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cients were located by tradition in the distant and freights, on the payment of just compenparts of Upper Ethiopia. The Dokkos, another sation to the owner of the railroad for such tribe of people of low stature, living in the transportation; and any person or corporation southern part of Abyssinia, may be related to engaged in the business of transporting passenthe Akkas. These are described by Schwein- gers or freights over any railroad in this State, furth as a race which never attain a greater who shall exact and receive for any such transheight than five feet. Their lower face pro- portation more than just compensation for the trudes to a remarkable degree. Their hands services rendered, or demands more than the and feet are small. They are very active in rates specified in any bill of lading issued by their habits, and use the bow and the lance such person or corporation, or who for his or its with great skill in hunting the elephant. advantage or for the advantage of any connectThe country of the Akkas lies south of the ing line, or of any person or locality, shall Welle River, beyond Monbuttu-land and the make any unjust discrimination in transportacountry of the Niam-Niams (see “Geographi- tion against any individual, locality, or corporacal Progress and Discovery'). From recent tion, shall be guilty of extortion; and in every accounts it appears that the stature of the Ak case it shall be for the jury to determine, from kas has been somewhat understated, and that all the evidence, whether more than just comtheir average height is greater than that of pensation was exacted and received, or whether the Hottentots. They are not warlike, and any such discrimination in transportation which are in danger of extinction from the aggres. may be established by the evidence against the sions of their neighbors. Two Akka children individual, locality, or corporation, as the case who were brought to Europe by Miani have may be, was made for the benefit or advantage displayed a fair degree of intelligence.
of the person or corporation operating such ALABAMA. Some important measures railroad, or of any person or locality : provided, were passed at the session of the Legislature that nothing in this act shall be construed to held at the beginning of the year. A colored prevent contracts for special rates for the purnormal school was established at Tuskeegee. pose of developing any industrial enterprise, or An act was passed providing for the incorpora- to prevent the execution of any such contract tion of banks of discount and deposit. They now existing.” are authorized to carry on the business of In all suits for extortion, the plaintiff may banking, by discounting bills and notes, re recover twice the amount of damages sustained, ceiving and paying out deposits, buying and and also a reasonable fee for his counsel. The selling gold and silver bullion, foreign coins party proved guilty of the extortion inay be and foreign and domestic bills of exchange and fined not less than ten or more than five huncommercial securities, bonds and stocks, by dred dollars. It was also provided that a lending money upon bonds, stocks, and person- board of railroad commissioners should be esal security, and upon unincumbered real prop- tablished, wliose duty it should be to consider erty, and by exercising such incidental powers, and carefully revise all tariffs of charges for not in conflict with the laws of the State or of transportation submitted to the commission by the United States, as are necessary to carry on any person or corporation owning or operating its business. The capital stock may be any a railroad in this State ; and if, in the judgsum not less than fifty thousand or more than ment of the commission, any such charge is five hundred thousand dollars.
more than just compensation for the service Any one who carries about his person a for which it is proposed to be made, or if any bowie-knife, or any other knife or instrument such charges amount to unjust discrimination of like kind or description, or a pistol, or fire- against any person, locality, or corporation, the arms of any other kind or description, or any commission shall notify the party submitting air-gun, must be fined on conviction not less the same of the changes necessary to reduce than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars, the rate of charges to just compensation, and and may also be imprisoned in the county jail, to avoid unjust discriinination;. when such or sentenced to hard labor for the county for changes are made by the party submitting the not more than six months: provided, that tariff, or when none are deemed proper and evidence that the defendant has good reason to expedient, the members of the commission apprehend an attack may be admitted in the shall append a certificate of its approval to mitigation of the punishment or in justification such tariff of charges. of the offense.
It was further made the duty of the commisThe sum of one hundred thousand dollars sioners to hear all complaints made by any was appropriated for the construction of an person against any such tariff of rates so apadditional building for the accommodation of proved, on the ground that the same, in any the insane at Tuscaloosa.
respect, is for more than just compensation, or The rate of the State tax was fixed at six and that such charges, or any of them, amount to, one half tenths of one per centum.
