Origins of Political Extremism: Mass Violence in the Twentieth Century and Beyond
Cambridge University Press, 17 Mar 2011
Political extremism is one of the most pernicious, destructive, and nihilistic forms of human expression. During the twentieth century, in excess of 100 million people had their lives taken from them as the result of extremist violence. In this wide-ranging book Manus I. Midlarsky suggests that ephemeral gains, together with mortality salience, form basic explanations for the origins of political extremism and constitute a theoretical framework that also explains later mass violence. Midlarsky applies his framework to multiple forms of political extremism, including the rise of Italian, Hungarian and Romanian fascism, Nazism, radical Islamism, and Soviet, Chinese and Cambodian communism. Other applications include a rampaging military (Japan, Pakistan, Indonesia) and extreme nationalism in Serbia, Croatia, the Ottoman Empire and Rwanda. Polish anti-Semitism after World War II and the rise of separatist violence in Sri Lanka are also examined.
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According Afghanistan al-Muhajiroun al-Qaeda Allied Alsace-Lorraine anti-Semitism army authority space Balkan Bessarabia Bolshevik British Bukovina Caliphate century Chapter Chechen Chechnya China Chinese communism communist consequence Croatian death defeat earlier Emphasis added ephemeral gain especially ethnic European extremist behavior fascism fear of reversion forces genocide German Greek Hindu Hitler humiliation Hungarian Hungary Hutu ideational important Indian Indonesia Ingush invasion Iron Guard Islamist Italian Italian Fascism Jaffna Japan Japanese Jewish Jews jihad Kashmir killing Laden later leaders leading LTTE major mass murder massacre military moral mortality salience Muslim nationalist Nazi Nazism occurred Ottoman Empire Pakistan Party pathways People’s percent perceptions of injustice period Poland Polish political extremism population prior Quoted radical Islamism radical Islamists region revolution Romanian Russian Sayyid Qutb Serbian Serbs social society Soviet Union Stalin subordination Tamil territorial loss threat and fear Treaty tsarist Tutsi Ustaše victory violence Western World yield