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of the Interior..
with a total population of 440,000, as officially nor does it appear too much to say that it will estimated in 1877. Montevideo, the capital, have doubled in value before the lapse of a had in 1879 a population of 73,353.
year. The improved condition of the TreasThe President is Dr. F. A. Vidal, elected ury has enabled us to meet all liabilities puncMarch 15, 1880, as successor to Colonel L. La- tually." torre.
In January, 1880, there still remained unreThe Cabinet, previous to June, 1881, was deemed, to the amount of $3,495,506, an old composed of the following ministers: Foreign paper currency, no longer in circulation or Affairs, Interior, Justice, Public Worship, Pub- received in the banks, but for the redemption lic Instruction, and Agriculture, Dr. M. Maga- of which there was an appropriation of $15,riños Cervantes;* Finance, Señor J. Cuestas; 000 gold per month. War and the Navy, Señor M. Santos, “colonel Pursuant to the agreement of February 20, major."
1878, the Government is to pay to the comThe Consul-General of Uruguay for the whole mittee of bondholders of the consolidated United States is Señor H. Estrazulas, resident home debt the sum of $105,000 in specie, to be in New York.
applied for the extinction of the debt. Owing From the best information obtainable, it to a succession of monetary crises, the service would appear that the Uruguayan army num- of the debt constituted by the “Uruguayan bers 2,360 rank and file, as follows: 1,667 foot, and the “Montevideo-European” loans was 232 horse, and 294 artillery, with a total of 167 suspended in October, 1875; but certain conofficers.
ditions proposed to and accepted by the credIn the budget for the year 1881 the revenue itors enabled the Government to resume the was estimated at $7,890,000, and the expendi- service on January 1, 1878. The interest on ture as follows:
the two other debts has always been paid in Legislature..
full. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
63,524 The following figures represent the values
1,749,753 of War and the Navy
of the foreign trade of the republic for the of Finance..
605,584 quinquennial period 1876-'80: Service of the national debt..
Imports. Exports. $7,918,443 The Senate had passed a bill authorizing the 1876.
80,945,251 15,699,405 issue of Treasury notes to the amount of $2,000,- 1978.
33,420,138 17,492,159 000, bearing interest at four per cent, in order 1879.
82.595,604 to cover the deficits of 1879 and 1880. It was
89,209,271 19,752,201 presumed that a new tariff bill, before the Chamber of Deputies in January and February, in 1879 and 1880, were the following:
Among the countries furnishing the imports would have the effect of increasing the receipts. One of the prominent measures of the bill was
1879. the imposition of sliding duties on breadstuffs. The minister expected that the yield of these France..
2,666,681 8,371,200 resources would balance the budget estimates Spain..
1,114,443 1,563.160 for 1881. The yield of the Montevideo cus
1.125,454 1,248,864 Italy..
1,098,644 1,528,880 tom-house for 1878 was $4,053,518, and that of Brazil..
2,010,001 2,430,662 the Recebedoria, $857,904; against $3,677,531 Germany
257,863 1 24.088 and $660,788 respectively for 1879.
350,592 627,538 The total national debt consolidated, on Jan
73,880 887,814 uary 1, 1880, was reported at $47,861,042, of
208,984 208,891 wbich $30,812,692 represented the home debt. Some of the countries to which Uruguay In his message on the occasion of the closing of sent exports in the same years were as under: the legislative sessions, July 15, 1881, President Vidal, referring to the national finances, said : “Thanks to wise measures of economy, the
$3,517,205 $3,470,477 revenue showed an increase of $1,200,000, and
3,494,988 8,941,411 the public funds had advanced from five to
1,960,660 fourteen per cent; the cessation of the system Belgium..
1,434,087 2,116, 740 followed by my predecessor, of applying a con
1,049,828 899,811 siderable share of the annual receipts to the pay- Italy..
421,099 812,006 ment of back liabilities (now funded from year Mauritius and Réunion.
87,520 25,073 to year), has rendered it possible to make a more Portugal...
76,196 104,561 equitable distribution among all the creditors; Cape of Good Hopo. and the amortization debt (four per cent an Germany
24,971 84,797 nual sinking fund) is selling at fifteen per cent;
Teneriffe.. On the resignation of Señor Magariños, on September 9th,
8,896 Señor Vllara tnok the portfolio of the Interior, and Señor Paraguay.
5,249 José Vasquez Sagastumet, till then Minister at Rio de Ja China and Japan.. neiro, the portfolio of Foreign Affairs.