or operate so as to effect unjust discrimination ; It was declared by the Legislature that “the such complaint must be in writing, and specify main track of every railroad in this State is a the items in the tariff against which complaint public highway, over which all persons have is made ; and if it appears to the commission equal rights of transportation for passengers that there may be justice in the complaint, or
that the matter ought to be investigated, the trouble is, to determine what is, just compencommission shall forth with furnish to the person sation or unjust discrimination. or corporation operating the railroad a copy The Legislature has the power to determine of the complaint, together with notice that, at this matter by positive statute, as is done in a time and place stated in the notice, the tariff the case of mills grinding for toll
, ferries, tollas to said items will be revised by the commis- bridges, turnpikes, and the like; but the variasion; and at such time and place it shall be the tions in the measure of just compensation, and duty of the commission to hear the parties to not unjust discrimination, in railroad transporthe controversy or by counsel, and such evi- tation, render the exercise of this power of dence as may be offered, oral or in writing, fixing rates by positive statute impracticable. and may examine witnesses on oath, conform It was made the duty of county health ing to the mode of proceedings, as nearly as boards to supervise the public health, and may be convenient, required of arbitrators, through their health officer to collect full vital giving such time and latitude to each side, statistics of their county. and regulating the opening and conclusion of A tramp was defined to be any person who any argument, as the commission may con goes from place to place or house to house, sider best adapted to arrive at the truth ; and begging or demanding food, raiment, lodging, when the hearing is concluded, the commission or other thing of value, without employment shall give notice of any changes deemed proper or other visible means of support. It was by them to be made, to the person or corpora- further provided that the act of begging, or tion operating the railroad.
vagrancy, by any person having no known The serious nature of the litigation against residence within this State, shall be prima railroads, under a complaint of extortion, is facie evidence that the person committing the such that those best informed on the subject same is a tramp. adınit that, if the roads were subject to it unre As a punishment, or rather to exclude them strained, it would effectually destroy the value from the State, it was provided that any perof their property. The act, therefore, seeks to son convicted of being a tramp shall be fined provide a proper measure of protection to the for the first offense not less than fifty nor more railroads by authorizing them to submit their than two hundred dollars, and shall be sentenced tariffs to the commission, and when such tar- to bard labor for the county for not less than iffs have been conformed to what, in the judg- six nor more than twelve months, and, on a ment of the commission, is the measure of just second conviction for such offense, shall be compensation, without unjust discrimination, fined not less than one hundred nor more than the commission shall approve them. This ap- five hundred dollars, and sentenced to hard proval by the commission does not make the labor for the county not less than one nor more tariff tbus approved absolutely binding, either than two years; and for each subsequent conon the public or the railroads; but it so far viction shall be fined and sentenced as for the protects the railroads as to relieve them while second conviction. acting under such approved tariff from all The act for the apportionment of representaliability except for actual damage, and gives tives made a small change in only four counthem the right, if successful in a suit for extor- ties, which merely gained or lost a member. tion in respect to such charges, to recover a The number of representatives is one hunlawyer's fee from the plaintiff, and the ap- dred. proval of the commission is prima facie evidenco There were 996 bills introduced in the in behalf of the railroad that the tariff is not Ilouse, of which 221 became laws, and one was extortionate.
vetoed by the Governor. The object and effect of these provisions are In the Senate there were about 460 bills and to leave it to a jury to determine in the last petitions introduced, 129 of which became resort what is just between the people and the laws. railroads. The railroads, in so far as they are
It will be seen that there were some 1,456 private property, are entitled to the same meas- bills introduced, and only 350, or not quite ure of protection precisely as other property; one fourth, were enacted into laws. Some and, in so far as they are public highways, the failed for want of time to consider them, while right of the public to use them is equally sacred. others were defeated in one branch or the These respective rights, of the success of the other of the Legislature. railroad on the one hand, and of the public on Of the laws passed, forty-four are general, the other, meet at just compensation, without fifty-four are amendments of the Code of 1876, unjust discrimination, for the service rendered and the remainder are local or special in their in transportation. Whenever the railroads are nature, including sixty acts for the prevention required to transfer freight or passengers for or regulation of the sale of spirituous liquors. less than just compensation, the rights of the The adjournment took place early in the month owners of the railroads are violated; and, on of March. the other hand, when the railroads charge The latest report of the condition of the more than just compensation, or make any Educational Department is for 1880. The total unjust discrimination in transportation, they revenue for the year was $397,465.35—the trespass upon the rights of the public. The largest items being the annual appropriation of
