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Sarah Bernhardt has cultivated other arts BOLIVIA (REPÚBLICA DE Bolivia). For besides the one in which she has won celebrity. area, territorial division, population, etc., referAfter posing for a bust, in 1869, it occurred to ence may be made to the “ Annual Cyclopædia her to try her hand at modeling; and since for 1872 and 1878, and, for a retrospective view then she has produced several pieces of sculp- of Bolivian statistics and Bolivia's relations ture which have been praised for their merit. with the neighboring states, see our volume for She has also painted in oils with more than an 1879, amateur's skill. The subjects which she chooses The President of the Republic is General fór her sculptures and paintings are oftenest of Narciso Campero (June, 1880); the first Vicea somber and funereal character. She is an ac- President is Dr. A. Arce; and the second Vicecomplished performer upon the barp and the President, Señor Belisario Salinas. In Decempiano. She is known as a graceful and spirited ber, 1880, the Cabinet was composed of but two writer for the press, and was at one time art Ministers: Señor J. M. Calvo, Minister of Juscritic of the Globe” newspaper. She has tice, Public Worship, and Public Instruction, made several ascensions in balloons, and writ- and acting Minister of the Interior, and of ten descriptions of er aéronautic experiences. Foreign Relations; and Señor Belisario Salinas, A picturesque and elegant villa on the Parc Minister of War and acting Minister of Finance. Monceau was built for ber after her own plans The regulation strength of the army in time and drawings.
of peace is 3,000, as follows: 8 generals, 1,012 In the summer of 1879 Mlle. Bernhardt subaltern officers, and 2,000 men, maintained, played in a series of French dramas presented it would appear, at an annual expenditure of by the company of the Comédie Française in $2,000,000, or about two thirds of the entire London, where she was singled out from the
As stated in our article for 1879, the company for popular favor and praise in a still force was raised to 20,000 men accustomed to more decided way than in Paris. She exhibited fighting and the use of arms, after the comher plastic and pictorial creations while there, mencement of the war with Chili. In October, and gave rehearsals in the houses of the lead- 1880, however, the Bolivian army had, by Chiers of fashionable English society, requiring to lian reports, been reduced to two battalions. be paid at the rate of a hundred guineas for Information concerning the Bolivian revenue each performance. The following year Bern- has always been difficult to procure from official hardt returned to London; but she was not sources, and can now be obtained only through this time supported, as she had been the season indirect channels. The figures of the following before, by the strength of the famous company table, said to emanate from ex-Minister Don of which she was a member. At this time à Julio Mendez, give no signs of decreased yield difficulty occurred between Mlle. Bernhardt in the usual sources of income, and refer to the and Émile Augier, the director of the Comédie period between the declaration of war and Française, in consequence of which she re December 31, 1879—that is to say, about ten signed her position and severed her connection months: with the company. She was afterward sued
Second half-year, Indian tax...
$691,248 70 for breach of contract, and ordered by the civil Tithes, first fruits, etc. (paid almost exclusively tribunal to pay one hundred thousand francs
by the Indians).
250,000 00 damages to the company. The cause of the Bullion from the interior.
880,000 00 rupture with the Comédie Française was her Negotiation with Banco Nacional”
600,000 00 want of success in the play of “L'Aventu- Joco nitrate-works (saved).
50,000 00 rière," she attributing her failure to the want Southern custom-houses..
60,000 00 of time for proper preparation and an insuffi
$2,783,264 70 cient number of rebearsals.
A contract was signed by Sarah Bernhardt The war expenses, on the other hand, are rewith Henry Abbey, of Booth's Theatre, in New ported to have been as follows: York, on June 9, 1880, by which Mlle. Bern
Bolivian army in Peru..
$1,013,929 00 hardt engaged make the tour of the principal Fifth division, Campero...
450,000 00 cities of the United States, the manager agree
$1,563,929 00 ing to pay her one thousand dollars for each Balance against the Treasury.
1,219,835 00 performance, with a share also of the profits.
$2,783,264 70 Mlle. Bernhardt arrived in New York toward the end of October, 1880, and in the From this table it is apparent that the Indian second week of November commenced her en population, who furnish the tillers of the soil gagement in Booth's Theatre, playing through and the fighting element of the country, are the series of her most famous rôles. After also the chief support of the national excheconcluding there, she gave them next in Bos quer. ton, and then in Philadelphia, playing to very The national debt was estimated to amount large houses in each city, and winning admira- to $30,000,000 in June, 1879, comprising a tion and applause from the public, and obtain- home debt of $21,500,000 contracted by the ing the highly appreciative, though sometimes Government of the republic at various periods, qualified and measured, praise of the dramatic as the forced loan of 1879 to equip the army critics.
for the Chilian campaign, and a foreign debt
contracted in England in 1872* for the pur- and declaring, moreover, that “the loss of the pose of constructing a railway. The railway for £850,000 makes the scheme impracticable." which it was incurred has not yet been built. The defendant companies appealed to the The works, commenced in 1872 under British House of Lords, and the Lords, while euloauspices, suffered “unanticipated detentions” gizing the magnitude of the enterprise, and until 1877, when they were resumed under lauding the good faith of Colonel Church and American contractors, Messrs. P. and T. Col- its other promoters, confirmed the decision of lins, of Philadelphia, several chancery suits hav- the Court of Appeal. Bolivia is thus placed ing intervened in the course of the five years' in a unique position, continues Colonel Church, interval. The firm just mentioned deposited, Her own bondholders submit her to a relentstates Colonel George Earl Church,* £40,000 as less litigation of six years, preventing the opena caution-fund for compliance with their con- ing of the commercial route for which they tract to complete the road from end to end. subscribed the loan. Even pending litigaThey sent several large ocean-steamers directly tion, up to 1875, she paid interest on the loan, from Philadelphia to the northern terminus of and now she finds herself without the money, the road at San Antonio on the river Madeira, without the railway, without her bonds, and, where there are now (April, 1880) about fifty by judgment of the Court of Appeal, contirmed miles of railway inaterial and contractors' by the House of Lords, is told, practically, that plant. In a short time they had a thousand an unauthorized act of her diplomatic agent* men at work, and a locomotive running over is more powerful than her Congressional dethe first and worst five miles of the road. They crees. The following extract from a letter to cleared fifteen miles of forest, cut large quanti- the London “Times,” by its Philadelphia correties of sleepers, employed four large corps of spondent, in May, 1880, shows how the interengineers actively in the field, and thoroughly ests of the American contractors have been demonstrated the perfect practicability of the affected by the foregoing decision : work. As this was thus again being vigor The House of Lords, in affirming the decision of the ously pushed forward, the bondholders filed a Court of Appeal in reference to the Bolivian loan, new bill in chancery, March 2, 1878, alleging deprived the American contractors for the Madeira and the revocation of the Bolivian concession and of getting payment for work already done and matethe impracticability of the railway. The trus- rials furnished. These contractors, Messrs. P. and T. tees were again prevented from applying the Collins, of Philadelphia, and their creditors, have pretrust fund. As in the previous suit, the plain- sented a petition for relief to Congress. They request tiffs resorted to every imaginable device to de- the passage of a resolution by Congress, asking the lay the trial. It finally took place before Mr.
