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sequels of the Eastern Question are detailed. A lucid analysis of the policy and operations of the United States Treasury and of the financial condition of the country is presented in FINANCES OF THE UNITED States, by Assistant Secretary J. K. Upton. Biographical accounts of the prominent candidates for the Presidential nomination, of the members of the new British Cabinet, and of many other persons of note, have been prepared, and the obituary sketches of such as have achieved celebrity in America or abroad are given extensively. The scientific record is fuller than usual. The ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS of the year are described by Professor Daniel Kirkwood, of Indiana University. Recent advances in CHEMISTRY and in its industrial applications are explained in an extended article by Dr. W. J. Youmans, of New York. Darwin's discoveries of the laws of plant-movement are explained in CIRCUMNUTATION, and other new theories and discoveries in various special articles. The important subject of domestic sanitation and hygiene is ably discussed by John B. Hamilton, Surgeon-General United States Marine Hospital Service, in HOME HYGIENE. Another interesting illustrated article, containing an historical and descriptive account of the Government LightHOUSE ESTABLISHMENT, was written by A. B. Johnson, Chief Clerk of the Lighthouse Board. The approved system of the MISSISSIPPI River IMPROVEMENT is described by a citizen of New Orleans. In California the proposed plans for rescuing agricultural lands from destruction by mining débris are explained. The latest achievements in ENGINEERING, and the results of GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION are given with the customary detail.

The historical and statistical features of the “ Annual Cyclopædia” have never received greater attention. The digest of the proceedings of CONGRESS, the annual review of the affairs of the individual States, of the ARMY and the Navy, the reprints of diplomatic and other public documents, the review of the nation's COMMERCE, are as complete and as intrinsically important as ever before. The statistics of commerce, industry, and agriculture, in the different States, are being collected with greater fullness and by more thorough official methods every year. The political history and statistical account of all the different countries of the globe are as careful, complete, and well up to date as it has been possible to make them. Illustrations have been prepared wherever they were thought to be useful.

The “ Annual Cyclopædia” chronicles the history of all nations and the annual stages of civilization, giving special prominence to the events and developments of the United States; it records



every field of research and endeavor, and with special amplitude that which has a bearing on practical life and social development. It aims to give all information which is needed by the student of current history and actual institutions, and much which is of practical importance to the active and enterprising in all walks of life.

Engraved portraits are given of President Garfield, of Czar Alexander III of Russia, and General Hancock.



* Rahman, or Phaman Khan. (See Annual Cyclopædia for uncle, but he quitted Cabool in disgust, and


Α. ABDURRAHMAN * KHAN, the uge in Bokhara, where he was well received. Ameer of Cabool, is a son of the Ameer At He remained there until after Shere Ali had zool Khan, who died in 1867, and a grandson of driven Azim Kban into English territory; Dost Mohammed, or, as the Afghans still call but when he found that Shere Ali, instead him, the “Great Ameer," who died in 1863. of following up his successes, was sunk in a Even before he was elevated to his present state of apathy at Candahar, he crossed the position, he was regarded as one of the most Oxus with an irregular force and easily esprominent among the numerous descendants tablished his authority in Balkh. Abdurrahof his distinguished grandfather. Of his early man's success north of the Hindoo Koosh did life little or nothing is known. He is said to not suffice to rouse Shere Ali to a sense of have been born about 1830, and to have taken the dangers which surrounded him. With Capart in the second campaign in the Punjaub, bool as well as Candahar in his possession, he when Akbar Khan crossed the Indus to aid remained apparently of opinion that the period the Sikhs. He did not come prominently for- for reëstablishing his authority in the outlying ward, however, until a much later period. In portions of the state might be deferred until a 1863, the death of his grandfather, Dost Mo more convenient season. Abdurrahman, who hammed, was the signal for the commence- measured the situation more correctly, struck ment of disturbances, which in the following hard and quick. In February, 1866, he had year declared themselves in a civil war. The been joined by his uncle Azim, and was in the first campaign between Shere Ali, whom Dost close neighborhood of Cabool, held at that time Mohammed had selected as his successor, and by Ibrahim, Shere Ali's second son. On the 2d the elder brother, Afzool Khan, Abdurrah- of March Cabool surrendered, and Azim was man's father, closed with the discomfiture of installed as temporary ruler. Soon after a Afzool, who was nothing loath after his defeat decided victory over Shere Ali's forces was to come to an understanding with his success. gained at Shekabad, of which the immediate fal brother. An agreement was accordingly consequences were the release of Afzool and arranged between them at Balkh, and, while the capture of Ghuznee. Afzool then became Afzool swore fealty to Shere Ali on the Koran, the recognized Ameer at Cabool, and his son the latter took a similar oath to spare Afzool's was looked upon as the Hotspur of the conlife. The arrangement was of short duration, federacy. His right to this title was shown owing chiefly, it is believed, to Abdurrahman, still more conclusively at the crowning victory wbo was utterly dissatisfied with the surren at Khelat-i-Ghilzai in the early part of 1867. der of his father's pretensions. At all events, Afzool, after being proclaimed Ameer at Balathe tranquillity of the camp of Balkh was soon Hissar, soon degenerated into a drunkard, and distarbed by the arrest of Afzool and the flight his death was precipitated, if not caused, by of Abdurrahman. While Shere Ali returned the excesses which he committed after his rewith his captive brother to Cabool to march lease from confinement. Azim also had beagainst other rebels, Abdurrahman sought ref- come a petty tyrant, who in the distribution