$130,000, the poll-tax retained by the counties general average for white and black combined for the townships and race paying it, $124,597.- being 80 days. 08, and interest on the sixteenth-section fund, The State Penitentiary, at the latest report, $105,082.66. The principal apportionments of contained 540 convicts, of whom only 44 are the fund were, for the normal schools, $13,500; kept within the walls. to school districts, $258,099.52, and of course The convicts for the most part are hired to the net poll-tax, as above indicated. Teachers miners and farmers, most of them at $5 per of white schools got $203,681.46; of colored month. These are the first-class hands. There schools, $153,911.13; and county superintend- is a second class that bring only $2.50, and a few ents got $11,871.92. The white Normal who are let for their “victuals and clothes." School at Florence received $7,500; the col- The report shows, however, that as fast as the ored Normal at Marion, $1,000 ; and the col- $5 contracts expire new ones are made at $8 ored Normal at Huntsville, $2,000. Each one per month. It is worth noting here that the of those schools is represented as doing well, sum of $45,000 has been paid into the State having made considerable improvements over Treasury during the two years. Within the former years. The white Normal at Florence five years, under the present system, $81,000 reports on its catalogue for the year 201 pupils, have been paid into the Treasury, $36,000 of and there has not been a case of serious sick State bonds canceled, besides building the ness during the entire year, which closed un- Wetumpka Branch Railroad, worth $12,921.20, der circumstances gratifying to the friends of and making repairs and improvements on buildthe institution. Indeed, such a degree of pros- ings and grounds worth $12,200. Under the perity and popularity has it attained that it new contracts, the income to the State will be was found necessary to enlarge the accommo- largely increased. Under the old law, it cost dations for an increased number of pupils. per capita about $59 for transporting conConnected with the institution, eight teachers victs to the penitentiary; now it costs about are reported. While music is taught as in other $1.70. institutions, to those who desire to take lessons, Out of the 540 convicts, there is but one the whole school is required to join the vocal solitary white woman. This lone one is thirtymusic class, and the board expresses satisfaction five years old, and was sentenced to a term of at the pleasing effect of this feature of the insti- three years, for adultery. tution. The Florence Normal School, present The number of white male convicts is only and prospective, has never been in so prosper. 69. The colored male convicts are 450, and ous and pleasant estate. There are 100 of its colored females 20. There are some children old pupils engaged in teaching in the State, and among the colored convicts, the youngest bemany more are ready and waiting.
ing ten years, and is sentenced to seven years The Lincoln Normal University, at Marion, for manslaughter. There is one twelve, one is reported to be in a flourishing condition. thirteen, one fourteen, and quite a number The number of pupils was 140—76 fernales ranging from fourteen to twenty. The oldest and 64 males. Such has been the increase in convict is seventy-five; he is in for manthe number of pupils, that an enlargement of slaughter, for five years. There is one seventythe building has become an absolute necessity. two years old, and is in for two years for assault The report shows five teachers connected with with intent to murder. The life-sentences are the school.
51. The table of previous occupations of conThe Huntsville Normal School (colored) is victs shows 489 laborers, 9 cooks, 8 carpenters, also reported in a flourishing condition, the av 7 house-servants, 6 farmers, 3 blacksmiths, 2 erage attendance of pupils being larger than that engineers, 2 shoemakers, i hotel-keeper, 1 of any previous year. Professor William H. baker, 1 machinist, 1 jeweler, 1 brick-mason, Council, one of the most intelligent men of his 1 teamster, 1 sailor, 1 musician, 1 dentist, 1 race in the State, is the principal of this school. painter, 1 school-master, 1 horse-trainer, 1 He has three assistant teachers. The average timber-worker, and only 1 doctor. The docpaid teachers, per month, was—white, $20.96; tor is in for life, for murder. The table of nacolored, $23.62; the average of pupils to teacher tivity shows: Alabama, 338; Georgia, 44; and was—whites, 33; colored, 46. The number of the balance scattered, 3 being put down to white schools was 3,085, colored 1,512—total, England, 2 to Germany, and 1 each to Ireland, 4,597. Number of white male teachers, 1,864; Switzerland, and Canada. The crime which is number of white female, 1,230—total, 3,094. most largely represented is barglary. There Colored teachers, male, 1,030; colored female, are 170 burglars. Grand larceny and murder 441—total colored, 1,521. The total number stand next on the list, there being 106 names of teachers was 4,615. Reading, writing, and under each of these heads. In former times spelling were the principal branches taught. horse-stealing showed the largest number of
The total school population was, white, 217,- convicts, but that does not seem so popular a 320; colored, 170,449—total, 387,769. Number business as formerly, there being only one of enrolled wbites, 107,483 ; colored, 72,007— horse-thief. There are quite a number for total, 179,490. Average attendance of white rape, and a few for arson, and nearly every was 67,794; colored, 50,184. Average length other crime has one or more representatives. of white schools in days, 83; colored, 67; the In the tables touching the conduct of the sev.