693 450 692 493
351 841 84 878
As shown by the first of the foregoing tables, they have manifested so often and so constantthe exports in 1880 were of the total value of ly against all hostile demonstrations. It has $19,752,201; those shipped through the port been kept actively at work from the first years of Montevideo amounted to $10,918,551. of the existence of the Church, when mission
The shipping movements at the port of Mon- aries were sent to the Indians, then from Ohio tevideo in 1879 and 1880 were as below: to the Missouri River, then into Canada and
through the whole region between the Alleghany Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. The
first misssionaries to England were sent out in 1879 | Entered.
529,619 1837. An effort was made in 1841 to plant Cleared 167,091
519,548 Mormonism in Palestine, but without success. 266,062 190,366
In 1843 emissaries of the Church penetrated to
the islands of the South Pacific Ocean. France, Craft of all kind engaged in the coasting and Germany, the Scandinavian countries, Italy, river trade were entered, in 1880, to the num- Switzerland, and the Sandwich Islands were ber of 2,906, aggregating 556,887 tons, and entered in 1850 ; the West Indies, British Guicleared to the number of 3,101, aggregating ana, Gibraltar, Malta, South Africa, Ceylon, 644,508 tons.
Hindostan, Siam, China, and Australia in 1852. There are 235 miles of railway in operation Attempts to enter Prussia and Austria in 1853 in the republic, comprising four lines. The -54 were repelled by the governments of those telegraph lines, in 1878, were of the total countries. Since the last date few new fields length of 758 miles (including 100 miles of sub- have been occupied, and mission-work is now marine cable), with twenty stations; and the mainly confined to four or five regions. aggregate number of dispatches was 38,310. The whole organization of the missionary
In the opening paragraph of the President's work, the determination of the fields, and the message already referred to, Señor Vidal con- nomination of the missionaries, are under the gratulates the Houses on the closing of a leg- control of the hierarchy. Theoretically, every islative session during the course of which no white adult male Mormon is authorized to movement of a revolutionary character had preach and baptize, and so may be sent abroad occurred.
to save his fellow-men. Hence the supply of UTAH. According to the “Bulletin of the "elders” is abundant and practically unlimited. United States Census," the Territory of Utah, The magnates of the Church decide how many with a native population of 99,939 and a for- missionaries shall go forth; the number is apeign population of 43,994, contains 26,566 im- portioned as is thought best, and nominations migrants from Great Britain, 885 from Can- are made by the 375 presidents and bishops, to be ada, 12,755 from Denmark, Sweden, and Nor- confirmed by the popular vote of all the brethway, 1,925 from Germany and Switzerland, and ren gathered at the great April and October 1,883 from other countries. The number of conferences in Salt Lake City. Apparently, church-members in Utah and the adjacent dis no discrimination is exercised in making the tricts is given by a Mormon officer at 83,000. nominations, and no appeal is admitted from the This statement admits that the statistics within appointment. Every missionary goes at his this limit are far from complete, and adds that own charges, and no provision is contemplated no statistics whatever have been gathered re- by the Church for his family or his business specting the “scattered membership in the during his absence. Commonly, the elders go States, Mexico, and Canada.” It is affirmed out in twos, for mutual comfort and assistance, by Mormon authorities that there are 14,000 or and remain at their posts until the authority 15,000 members in Europe, and between 4,000 that sent them abroad calls them home, the and 5,000 in New Zealand, the Sandwich Isl- appointments being made for a limited period, ands, and other missionary districts.
