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EMBRACINC POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
llENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,
SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

NEW SERIES, VOL. V.

WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XX.
1

NEW YORK:
D- APPLETCN AND COMPANY,
1, 3 AND 5 BOND STREET.
1881.

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THE ANNUAL Cvctomznm has always met with an appreciative reception among the American public. Its still extending use and demand approve the fitness of its plan. vFew annual publications in the world have as successfully stood the ordeal of time. First started in 1861, the volume for 1880 is the twentieth of the series. The largest and most comprehensive general year-book printed in any country, no pains or research are spared to make it complete and trustworthy.

The “ Annual Cyclopmdia ” aims to give a record of political events, of legislative action, of the judicial interpretation of the laws, and of the condition and workings of the public administration of the General Government and of each of the State governments, with an impartial review of political questions as they arise, and of the aims and sentiments of party organizations. It thus places before the citizen all the information which is necessary for the understanding of the public affairs of the nation, and the intelligent exercise of the rights and duties of citizenship.

Coordinated with the political knowledge given in the “ Annual Cyclopaadia “ is as large a body of authentic and systematized information as can be collected relating to the development of the agricultural, industrial, and commercial interests of the country; and every important subject of public comment and concern is treated in its appropriate connection. The religious statistics and denominational records are presented as an important part of the social history of a Christian people. The political and social history of each nation in the world is given with equal comprehensiveness as, though less detail than, that of our own country. The “Annual Cyclopaadia” is also a record of science, literature, and art.

In 1880 the quadrennial election occupied the attention of the American people more than all other considerations. ,In the articles on the UNITED STATES and the several States the developments and questions of the campaign are fully pram ted_ In Europe the Irish land question is the most important subject of

the year, The conditions of the problem are clearly explained in a special article on IRELAND, by the late Professor A. J. Schem. The developments of the Nan-“55c conspiracies are recounted in Russm. In Afghanistan and South Afflca troubles excited by the British imperial policy are still fermenting. The developments are recounted under their proper headings. In MONTENEGRO, Gama, TURKEY, BULGARIA, Russm, and the AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN Monmcnv, the

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