of the chief posts secured the most important A genealogical table of the family of Dost Mohammed, for himself and his son Surwar. After Afzool's wbieh shows the relation of Abdurrahman to the other mem

death there was a critical moment when it was bers of the family who are mentioned in the former and the

doubtful whether Abdurrahman would recogpersent volumes of the * Annual Cyclopædia," is given in the artice AFGHANISTAN. Wben first mentioned in the history of nize Azim as Ameer. He finally concluded, Der drei wars of his country, bis nace was frequently given however, to take the oath of allegiance to his

1971, p. 8.)

VOL. XI.-1 A

retired to Afghan Turkistan, with the admin- class of religious worshipers organized into istration of which he was intrusted. The churches and conferences, found in all the spreading discontent with Azim encouraged Northern States and California, excepting the Shere Ali to make another effort for the re- Rocky Mountain States, in several of the Southcovery of his rights with the aid of fresh ern States, and in the Canadas. They are more troops from Herat, and the then untried abili- numerous according to population in the New ties of his younger son Yakoob. Azim's son England States. Their ministry numbers more had to fly from Candahar, and it became neces than four hundred regular preachers, and their sary to collect all troops within reach. Ac- congregations over six hundred, many of the cordingly, Abdurrahman was summoned from ministers preaching to more than one congregaBalkh, and a severe defeat was inflicted upon tion. They are congregational in their church him by Yakoob. In the winter campaign of polity, and their conferences exercise no eccle1868 Abdurrahman was once more crushingly siastical jurisdiction over the churches, but are defeated by Yakoob at Tinah Khan. The civil advisory to them. They meet for worship on war closed with that battle. Azim and Ab- the first day of the week, teach justification by durrahman escaped, and the latter traveled faith, conversion and regeneration through the through the steppe of the Tekke Turkomans to Holy Spirit, the divinity of Jesus Christ, and Urgentch (Khiva). From that place he went atonement by his blood alone. Their distincon to Bokhara, whence he wrote to General tive tenets are, the present entire mortality of Kaufmann, requesting permission to reside in mankind, the unconscious state of the dead, the Russian territory. The request was granted, resurrection of the body a necessity to a future but all his efforts to obtain aid for reopening life, the personal second advent of the Saviour the war were firinly refused. The Russian soon to be revealed, immortality to be given to Government, however, accorded to him a pen- the righteous only at that time, the utter desion of 25,000 rubles a year (1 ruble 78 struction of the ungodly in the judgment-day, cents), and Mr. Schuyler has told us that for and the renewed earth the final and only promthe last nine years he has been living upon ised inheritance of the saints. They make Chrisone fifth of his allowance. He must conse tian character, and not denominational tenets, quently have saved during that period close the test of Christian fellowship, and practice upon 200,000 rubles, the significance of this baptism by immersion only. They teach no set fact consisting in the circumstance that in 1872 time as known by man for the second advent, he told General Kaufmann he could raise up though they have done so somewhat formerly an insurrection in Afghanistan if half that sum PUBLISHING AND Mission SocietIES.--The were given to him. Mr. Schuyler's descrip- largest organization of the Second Adventists tion of Abdurrahman conveys a favorable im as a denomination is that called The Second pression of his force of character. In Afghan- Advent Christian Association, which holds its istan proper his reputation after his flight to meetings annually and transacts business relatRussia appeared to have paled before that of ing to gospel work by this people. This ashis cousin Yakoob, but it always remained sociation is formed of delegates sent from the considerable in Turkistan from Balkh to Ba- various conferences, each conference being endakshan. As governor, he is remembered as titled to one delegate, and to an additional delethe best of the last generation. As soldier, the gate for every three hundred church-members Uzbecks took a personal interest in his suc within its limits. This association was organcesses and sympathized with him on his de- ized A. D. 1860, has been somewhat modified feats, for it was they who fought and bled since then to suit its increasing work, and held under him. An additional motive was given its last annual meeting in Chelsea, Mass., in the for their affection by his marriage with the Advent Christian church, commencing Tuesdaughter of Jehandir Shah, ex-chief of Ba- day, August 17, 1880. Elder E. A. Stockman, dakshan. (A full account of his movements in of Chelsea, Mass., was elected President; Elder 1880 is given in the article AFGHANISTAN.) E. McCulloch, of Nevada, O., Vice-President; His twelve years' residence in Russian terri- Elder Frank Burr, of Portland, Me., Secretary; tory has made Abdurrahman quite different and Ozias Goodrich, of Boston, Mass., Business from all other Afghan princes. He has Agent. Nine members at large were elected a learned to write and dictate his own letters, Board of Directors, and these with the officers and to act and to think for himself without constitute a Board of Managers for the year, the dangerous aid of a crafty confidant. ller The association also controls and elects offi mann Vambéry, who is generally regarded as cers for a society formed of its adherents, and the best living authority on the affairs of Cen- called the Advent Christian Publishing Society, tral Asia, regards the installation of Abdur- the object of which is to issue a weekly religious rahman (“ Allgemeine Zeitung," June 3, 1880) paper called “The World's Crisis," also to pubas fraught with danger for the English' inter- lish and keep for sale tracts and books on reliests in India.