varying in length according to the remoteness The Mormons confront the movements of the field, from one to three years, generally against polygamy which are made through gen- about two years. While at work, the missioneral public agencies and in Congress with un- aries are directed from some central superindaunted determination and unabated zeal in tendence-if in Europe, from Liverpool, with seeking proselytes. Within their own Territory, the addition of provincial sub-direction; if in the adherents of the Mormon system are kept the United States, by some one set to superunder the strictest discipline and in a condition vise the work in each State or group of States. of constant readiness for united action to resist Provision is made for the free transportation the effect of any measure that may be direct- of the converts to the United States, and an ed against the institution which they hold to account is kept in the Bank of England for be particular, while their missionaries are ac- that purpose. During the last five years more tive abroad gaining converts and seeing to their than eight hundred elders, or an average of transportation to Utah. The missionary or- about one hundred and sixty a year, have been ganization of the Mormons is one of their sent out from Utah as missionaries. In 1880, strongest arins, and is the institution to which the semi-centennial year of the Mormon Church, more, perhaps, than to any other single instru- the number was 216; in 1881, it was 189, bementality, they owe the solid strength which sides 79 who were sent to Arizona. Of the
800 missionaries sent out in the five years, Utah, by whose means 10,000 Mormons in that 284 were assigned to the United States, 111 Territory bave been converted from polygamy. of them to the Southern States, 219 to Great These people have addressed a memorial to Britain, 114 to Scandinavia, 17 to the Sand- Congress, asking for the enactment of laws wich Islands, and 13 to New Zealand. In that will effectually suppress the practice of 1880, 80 were sent to the British Isles, 33 to polygamy, and asserting that that practice is Scandinavian countries, 48 to the Southern a perversion of their system, and no real part States, and 33 to the Northern States; in of their faith. 1881, 1 to Holland, 3 to Germany, 6 to the Several church organizations in the United Sandwich Islands, 9 to New Zealand, 56 to the States have established missions and schools in Southern States, 33 to the Northern States, 35 Utah, with the especial purpose of exerting reto Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, and 89 to ligious and educational influence against MorEngland, Scotland, and Wales. Estimating the monism, the condition of which in May, 1881, average duration of an elder's time to be two was represented as follows: The Presbyterian years, we have a total of about four hun- Church had forty-four commissioned missiondred Mormon missionaries abroad at any given ary agents, eleven of whom were ministers and date. The number of converts gathered in by thirty-three were teachers. It paid $20,000 a these missionaries can not be so exactly calcu- year for the support of its missionaries, and lated. About 28,740 were brought in between spent besides between $5,000 and $10,000 each 1840 and 1860. Within the next decade about year in building churches, furnishing school25,000 sailed from Europe to Salt Lake City, houses, etc. The principal schools were at Salt and about the same number between 1870 and Lake City and Ogden. Seven new ministers 1882. The whole number from the first ship- and additional teachers were to be sent out to load, in 1840 to 1882, may thus be estimated open new stations. The Congregationalists had at about 85,000. The annual increase from two ministers and nine teachers, and were to emigration is not far from 2,000.
build during the summer a school-building at A branch of the Mormon Church, called the Salt Lake City, to cost $20,000. They had “Reorganized Church of the Latter - Day lately received an endowment fund of $3,000 Saints," has refused to accept polygamy, and to sustain a free primary school, wbich would opposes it as earnestly as do the non-Mormon be a feeder to the academy. The Protestant people of the United States. It numbers about Episcopalians were well sustained in their 40,000 members, and recognizes Joseph Smith, church, school, and hospital work. The Methson of the founder of the Church, as its head. odists had ten ministers and eight teachers. The members of this branch live chiefly in Ii- Two of the clergymen and four of the teachers nois, and have, according to their own report, received no missionary support. One other 500 churches, 1,500 ministers, and 20,000 com- teacher was supported by the Woman's Home municants. They have sent missionaries to Mission Society.
V VENEZUELA (Estados UNIDOS DE), UNITED Affairs, Licentiate R. Seijas; Interior and JusStates of, an independent republic of South tice, General V. Amengual; Finance, Dr. J.P. America. According to the recent territorial Rojas Paúl; Fomento, Dr. N. Borges; War division, Venezuela comprises eight States, one and Marine, General E. Lara ; Public Credit, Federal District, and six Territories, which, Señor N. Ramirez; Public Works, Señor A. with their population (in 1881), are as shown in Azpurúa; Public Instruction, Dr. A. Dominici. the following list from the Venezuelan legation: The Venezuelan chargé d'affaires to the
United States is Señor Simon Camacho; and Bermúdez.....
257,467 the United States Minister to Venezuela is Mr. Bolivar.
George W. Carter Falcon-Zalia,
The army comprises 2,240 men of all arms; Guzman Blanco.
in time of war the militia is called to active
538,752 Los Andes
293,108 service. The navy consists of two small steamZamora. Distrito Federal
ers and two schooners, with an aggregate ar
mament of eight guns, and manned with 200 18.060)
marines. Colonia Guzman Blanco..
In the budget for 1880-'81 the national reveGonjir...
38,864 nue and expenditure were estimated as below: Yuruari.
$3,951,000 Carácas, the capital, has a population of Salt monopoly
40,000 composed of the following ministers: Foreign Total
12,000 84.000 640.000
The sources of the foregoing imports were as General administration..
$2,400,000 follows: Home debt..
432,000 Foreign debt..
Duties. Foreign claims..
205,000 Public instruction,
545,138 Public works...
Great Britain and colonies. 834,862
$3,063,974 83 $1,086,817 18 France..
1,466,400 51 552,479 11 Total..........
466,267 47 United States
1,274,167 00 898,726 13 Spain and colonies.
817,187 70 105.099 37 Of the amount representing the custom
67,757 10 house yield in the table of the revenue, $3,- Danish colonies..
189,717 64 16,828 49 840,000 was for import duties, and the remain
United States of Colombia... 87,404 05 28,012 86
28,651 51 12,541 98 ing $14,000 for export duties.
248 70 The national debt consists of a foreign debt
Total amounting, on June 30, 1879, to $54,347,818,
$7,853,114 09 $2,734,778 29 including interest past due; and a home debt of $12,962, 172, of which $7,075,208 formed the
The total value of the imports (one half of consolidated five per cents. In 1872 the Gov.
which were breadstuffs and provisions) from ernment paid interest on its loans, but sus
the United States for the year ending June 30, pended payment in September, 1878, and re
1876, was $2,587,578, the duties upon which sumed in March, 1879.
amounted to $941,235. The following table shows the nature and
The trade between Venezuelan ports and the value of the imports, and the amount of duties port of New York, for the year ending June 30, collected thereon, for the six months ending 1879, was as set forth in the following sched December 31, 1877, cotton textile fabrics con
EXPORTS TO NEW YORK, stituting the heaviest item:
COMMODITIES. Values. COMMODITIES. Values. COMMODITIES.
16,356 Building materials.
2.708 Carriages and harness
111.088 Various articles.. 2,726 Cigarettes and materials. 88,226 13 21,174 53 Various skins
59,855 Coin, gold and silver...
$3,607,816 Cordage and twine
13,039 44 Clothing
130.032 95 33,505 62 Delft-ware, fine and common. 66,235 42 53,272 82
IMPORTS FROM NEW YORK. Drugs and medicines..
132,057 32 41,119 63 Flour and meal. 348,118 97 206,565 89 SIX MONTHS
OF 1879. Glass and glassware.
40,136.95 80,666 49 Goods, dress :
$209,510 64 January $124,465 37 Silk
$3,141 82 21.427 83
77,189 74 Wool.
276.492 91 105,255 99
154,887 77 Linen.
414,513 13 129,645 49
105,906 44 Cotton.
2,171,743 67 941,410 07 November.. Goods :
168,262 31 May.
122,822 84 December 113,117 28 June..
112,927 22 Silk and cotton.
162 00 Linen and cotton.
29,741 59 10,345 47 Wool and cotton..
Total for year. $1,581,954 15 39,509 53
19,610 49 Mixed.
124,769 14 51,052 17 Free of duty 514,324 82
Venezuela has, besides, a certain trade with Hardware and cutlery
Philadelphia, and from Southern ports of the Hats and inaterials
51,539 81 Hemp and manufactures. 97,805 83
United States receives considerable quantities
27,821 76 Iron, copper, and zinc manu
of lumber-yellow-pine and cypress. factures.
235,851 86 Instruments :
The Venezuelan exports for the six months Scientific..
286 66 ending December 31, 1877, were as shown in Musical.
4,456 92 the following table : Machinery
7.005 41 Matches and match-sticks.
$2,902,262 Miscellaneous articles.. 113,013 45 66,609 33 Gold, uncoined.
833,569 Oils and candles..
569.341 Paintings and materials.
147.752 Paper, wrapping
13,769 74 9,599 30
117,648 Photographs and materials
66),568 Printing inaterials.
50.373 Provisions 594.492 03 151,235 33 Tobacco
38,401 Perfumery and hair.. 69,112 84. 34,433 63 Quinia.
84,665 Ses products..
17,465 45 8,349 66
21,741 Shoes and materials 159.439 15 51,199 85 Dye-woods
16,885 Soap, etc. 149,417 40 54.976 81 Indigo..
11,354 Thread of all kinds
87,675 49 20,786 21
.143 Time-keepers, etc.
7,657 Tobacco, leaf and manufact
40,659 24 15.685 13 Wines and liqnors. 417,289 78 242,968 63
Total... Woods, all kinds
$5,002,516 5,845 77 2,286 99
The destinations and respective values of the Total... $7,853,114 09 $2,734,778 29
foregoing exports were as follows: