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.:49. Before I conclude the subject on public justice, I cannot omit to mention the obligations this country is under to that meritorious class of veterans, the non-commis. fioned officers and privates, who have been discharged for inability, in consequence of the resolution of congress, of the 23d of April, 1782, on an annual pension for life.
50. Their peculiar sufferings, their fingular merits and claims to that provision, need only to be known, to interest the feelings of humanity in their behalf.
51. Nothing but a punctual payment of their annual allowance, can rescue them from the most complicated misery; and nothing could be a more melancholy and distressing fight, than to behold those who have shed their blood, or loit their limbs in the service of their country, without a shelter, without a friend, and without the means of obtaining any of the comforts or necessaries of life, compelled to beg their bread daily from door to door. Suffer me to re. commend those of this description, belonging to your state, to the warmest patronage of your excellency and your legislature. ;
52. It is necessary to say but a few words on the third topic which was proposed, and which regards particularly the defence of the republic-as there can be little doubt but congress will recommend a proper peace establishment for the United States, in which a due attention will be paid to the importance of placing the militia of the Union upon a regular and refpectable footing. If this should be the case, I should beg leave to urge the great advantage of it in the strongest terms.
53. The militia of this country must be considered as the palladium of our security, and the first effectual resort in case of hostility. It is essential, therefore, that the same system should pervade the whole ; that the formation and discipline of the militia of the continent should be absolute, ly uniform ; and that the same species of arms, accoutrements, and military apparatus, Ihould be introduced in every part of the United States.
54. No one, who has not learned it from experience, can conceive the difficulty, expense and confusion, which refult from a contrary lyttem, or the vague arrangements which have hitherto prevailed.
55. If, in treating of political points, a greater latitude than usual has been taken in the course of the address; the importance of the crisis, and the magnitude of the objects in discussion, must be my apology.
56. It is, however, neither my wish nor expectation, that the preceding observations should claim any regard, except so far as they fhall appear to be dictated by a good intention, confonant to the immutable rules of justice ; calcu. lated to produce a liberal system of policy, and founded on whatever experience may have been acquired, by a long and close attention to public business.
57. Here I might speak with more confidence, from my actual observations, and if it would not swell this letter, (already too prolix,) beyond the bounds I had prescribed myself, I could demonstrate to every mind, open to convic. tion, that in less time, and with much less expense chan has been incurred, the war might have been brought to the same happy conclusion, if the resources of the continent
could have been properly called forth; 1: 58. That the distresses and disappointments which have
very often occurred, have, in too many instances, resulted more from a want of energy in the continental government, than a deficiency of means in the particular states ;
59. That the inefficacy of the measures, arising from the want of an adequate authority in the supreme power, from a partial compliance with the requifitions of congress, ' in some of the states, and from a failure of punctuality in others, while they tended to damp the zeal of those who were more willing to exert themselves, served also to accumulate the expenses of the war, and to frustrate the best concerted plans;
60. And that the discouragement occafioned by the complicated difficulties and embarrassments, in which our affairs were by this means involved, would have long ago produced the dissolution of any army, less patient, less virtuous, and less persevering, than that which I have had the honor to command.
61. But while I mention those things which are notorious facts, as the defects of our federal constitution, particularly in the prosecution of a war, I beg it may be understood, that as I have ever taken a pleasure in gratefully ac
knowledging the assistance and support I have derived from every class of citizens ; so shall I always be happy to do justice to the unparalleled exertions of the individual states, on many interesting occasions.
62. I have thus freely difclosed what I wished to make known, before I surrendered up my public trust to thofe who comınitted it to me. The task is now accomplished ; I now bid adieu to your excellency, as the chief magistrate of your state ; at the same time I bid a last farewell to the cares of office, and all the employments of public life.
63. It remains, then, to be my final and only request, that your excellency will communicate these sentiments to your legislature, at their next meeting ; and that they may be considered as the legacy of one who has ardently wished, on all occasions, to be useful to his country, and who, even in the shade of retirement, will not fail to implore the divine benediction upon it.
64. I now make it my earnest prayer, that God would have you, and the state over which you preside, in his holy protection ; that he would incline the hearts of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to government ; to entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another ; for their fellow-citizens of the United States at large, and particularly for their brethren who have served in the field ;
65. And, finally, that he would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, and pacific temper of the mind, which were the characteristics of the divine author of our blessed religion ; without an humble imitation of whose example, in these things, we can never hope to be a happy nation.
66. I have the honor to be, with much esteem and refpect, fir, your excellency's most obedient and most humble servant,
.....: GEO: WASHINGTON.
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
1. WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this conttitution for the United States of America.
.: ARTICLE FIRST. [I.]
SECTION first. [1.] 2. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a congress of the United States, which shall confiit of a fenate and house of representatives.
&; SECTION SECOND. [2.] 3. The house of representatives shall consist of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.
4. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.'
5. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states, which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to serve for a term of years, and exe cluding indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct.
6. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thoufand, but each state shall have at least one representative ; and till such enumeration shall be made, the state of New-Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York fix, New Jersey four,
Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland fix, Virginia ten, North-Carolina five, South-Carolina five, and Georgia three.
7. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers ; and shall have the fole power of impeachment.
SECTION THIRD. T3.1 8. The fenate of the United States Mall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for fix years ; and each senator shall have one vote.
9. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three claffes. The feats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year ; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the *recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments till the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
10. No person shall be a senator who shall not have at. tained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a cit. izen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen. The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally
divided. . 11. The fenate shall choose their other officers, and al
so a president pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-prefident, or when he shall exercise the office of president of the United States.
12. The senate shall have the sole power to try all im. peachments. When fitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside : and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. .
13. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend