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be still a rampart, and the knowledge that he lives a bulwark against all open. or secret enemies of his country's peace.
18. This example has been recommended to the imita. tion of his fucceffors, by both houses of congress, and by the voice of the legislatures and the people, throughout the nation. On this fubject it might become me beïter to be silent, or to speak with disidence : but as something may be expected, the occafion, I hope, will be admitted as an apology, if I venture to say, that
19. If, a preference, on principle, of a free republican government, formed on long and serious reflection, after a diligent and impartial inquiry after truth; if, an attachment to the constitution of the United States, and a consci.. entious determination to support it, till it shall be altered by the judgments and wishes of the people, expressed in the mode preferibed in it ;
20. If, a respectful attention to the constitutions of the individual states, and a constant caution and delicacy towards the state governments ; if, an equal and impartial re. gard to the rights, interests, honor aud happinefs of all the Itates in the union, without preference or regard to a northern or fouthern, an eastern or western position, their various political opinions on unessential points, or their personal attachments i
21. If a love of virtuous men of all parties and denominations ; if a love of science and letters, and a wish to patronize every rational effort to encourage fchools, colleges, univerfities, academies, and every institution for propagat-, ing knowledge, virtue and religion among all classes of the people :
22. Not only for their benign influence on the happiness of life, in all its stages and classes, and of society in all its forms ; but as the only means of preserving our constitu. tion from its natural enemies, the spirit of fophiftry, the spirit of party, the fpiri: of intrigue, the profligacy of corruption, and the peftilence of foreign influence, which is the angel of destruction to elective governments ;
23. If a love of equal laws, of justice and humanity, in the interior administration ; if an inclination to improve agriculture, commerce and manufactures for neceflity, coile
venience and defence ; if a spirit of equity and humanity towards the aboriginal nations of America, and a difpofition to meliorate their condition, by inclining them to be more friendly to us, and our citizens to be more friendly to them ;
24. If an inflexible determination to maintain peace and inviolable faith, with all nations, and that system of neutral. ity and impartiality, among the belligerent powers of Europe, which has been adopted by this government, and so folemnly fanctioned by both houses of congress, and applauded by the legislatures of the states, and the public opinion, till it shall be otherwise ordained by congress ;
25. If a personal esteem for the French nation, formed in a residence of seven years, chiefly among them, and a fincere desire to preserve the friendship which has been so much for the honor and interest of both nations ; if, while the conscious honor and integrity of the people of America, and the internal sentiment of their own power and energies must be preserved, an earnest endeavor to investigate every just cause and remove every colorable pretence of complaint;
26. If an intention to pursue, by amicable negociation, a reparation for the injuries that have been committed on the commerce of our fellow citizens by whatever nation ; and if success cannot be obtained, to lay the facts before the legislature, that they may confider, what further measures the honor and interest of the government and its constituents demand ;
27. If a resolution to do justice, as far as may depend on me, at all times and to all nations, and maintain peace, friendship and benevolence with all the world ; if an unsha. ken confidence in the honor, fpirit, and resources of the Aamerican people, on which I have fo often hazarded my all, and never been deceived ;
28. If, elevated ideas of the high deftinies of this country, and of my own duties towards it, founded on a knowledge of the moral principles and intellectual improvements of the people, deeply engraven on my mind in early life, and not obscured but exalted by experience and age ;
29. And, with humble reverence I feel it to be my du. ty to add, if, a veneration for the religion of a peeple, who profefs and call themselves christians, and a fixed resolution to consider a decent respect for christianity, among the best recommendations for the public fervice ; can enable me, in any degree to comply with your wishes, it shall be my ftren, uous endeavor that this fagacious injunction of the two houses shall not be without effect.
30. With this great example before me ; with the sense and spirit, the faith and honor, the duty and interest of the fame American people, pledged to support the constitution of the United States, I entertain no doubt of its continuance in all its energy, and my mind is prepared, without hesitation, to lay myself under the most folemn obligations to support it, to the utmost of my power.
31. And may that Being, who is fupreme over all, the patron of order, the fountain of justice, and the protector, in all ages of the world, of virtuous liberty, continue his blessing on this nation and its government, and give it all poffible success and duration, conlistent with the ends of his providence.
JOHN ADAMS. United States, March 4, 1797.
DECLARATION of independence,