesh. This incident of the Flatterer leading the Pilgrims out of the way is one of the most obscure in the whole book. The editors generally have not troubled themselves to suggest any rational interpretation of it. The variation in their spiritual interpretations show how difficult they have found it.
1. 12. within the compass of a Net, so as to be surrounded by a net.
P. 124, 1. 27. I will round you in the ears. Roun, or round, to whisper. M. E. rounen, to whisper, A. S. rūnian, to whisper; rün, mystery, secret.
P. 125, 1. 13. take a Nap. M. E. nappen, to have a nap, a sleep; A. S. hnappian, to doze, to sleep.
1. 35. The account of Hopeful's conversion given in the subsequent conversation may be safely regarded as a description of Bunyan's own spiritual experience. It may be instructively compared with the narrative in Grace Abounding.
P. 128, 1. 16. I still see sin, new sin. Compare the words of Bishop Beveridge, Private Thoughts on Religion, article iv.
1. 19. sin enough in one duty. The word “duty' has been altered into . day' by modern editors, without the slightest warrant. Bunyan's meaning is that religious duties may become occasions of sin.
P. 129, 1. 19. Jesus his inditing. An example of the false theory of the origin of the 's of the possessive case, which was accepted as certainly true from Ben Jonson to Addison's time, viz. that it was a contraction from his. Familiar instances of this mistaken construction are, • Jesus Christ his sake,' Prayer for all conditions of men ; 'Asa his heart,' 1 Kings xv. 14.
P. 130, 1. 29. My grace is sufficient for thee. We are here reading Bunyan's own spiritual experience. See Grace Abounding, $ 206, p. 359.
P. 132, 1. 3. I take my pleasure in walking alone. It is impossible to read this conversation between Young Ignorance' and the Pilgrims without being strongly reminded of Shakespeare's 'Slender' in the Merry Wives of Windsor, i, 1, 'I pray you, sir, walk in. Slend. I had rather walk here, I thank you,' &c. &c.
1. 36. Ask my Fellow if I be a Thief, a proverbial expression, derived from one member of a company of thieves appealing to another to testify to his honesty.
P. 133, 1. 28. our thoughts of our hearts and ways. The first our has been most unwarrantably altered in the modern editions into the, to the perversion of the sense.
P. 134, l. 34. a Fantastical Faith, a faith whose seat is merely in the fantasy, a fancy.
P. 135, 1. 17. tolerate us, allow us, permit us to live. We should now write tolerate our living as we list.'
1. 18. as we list, as we like, please. M. E. lüsten, listen, be pleasing; (with refl. dat.) delight, be pleased ; A. S. lystan, to desire, used impersonally. The wind bloweth where it listeth, John iii. 8.
1. 38. so many whimsies, capricious fancies.
P. 136, 1. 28. It pities me much. “There are many more impersonal verbs in early English than in Elizabethan, and in Elizabethan than in modern English.' Abbott, Shakespearian Grammar, § 147. “Thy servants think upon her stones : it pitieth them to see her in the dust,' Ps. cii. 14, Prayer Book. Compare “It repenteth me,' Gen. vi. 7, 1 Sam. xv. 11 ; 'It grieved him at his heart,' Gen. vi. 6. 'It pities me'may still be heard in Lincolnshire.
P. 140, 1. 36. Country of Beulah. "Thou shalt be called Hephzi-bah (my delight is in her) and thy land Beulah (married).' Is. lxii. 4.
P. 141, 1. 2. the voice of the Turtle, the gentle cooing of the tartledove. Cant. ii. 12.
P. 142, 1. 12. they addressed themselves to go up, prepared themselves, made themselves ready to go up. Fr, adresser, late pop. L, addirectiā-re, to make straight, or right, from directum, straight, right.
1. 34. were much stounded. Altered in the second and later editions into stun'd. It is another form of astounded, from astound, which is a phonetic development of M. E. astoned, astun'd, astounded, stunned ; connected probably with the O. F. estone-r, to stun, amaze.
1. 38. Enoch and Elijah, both of whom it will be remembered were translated, for God 'took 'Enoch, and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.
P. 144, 1. 17. the enemy was after that as still as a stone, &c. Borrowed from the Song of Moses, Exod. xv. 16.