gions subjects. Officers for the present fiscal ADVENT CHRISTIAN CHURCH, com- year, Elder S. G. Mathewson, of Westfield, monly called Second Adventists. The name Mass., President; Elder Frank Burr, Secretary; Advent Christian is the more common church O. Goodrich, Treasurer and Business Agent. designation. This denomination embraces a There is also an Editorial Committee of three,





or Mah


Shinwaris or


From the sources of the Gomal

as far as the source..

and a Publishing Committee of five, who with The Afghans proper comprise, according to the officers form the society for the year. This Keene, the following principal tribes : society also publishes a semi-monthly Sundayschool paper, called " The Young Pilgrim,” of

Territory. which Elder C. E. Barnes, of Salem, Mass., is Editor. There is also a society called The

Durani or Between Herat and Candahar, also American Advent Mission Society, Elder Miles Abdali. 1 in Caboolistan..

800,000 Grant, President; and Elder A. W. Sibley, See- Khujiani.... Principally in the district of Jelala

50,000 retary. This society attends to mission-work

Between the Cabool River in the in sending tracts and books to various locali- Ghilzai or north, the Suleiman Mountains


in the east, the Gulkoh Mounties and furnishing funds for missionary work.


tains in the west, Khelat-i-GhilTents are used by the missionaries in the warm

1 zai and Poti in the south....

Mountains north of Peshawer and season, and thus many are induced to hear who

Yusafzai.... in the Yusafzai district of the 700,000 would not otherwise be reached. The Second

Peshawer country.. Advent Christians also hold camp-meetings in

Mountains northwest of Peshaw

er, between the rivers Cabool and 40,000 various parts of the country, those at Springfield,

mandzai .. Swat: chief place, Lalpura.. Mass., and Alton Bay, N. H., being the most

Extreme southeastern corner of

200,000 noted. The latter is said to be the largest camp

Afghanistan proper..

Southeastern part of the Peshawer meeting in the country, the attendance at one Khataks.... country, south and east of Ko 100,000

hat.. time being reported as numbering 30,000 people.

Mountains north of Peshawer, beThere are other publication interests among Utman Khel tween the Mohmands and Yu 80,000 this people, onder different forms of organization, but pushed with commendable zeal and Bangash.... Miranzae, Kohat, and Kuram val


100,000 interest. ** The Bible Banner" is a religious

Lower and eastern offshoots of the Weekly under the control of a society of stock

Sefid Koh, west and south of the

Afreodees... Peshawer country with the 90,000 holders, called The Bible Banner Association.

Bara Valley, and parts of the
It is mostly supported by Second Advent Chris-

Tchura and Tira valleys...
Turis....... Kuram valley.,

80,000 tians, and reports many of their conference

Parts of the Khyber Mountains, doings, yet claiming to seek an undenomina

the eastern valleys of the Setid 50,000 tional standing. Its doctrines advocated are the

Koh, on the frontier of Bayawar. same as those herein noted as peculiar to the


southward, along the western Second Adventists.

side of the Suleiman Mountains

50,000 A society of Second Adventists, called The

Suleiman Mountains, from Thalas? Life and Advent Union, also publishes a weekly

far as the Gomal Pass........

250,000 religious paper at Springfield, Mass., called "The Herald of Life." It gives prominence to the The following genealogical table of the dydoctrine of the non-resurrection (so called) of nasty ruling in Afghanistan will show the rethe unconverted dead, a doctrine honestly held lationship existing between the princes who by a small portion of the Second Adventists, but have been prominent in the history of the wars not favored by the societies before mentioned. and disturbances since the death of Dost Mo

The namber of Second Advent Christians in hammed, and who are mentioned in the presthe United States and Canadas cooperating ent and in former volumes of the “Annual Cywith these mentioned institutions is estimated clopædia": to be upward of 30,000.

Dost Mohammed, Ameer of Afghanistan, died 1863, at the AFGHANISTAN, a Mohammedan country age of ninety-two, left thirty-two sons, of whom seven were in Central Asia; area about 278,000 square

living in 1880. miles, or 721,664 square kilometres; the population has hitherto been estimated at about Akbar, Afzool, Shere Ali, Azim, Mohammed 4,000,000. The territory of Afghanistan will

command Ameer


er of the 1866, died be somewhat diminished by the execution of


Afghan the Gundamuk treaty of May, 1879 (see “ An army in the

1868-1879, nual Cyclopædia " for 1879, page 10), but to


died 1879.

campaign. what extent, has not yet been officially calculated. Mr. A. H. Keene bas published careful researches on the population of Afghanistan



appointed Ameer (in “ Nature," January 22, 1880), according to of Cabool in 1850. which the total population is at least 6,145,000. He distingaishes according to the nationality

Mohammed, Ibrahim. Yakoob, Ayoob, of the inhabitants:

died 1865.

Ameer 1879. Governor

of Herat. Afghans and Pathans (Iranians).

8.520,000 Tajiks (Persians] (Iranians)....

1,000,000 Hindkls (Hindoo“)..

500,000 The Viceroy of India gave a state banquet Hazaras and Aimaks (Mongol-Tartars).


on New Year's day of 1880, at which he made Kataghans (Uzbecks) (Turki).. Badakshis (Galtshen)...

a speech reviewing the events of the year. Boboches (Iranians). .


Speaking with reference to the situation in Af. Kizil-Bash (Turki).

50,000 ghanistan, he said that India had gained on its


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Ameer 1867, died murdered

1869. 1879,







Kolistasis and Siah Posh (Galtshen)..