President to bring the matter alleged in their petition
to the attention of her Majesty's Government, and also Justice Fry, April, 1879, who, after hearing instructing the Secretary of the Treasury to give pubtheir witnesses, dismissed the bill, with costs. lic notice that the United States bonds now in the Their own engineers gave evidence proving the Bank of England, being the trust fund for the construcperfect practicability of the road. The bond- tion of the Madeira and Mamoré Railway, will not be holders appealed from the decision. The appeal tioners to the fund are respected. They also ask for
paid by the United States until the rights of the petiwas heard by the Lords Justices in May, 1879. such other relief as may be due to them by reason of the These held that, owing to the lapse of time, fact that, as American citizens, their rights and property the seven years during which the plaintiff's, are being jeopardized by the hostile action of the Govthe bondholders, bad succeeded in preventing cession and grant of money, upon the faith of which the construction of the railway, the burden of the contractors agreed to build the railway, and have proof of its practicability rested upon the de- already expended their money. This petition was profendants, the Navigation and Railway Com- sented in the Senate by Senator Bayard, and in the panies. These gave ample engineering evi- House by, Speaker Randall. The contractors and their dence, by their engineers, as to the physical the Philadelphia and Reading Railway, which is main
creditors have expended nearly $1,000,000 on the work, feasibility of the road and its ease of construc- ly owned in England, having furnished large quantition. The Court of Appeal gave judgment in ties of materials, and being a principal creditor. The May, 1879, to the effect that, “no doubt the numbers of the $3,727,900 United States bonds in the scheme was a great one, and one which, if be furnished to the Secretary of the Treasury. The
trust are in the possession of the contractors, and will there had been funds and other means for petitions have been referred to appropriate committees carrying it into effect, would probably pro- by Congress, but their contemplated action has not duce the revenue which would afford a se- yet transpired. curity for the bondholders”; and then decided As observed in our volume for 1879, no rethat “ the railway was impracticable in a busi- liable returns of Bolivia's exports and imports ness sense,” ordering the trust fund, £850,000, have ever been published by any of the Govto be distributed, pro rata, among the bond- ernment departments ; hence the impossibility holders, and the Bolivian bonds to be surren- of all but conjecture as to the aggregate value dered and deposited in the Bank of England, of the foreign trade of the republic. The sub
See “* Annual Cyclopædia " for 1879, p. 81. + The instigator of the enterprise, and to whom, as the re * The Bolivian Minister, who, in June, 1876, addressed a unit of a treaty between Brazil and Bolivia, both countries letter to Colonel Church, assuming to declare the concesmade concessions, baving for their object the opening of a com sions of the navigation company to be pull and of no value. mercial outlet for Bolivian products to the Atlantic through No evidence appears to have since been produced of his au. the Amazon River, and its great tributary the Madeira. thority for the act.
1974. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
joined table shows the total value of the im- gress issued a decree for a forced loan from all ports from and exports to Great Britain in the the departments of the republic to the amount quinquennial period 1874–78, according to of $500,000, with interest at ten per cent., the British returns :
bonds to be received in payment of taxes. The Congress further authorized the Government to make new emissions, if necessary, and de
termine the guarantees for their payment. By $271,905 $1,713,185
2,309,895 another decree of the Congress, $200,000 in 991,830 2,065,595
small money, of from one to ten cents, was to 484,690
1,832,260 866,975 8,005,180
be coined in nickel, copper, or other metal.
Yet governmental energy, zealously seconded Copper, nitre, and guano were the commod- by individual patriotism, for the enthusiasm for ities chiefly shipped to Great Britain, whence the war had not diminished in Bolivia, was inthe articles imported are for the most part sufficient to grapple successfully with the evercotton, linen, and woolen manufactures and increasing difficulties of the situation. The machinery. Bolivia being cut off from direct National Convention, already called into existcommunication with the Pacific seaboard since ence, lent efficient aid to the Executive in dethe commencement of the war with Chili, her vising and carrying out plans for the creation foreign trade must of necessity be very limited of resources with which to continue the strugat present. Nor will any one be surprised to gle without truce and regardless of sacrifices. learn that imports are subject to a very high The following decree, issued on February 21st, rate of duty, particularly on some articles will serve to illustrate the spirit and determifrom the United States. For example, 100 lbs. nation of that body: of soap, costing in New York $4.57, pay an im
ARTICLE I. The National Convention of Bolivia has port duty equal to $2.75 United States money; ordered the sale by public auction of the property of a gallon of kerosene with the tin containing it, all the convents and monasteries of the republic, erwhich costs in New York thirteen cents pays cept the eighth part, which is destined for the support a duty equal to nine and a quarter cents of the
of the religious communities.
ART. II. The sale is also ordered of the treasures of same money; and, besides these enormous du
the churches, including the ornaments of the images, ties, Bolivia permits Peru to charge five per the sacred vessels being alone excepted. cent. additional for transit across her territory,
Art. III. The product of the sale shall be applied from the port of Arica. Nevertheless, the prod
to defraying the expenses of the war, such as the pur
chase of ships, the levying of troops, etc. ucts of Bolivia are admitted into the United
Art. IV. Priests who in the pulpit or in any other States free of duty of any kind. “ We can not place, and laymen who in the press or in public meetunderstand," writes a merchant established in ing, oppose the execution of this law, either pacifically La Paz, “why the United States Government or by promoting public disturbances, shall be tried as maintains at great expense a Minister in this traitors to the country. republic who does nothing to forward the in Prior to the date of this decree, the forced terests of American manufacturers in this mat- loan, already alluded to as forming part of the ter. Nothing could be more simple than to national revenue for 1879, had been ordered induce Bolivia to enter into a reasonable com and collected to the amount of $500,000; and mercial treaty on a reciprocal basis."
other measures of like character were resorted Nothing could well be more deplorable, in a to later. Still, the Bolivian army was but an political point of view, than the picture present- insignificant factor at the seat of war; indeed, ed by Bolivia in the course of the past year. Im- at the end of June, telegrams (from Santiago, the mediately after the reverses of the allied Peru- capital of Chili) announced that it was comvian and Bolivian arms, which precipitated ex- pletely disbanded, the men receiving neither President Prado's determination to seek safety pay nor food, and selling their arms and acin flight, General Daza abandoned his post of coutrements to obtain temporary relief. “In Chief Magistrate of Bolivia, and fled to escape the four corners of the republic,” exclaims a being assassinated. In Bolivia all is bitter- leading journal of La Paz, in July, " dismay ness, writes a journalist from Valparaiso, in and dejection seem to threaten the destruction February, 1880; everybody wants to be Presi- of our nationality, and, in the midst of the awdent, and we can not say who is govern- ful confusion, what means of salvation remains ing; Minister Jofré is in Oruro; General Cam- to us? Shall we yield to the conqueror? No, a pero has accepted the Presidency provisional- thousand times no! However great our effemily; Camacho is in command of the Bolivian nacy be, or bowever deep the grief brought army stationed at Tacna; and, lastly, Daza has upon us by the disasters of San Francisco and withdrawn to the interior, with the evident in- of the Alianza, it is our duty to look up to tention of provoking a reaction in his favor. Heaven for that strength which the earth deGeneral Campero was duly invested with the nies us, and set about the grand work of de- . power in constitutional form in June, and lost fending our country. Savages in their miserano time in appointing a Cabinet, and taking ble condition do not bow under defeat, but persuch steps as he deemed most urgent for the severingly defend their huts and their families, continued maintenance of troops at the seat of and are we to triumph by tears and cowardly inwar. Early in September, the Bolivian Con- action? Do we not blush at the thought of our
No. of slaves.
75,987 26.381 12,829
124.997 43,856 21,098
children learning hereafter of our selfishness situated on the Rio Negro and above San Cárand our moral and physical degradation? In this los; while the Venezuelan commissioners were deplorable state of things, let us renew our ef- at Javita, one day's journey beyond that point. forts to arouse the slumbering spirit of our coun According to the latest official returns, the trymen to reconstruct Bolivia, prepare for the number of slaves in Brazil was 1,368,254; but national defense, and gain the victory over Chili, as these figures were taken from registers reachcost what it may. To that end the National Con- ing only to the end of 1878, the number must vention should, we think, continue for at least at present be several thousand less, allowing for six months longer its labor of reconstructing deaths, and for public and private emancipation. our dem bralized national administration. Let The distribution of the accumulated emancithe representatives be paid, for no labor is more pation fund (about $2,204,940) was, however, worthy of remuneration than theirs. Exac- based on the same returns; and the following tions can lead to no practical or useful end. table shows the number of slaves in, and the The members of the Convention have hitherto share of said fund allotted to each of the provmanifested an unusual degree of self-denial in inces at the close of the year above referred the service of their country. Many of them to: will continue to do so; but such can not be expected to constitute the rule. It is but fair that those who devote their time and energy Municipio Neutro.
43,409 $71,391 to the cause of Bolivia, and thereby neglect Rio de Janeiro
475,683 their own private concerns, should be remu
63,164 nerated. In the trying times through which we are now passing, it is not prudent to ex
80,928 50,863 pect everything of the Executive. Chili, in
Sergipe... making war against us, has had the counsel
10,129 16,909 and guidance of her people's representatives, Rio Grande do Norte.
21,216 84,892 while we intrusted everything to the Govern- Espirito Santo..
21,216 ment. What has been the result? Daza's Alagoas. Government plunged us in ruin; and the
7,051 11,596 present Government, spite of all its patriot- São Paulo.
169,950 277,858 ism, will at no distant day lose its prestige, for
476,806 of professional malcontents there is, unfortu- Goyaz nately, no lack in Bolivia. The wise direction Parahyba..
25,596 42,095 of public affairs requires the energetic coop
25,773 42,870 eration of the Parliament with an honest Gov
1,368,254 $2,204,940 ernment like that of the illustrious General Campero. Our country's wounds need the It is stated that, in virtue of a recent revfirm hand and determined treatment of a enue law, the emancipation fund will be National Convention, and a National Conven- doubled in the fiscal years 1881–82, and be tion alone. Lastly, Bolivia, like the phenix, probably about $1,000,000. mast find within her own breast the secret of In the matter of immigration, Brazil has her regeneration. The Assembly, by the light been particularly unfortunate, notwithstanding of their understanding, the Executive by pa- the many sacrifices she has made with a view to triotic action, and the people by unceasing attracting useful colonists to her shores. Recent labor in the cultivation of the fruits of the experiments with Russians have been attended earth, must raise up the nation from the with results so unfavorable as to discourage depths to which she has fallen, and carry onr the Government from further attempts of the arms to the retrieval of honor lost and soil kind. Indeed, it would appear that the abanusurped.” A confederation between Peru and donment of state immigration has been reBolivia, accepted by the people of the first solved upon, and that recourse will hereafter country in June, and to be decided upon by a be had to the more practical plan of reforming plebiscitum in the second, appears to have been the land laws so as to facilitate grants, sales favorably considered by the National Conven on credit, and leases, thus affording to small tion at La Paz, and the question even submit- holders easy terms and security from former ted to the President for Executive sanction in trammels. Notice is stated to have been October. (The leading incidents of the war transmitted to Europe that the “assisted paswill be narrated in the article Peru.)
sage" system would be discontinued, except BRAZIL (IMPERIO DO Brazil). (Statistics in the case of already existing contracts; and concerning area, territorial divisions, popula- on the 7th of May all Government lodging. tion, etc., will be found in the “ Annual Cyclo- houses were to be closed. Frequent allusion pædia” for 1878.) The commissioners appoint- has been made in the British and in the Braed to determine the limits of the empire with the zilian press to the disadvantage of allowing neighboring republic of Venezuela were re- large tracts of land to be held on a nominal ported to have made satisfactory progress. At tenure, yet lying neglected and uncultivated; latest accounts the Brazilian section had ad- and it is hoped that the remedial measures vanced as far as Maroa, a Venezuelan village just mentioned, together with others in con
Dr. J. P. Belfort Vicira.
Dr. A. A. Oliveira.
Dr. F. Pereira da Silva.
templation, will not only remove old evils, but Pernambuco... Dr. A. de Barros Cavalcante.
Piauhy.. afford a free scope to labor, encouraging useful
Rio Grande do Norte... Dr, R. L. Marcondes. industry, and offering to settlers the incentive Rio de Janeiro... Dr. A. M. Marcondes de Andrade.
Santa Catharina.. of being enabled to benefit their future con
Dr. L. A, de Brito. dition by terms of equality. The subject of São Pedro (Rio Grande) Chinese immigration has been mooted, with
Dr. T. F. dos Santos. the assurance that experiments in that direction might prove eminently successful.
As The Archbishop of Bahia, N--, is Priexamples of the efficiency of Chinese labor, mate of all Brazil, and there are eleven bishops : California and Australia have been alluded to; those of Pará, São Luiz, Fortaleza, Olinda, Rio but in both of these the prevailing conditions de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Marianna, were different from those characterizing Brazil, Diamantina, Goyaz, and Cuyabá. where the only desideratum is not competition The Brazilian Minister Plenipotentiary and for labor but hands to cultivate the soil. Envoy Extraordinary to the United States is
The Emperor is Dom Pedro II, born De- Councilor A. P. de Carvalho Borges, accredited cember 2, 1825; proclaimed April 7, 1831; October 9, 1871; and the Brazilian Consulregency until July 23, 1840; crowned July 18, General (for the Union) at New York is Sen1841; married September 4, 1843, to Theresa hor Salvador de Mendonça. Christina Maria, daughter of the late King According to the law of February 27, 1875, Francis I of the Two Sicilies.
military service is obligatory for all Brazilian A change of Ministry occurred early in the citizens; but numerous exceptions are admityear, but did not result in a change of party, ted, and substitution is allowable. The period the Liberals continuing in power. The new of service is six years in the regular army, and Cabinet was made up as follows: Minister of three in the reserve. The regulation strength the Interior, Baron Homem de Mello; of Jus- of the army in time of peace is fixed at 13,000 tice, Councilor M. P. S. Dantas, Senator; of men; though the actual strength in 1880 was Foreign Affairs, Councilor P. L. Pereira de 15,304, of whom 1,743 were officers. The Souza, Deputy; of Finance, Councilor J. A. strength in time of war was to be fixed at 32,000. Saraiva, Senator, and President of the Council The arms were distributed as follows: Infantry, of State; of War, Viscount de Pelotas, Senator; twenty-one battalions, eight garrison compaof the Navy, Councilor J. R. Lima Duarte, nies, and one dépôt company for drilling reDeputy ; of Public Works, Commerce, and Ag- cruits ; cavalry, five regiments, one squadron, riculture, Councilor M. Buarque de Macedo, and five garrison companies; artillery, three Deputy.
mounted regiments, and five foot-battalions ; The Council of State was composed of the sappers and miners, one battalion; gendarmes, following members in ordinary: the Princess 8,340 men, of whom 931 were at Rio de JaneiImperial Donna Isabel; Prince Gaston d'Or- ro. The National Guard had been disbanded, léans, Count d'Eu; the Senators— Viscount and was to be reorganized on completion of d'Abaeté, Viscount de Muritiba, Viscount de the new census. Bom Retiro, Viscount de Jaguary, Viscount de The navy, in 1880, consisted of nine ironNictheroy, Viscount de Araxá, J. P. Dias de Car- clad steamers, six steam-corvettes, sixteen vacho, and J.J. Teixeira; Vice-Admiral J. R. steam-gunboats, and six steam-transports; and de Lamare; Dr. P.J. Soares de Souza; and of three sail of the line (one corvette and two six members extraordinary: Senators-J. L. C. smaller craft); with an aggregate of 3,758 Paranaguá and M. P. S. Dantas; Councilors— men, and a total armament of 166 guns. There Martin Francisco and B. A. de M. Taques; were, besides, five iron-clad ships, one gunboat, Viscount de Prados, and Dr. J. C. de Andrade. one school-ship, and one brig for midshipmen,
The President of the Senate, which com all without armament; and there was a gunprises fifty-eight members elected for life, is boat in process of building. There were in Viscount de Jaguary; and the Vice-President, the navy 14 general staff-officers, 340 first-class Count de Baependy.
officers, a sanitary corps 73 strong, 17 almoThe President of the Chamber of Deputies, ners, 88 accountants, 57 guardians, and 185 enwith one hundred and twenty-two members gineers; an imperial marine corps 2,695 strong; elected for four years, is Viscount de Prados; a naval battalion, 286, and 1,229 apprentices; and the Vice-President, F. de Almeida. total, 4,984 men.
The Presidents of the several provinces were The financial position of the empire may in as follows:
general be considered to have improved, owing Alagoas.... Dr. C. Pinto da Silva.
mainly to increased productions, the coffeeAmazonas. Baron de Maracajú.
crop alone promising to fall little short of Dr. A. Aragão Bulcao.
300,000 tons (or 672,000,000 pounds)! The Ceará..
Dr. J. J. de Albuquerque Barros. Espirito Santo.
issue of gold bonds has proved a financial sucGoyaz.... Dr. A. S. Spinola.
cess—these obligations being largely held in Maranhão... Dr. L. 0. Lino de Vasconcellos.
England and in Brazil, and regarded as a favorDr. M, J. G. Rebello Horta. ite investment. Pará...
In a non-official report published in July, Parahyba..
Dr. U. M. Pereira Vianna.
1880, the revenue for the fiscal year 1878–"79
Dr. E. S. Martins.
Dr. J. J. Pedroza.
Dr. J. C. da Gama e Abreu.