eral convicts, it is put down for the most part mer, with warm rains, and a warm, unclouded as“good.” Out of 53 employed by the New- fall, which perfectly ripens while thoroughly castle Coal Company, the conduct of every developing sweetness. The amount of taxes one is reported “good.” Out of 46 employed received into the State Treasury for the year by C. T. Pollard, only 2 "bad" are reported for ending September 30, 1981, was $562,500. the two years. Out of 87 employed by Colo- This sum consisted entirely of taxes on real nel T. Williams, the report for the two years and personal estate. About one half the shows 28 " bad.” The number of deaths dur- amount was paid by the eleven counties of ing the two years was 60; number escaped, Montgomery, Dallas, Mobile, Lowndes, Hale, 26; number discharged by the expiration of Bullock, Wilcox, Perry, Pike, Marengo, and sentence, 274; number pardoned, 29. Among Lee. The board for the assessment of the railthe deaths was one suicide. A necessity has road property in the State increased the valualso arisen for the enlargement of the Insane ation over the preceding year by $2,068,695. Asylum, and the Legislature appropriated for The amount of additional revenue which the that object $50,000 for two years.
State will receive from this increase is $13,446. The supply of coal and iron in the State is The assessment made for 1877 was $10,627,comparatively inexhaustible. During the last 559. For the year 1878 it was $10,297,023. ten years the iron industry has increased about For the year 1879 it was $11,023,389. For 700 per cent. The production of coal has also the year 1880 it was $14,526,769, and for the increased with great rapidity. In 1874, 49,889 year 1881 it is $16,595,462. In the last three tons were mined; in 1878, 194,268; in 1879, years, therefore, the tax valuation of the rail200,000 tons; while in 1880 the aggregate ran road property of the State has increased very up to 340,000 tons. This growth has been nearly 60 per cent. The amount of revenue made in the face of many obstacles, the chief the State will derive from the roads this year of which was the want of railroad facilities, and will be $120,271, which is about one sixth of a general impoverishment of the people by the the entire sum derived from taxation on proplosses of the war. The value of the output in erty. If all other property in this State was 1880 was $2,000,000, while it is believed the taxed as near to its value as the railroads, the year 1881 will show a product in Alabama of revenue would be much larger than it is, and $3,000,000. In various localities of the State there would be no difficulty in lessening the the manufacturing industry is rapidly increas- rate of taxation. ing, and the abundant water-power brought The population of the State, according to into use.
Numerous cotton-mills have been the census of 1880, divided into several classes, constructed and are in operation; likewise oil- has not yet been fully compiled at the Census works, blast-furnaces, etc. The number of Office. The following is the population by spindles used in cotton manufacture in the counties. State is 55,072, and the number of bales of
Population. | COUNTIES. Population. cotton used during the census year was 14,887. Autauga..
25,114 The acreage of cotton in the State during the Baldwin...
28,272 Barbour.. 33,979 Lamar
12,142 same year was 2,329,577 acres, and the num
9.467 | Lauderdale.
21,085 ber of bales made by the crop was 699,576,
15,369 Lawrence which is an increase of 62.9 per cent, or 270,
19,649 Limestone 094 bales, over the crop of 1870, that amounted Calhoun
51,176 to 429,482 bales. There are 32,000,000 acres
17,871 of land in the State, of which about 14,961,- Chilton
87,625 10,793 Marengo.
80,890 175 acres are in farms, 5,082,204 are under Choctaw
9,864 cultivation, 9,878,971, owned by individuals,
48,653 lying idle for want of some one to cultivate Cleburne.
10,976 | Monroe
17,091 them, and 5,200,000 acres of government lands, Coffee.
52,856 16,153 Morgan.
16,428 which yield no taxes. Continuous effort is
80,741 made to have the Legislature publish these Coosa...
21,479 5,639 Pike.
20,640 facts in the interest of immigration, and as the Covington..