most exposed frontier an established military he went into the northern parts of the counline of defense, which he trusted it would nev- try, while his colleague, the mollah Mooshkier surrender, for its value had been severely Alim, departed in another direction. The oftested and clearly recognized. The anxiety fice of military governor of Cabool was disconfelt concerning the crisis which the British tinued, and the Wali Mohammed Khan was forces had recently passed through at Cabool appointed civil governor. Mohammed Hassan was natural but not altogether reasonable. Khan, former Afghan governor of Jelalabad, The Indian Government had been charged with joined Mohammed Jan at Ghuznee, and afterwant of foresight in not doubling the strength ward went into the Logar Valley for the purof Sir F. Roberts's force, but such an act would pose of arousing the local chiefs and preventhave been unwise; it would have quadrupled ing their submitting to General Roberts. Moall the difficulties and delays in reaching Ca- hammed Jan caused to be circulated among the bool, and would have left the troops there ex- Kohistani chiefs a forged letter purporting to posed to infinitely greater perils. In a memo- have come from Ayoob Khan at Herat, saying randum written by the late Duke of Welling- that he had captured Candahar and driven the ton on the conditions of Afghan warfare, which English to defend themselves behind breasthad been given him, supreme importance was works. The Kohistanis declared that they attached by the writer to the fact that the num were prepared to fight if the English invaded bers of a force operating in Afghanistan must their country, but would not at present renew always be strictly limited in exact relation to the attack upon Shirpoor. General Roberts, the carefully ascertained means and conditions previous to his intended advance in March, sent of supply. Sir F. Roberts had succeeded in Mustaufi Habiboollah, who had been Minister collecting supplies sufficient to place his entire of Finance under Shere Ali, and Yakoob Khan force beyond the risk of danger. The General as a messenger to Mohammed Jan and other malwell knew wherein his real strength lay, and content leaders with letters to the effect that neither he nor his garrison ever felt the slight- the British Government was disposed to accept est anxiety. The new year, the Viceroy added, as ruler for Cabool any sirdar (with certain opened under happier auspices and with more exceptions) whom the assembled representahopeful auguries than the old had done; but tives of the nation might choose. In Februthe work of the soldiers in Afghanistan was ary nearly all the representatives of the dominot yet over, nor could it be relinquished or nant and reigning branch of the Barakzai tribe relaxed till its object was fully attained. were at Cabool with General Roberts. Among

The situation at Cabool was complicated them were five of the seven surviving sons of during December, 1879, by the appearance of Dost Mohammed, with their families, and most large bodies of hostile tribes who speedily pos- of the numerous nephews, grandsons, and sessed themselves of advantageous points, cut grand-nephews of that chief. Of bis sons, off communications, and held the British forces Nek Mohammed was the only one against the for a few days in a critical position. General English; only three of his grandsons were Roberts collected his forces within the Shir- absent; and the only able counselor of Shere poor cantonment. The enemy attacked him Ali and Yakoob Khan, Mustaufi Habiboollah, there at daylight on the 23d of December, but was working heartily in the interest of the the British were ready for them. The engage- British. The attempt of the English to come ment continued through the greater part of to an understanding with Mohammed Jan was, the day, and ended in the complete dispersion however, unsuccessful. The British Governor of the Afghans and the final deliverance of the was driven from Kohistan in February, unable city from the danger which had threatened it. to resist the insurgents, who had occupied a

At the beginning of January, 1880, General number of villages. Peace, however, still preRoberts had made good his position in Cabool, vailed at Candahar, where the adıninistration and was engaged in strengthening the Shir- of General Stewart was attended with almost poor cantoninents and constructing block- continuous tranquillity from the beginning. houses on the hills to command the city and The British constantly endeavored to conthe Candabar and Peshawer roads. Order ciliate the people, and to satisfy them that their was restored in and around Cabool, the popu- designs respecting the country were moderate. lation began to return, and an amnesty was The sirdars were told at an interview held with published, from the benefits of which the lead- them by a British agent, Mr. Lepel Griffin, and ers in the resistance that had been offered to again on the 13th of April, at a durbar which the British forces were excepted. Other chiefs was attended by the principal chiefs who had cowent out to plot against the British and excite operated with Mohammed Jan at Ghuznee, and the tribes to a renewal of hostilities against who had come up to Cabool from Maidan for them. Among them was Mobammed Jan, who, the purpose, that no permanent annexation of when driven from beneath the walls of the the country was intended unless of parts that Shirpoor cantonments in the battles of Decem- were necessary for the defense of the frontier ; ber, 1879, had taken with him, it was believed, that Yakoob Khan would not be allowed to rea large quantity of ammunition and treasure. turn; that the Government was ready to apLeaving the young Ameer Moosa Khan, son point any chief whom they might select to be of Yakoob Khan, in safe keeping at Ghuznee, Ameer at Cabool, provided he was friendly to

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