16,575 State had (September 30, 1880) $286,990.14 Cullman..
24,887 in the vaults of the Treasury, a call was made Dalo
12,677 St. Clair...
17,236 upon legislators to use part of this sum in de
28,728 veloping the agricultural interests now lying Elmore
28,360 dormant. Immigrants in the north of Alabama Escambia
28,101 15,398 Tuscaloosa.
24,957 have increased taxes so largely that they will Fayette.
9,479 in a year or two swell the Treasury receipts Franklin,
31,828 $10,000. In that section grape-culture is the Greene..
4,238 principal business. An acre of cuttings will in Hale.
19,761 Total...... 1,262,005 two and a half years yield 200 gallons of wine. Henry The soil, like that of California, seems pecul The population, valuation of property, and iarly adapted to the grape, possessing chemical debt, of some of the cities, were as follows: and physical qualities that insure success. The Mobile, population, 31,205 ; valuation, $12,climate also conspires to growth-a dry sum- 991,795; debt, $2,609,250. Montgomery, pop
21,891 27,892 21,600
6,855 | Russell..
ulation, 16,714 ; valuation, $5,506,994; debt,
District. $559,650. Selma, population, 7,529 ; valua
5,595 1. Herndon, Democrat
1,000 tion, $2,500,000; debt, $323,609.
2,808 The vote of the State at the presidential elec
730 Strobach, Republican.
8.694 tion in 1880, according to the returns of the II. Herbert, Democrat...
13,271 Secretary of State, was as follows:
52 Mabson, Republican.
5,636 III. Oates, Democrat..
10,614 COUNTIES. Hancock. Garfield. (Zachary, Independent
69 Smith, Republican...
1,693 Barbour 2,778 1,200
The vote for State officers at the same elecClay.
52 174 Cleburne.
tion was as follows:
FOR SECRETARY OF STATE,
Paul L. Jones, Greenback.. 1,791 1,105
H. C. Tompkins, Democrat.
2,059 599 956 Jefferson.
ALASKA. Some important facts respectLauderdale,
ing the population and resources of Alaska Lamar.
have been obtained by the late agent, Mr. Ivan Lee. 1.943 1,569
Petroff, for taking the census of that region. Limestone
1.600 1.623 Lowndes..
The entire Alaskan country as far north as the 1,414
Yukon was examined, and tabulated reports Madison.
2.SOS 8,062 49 are given, village by village, of the inhabitants. Marengo.
1,825 Marion 498
The people of the Territory may be divided as
43 Marshall 989
follows: 1. The Innuit or Esquimau race, which Mobile.
8,784 8,239 201 Monroe.
predominates in numbers and covers the littoral 1.097
79 margin of all Alaska, from the British boundMorgan..
ary on the Arctic to Norton Sound, of the lower Perry.
Yukon and Kuskokvim, Bristol Bay, the AlasPike. 2,827 741
kan Peninsula, and Kodiak Island, inixing in, Randolph.
also, at Prince William Sound. 2. The Indians 1,678 1,402 Shelby 1,455 $19
proper, spread over the vast interior in the St. Clair..
north, reaching down to the sea-board at Cook's Sumter
1,787 1,337 Talladega 1,659 1,757
Inlet and the mouth of Copper River, and Tallapoosa.
lining the coast from Mount Saint Elias southTuscaloosa.
ward to the boundary, and peopling Alex339
61 ander Archipelago. 3. Least in numbers, but Wilcox.
1,963 1,264 Winston
first in importance, the Aleutian race, extend149 126
ing from the Shumagin Islands westward to Total 91,185 56,221 4,642 Atto-the ultima Thule of this country. The
grand total of population is: whites, 392 ; The Legislature chosen at the same election creoles, 1,683; Aleuts, 2,214 ; Innuits of Kowas composed, in the Senate, of 33 Demo- diak, 2,196 ; of Togiak, 1,826; of Bristol Bay, crats; in the House, 94 Democrats, 4 Inde- 2,099; of Kuskokvim, 3,505; of Yukon, 3,359; pendent Democrats, 1 Greenbacker, and 1 of Bebring Sea, 1,533 ; of the Arctic coast, Republican.
2,990 ; Indians, 8,401—total, 30,178. The State was entitled to eight members of ALEXANDER, E. B., died March 15, 1881, Congress, and the vote at this election was as being a colonel in the United States Army. follows:
This meritorious officer, of whose death the