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war, remonstrated in the following pathetic to pay a fine of 5,000 cattle to the Cape Gorterms: “ Hitherto we have been known first ernment, to restore property taken from loyal as the faithful friends and allies of the Queen, natives, and to pay £1 annual license fee for and then as her faithful subjects. Up to the the privilege of keeping a gun, and should enZam and down to Cape Town we are joy entire amnesty and suffer no confiscation known as such—we are named the children of of territory. It was found impossible to thorthe Queen. If we are disarmed, will not other oughly enforce the provisions of the agreement. tribes say that we have offended against the The outbreak of the Transvaal rebellion is Government?"

noticed in the “Annual Cyclopædia " for 1880. The political position of the Basutos was The Boers had reasons to dread the aggressions anomalous. When they swore allegiance to of the British. Their ancestors were driven the crown in 1869, it was with the stipulation by wrongs and indignities to abandon their that they should not form part of Cape Colony, homes in the old colony and go into the unand they were not, until 1879, when the act explored wilderness. The Republic of Naconferring autonomy upon the colony heed- talia which they founded no sooner began to lessly turned them over to the tender mercies prosper than it was invaded and conquered by of the Cape Government. The Basutos were British troops. The Boers again abandoned a branch of the Bechuana tribe, one of the their fertile fields for the bleak desert. They most superior and intelligent races of the Bantu founded the independent South African refamily. After the formation of the tribe in publics. In 1848 the land between the Vaal Basutoland they became involved in constant and Orange Rivers was annexed by Great Britdisputes with the Orange Free State Boers on ain, and then the land between the upper one side and the Zooloos on the other, and, when Caledon and the Vaal. This act drove them these growing states menaced them with ex to rebel, and the British chased them into the tinction, they appealed to the British authori- unknown wilderness beyond the Vaal. In ties for protection, and were accepted as Brit- 1852 a convention was signed, guaranteeing ish subjects. Their subsequent history is one to the Boers north of the Vaal River "the of peaceful prosperity and advancement unex- right to manage their own affairs, and to govampled among African races. They grew rich ern themselves according to their own laws." in cattle, horses, and grain ; built houses, schools, When the Transvaal was annexed after twentyand churches; and were tenderly loyal until five years of tranquillity, the population had inthe offensive orders to deliver up their lawfully creased to between thirty and forty thousand acquired weapons. Letsie and his tribe com whites, and the revenue to about £70,000. plied, but their arms were intercepted and The annexation met the clamorous approval seized before their delivery by the indignant of a class of British traders and land speculamajority. The invasion of Basutoland by the tors who had flocked into the Transvaal after Cape militia and the earlier stages of the war the gold discoveries, adventurers who sought of resistance are recounted in the “ Annual pecuniary profit in the disturbance of rights Cyclopædia” for 1880.

which would ensue. The prospect that PresiThe Basutos made skirmishing assaults in dent Burgers's projected railroad to Delagoa the beginning of January upon the towns of Bay would deprive Durban of the Transvaal Maseru and Leribe and the picket-line of Colo- trade was a strong secret motive with Engnel Carrington's advancing column. In a vig- lish colonists for demanding the annexation. orous attack on the 10th the Burgher Guards A financial and political crisis of the Transvaal gave way, and the field was held only by a line Government furnished the occasion for the of dismounted cavalry. The burghers were usurpation. The fear that financial aid would suspected of being actuated by sympathy for be furnished for Burgers's project of estabthe Transvaal rebels, and a large number of lishing a Transvaal port, which might be folthem were sentenced to imprisonment. The lowed by a German protectorate, was one of Basutos were becoming weary of fighting and the state reasons for the step. The Boers suffered for want of food. They sued for themselves were undoubtedly almost unanipeace, and an armistice of seven days was mously opposed. The formal protest of Presigranted on the 18th for them to consider the dent Burgers at the time, the two visits of the Governor's answer. They did not accept the delegates, Joubert and Kruger, to England, and proposals through distrust, and desired to set- the mass-meetings of remonstrance, should have tle the terms with the imperial authorities. left no doubt of the rooted aversion of the Active hostilities were not resumed again, with Boers to British dominion. the exception of a few fitful attacks. The in The arrogance and unfitness of the adminisperial authorities refused to intervene unless trator set over the Transvaal, Sir Owen Lanthe Colonial Government should resign the yon, and the other British officials, was one of control of Basutoland entirely. This a consid- the proximate causes of the outbreak. During erable party in the colony desired to do. Sir the agitation which lasted throughout the three Hercules Robinson finally, at the request of the years of British administration, and during and Basuto chiefs and by desire of the Cape minis- at the close of their desperate rebellion, the try, arranged the conditions for the cessation Boer leaders and representative men iterated of the ineffectual struggle. The Basutos were and reiterated the conditions under which a

connection with the British Empire would be surprise and surrender of a detachment under endurable to the Boer people, conditions which Lieutenant - Colonel Anstruther, at Bronker's it required the deplorable war to make clear to Spruit, while marching from Middleburg to the British Parliament and people, and which Pretoria, December 20, 1880. The rebellion of were at last freely accorded before a British the Boers, with the triumvirate, Paul Kruger, force had set foot across the Transvaal bound- Pretorius, and Joubert, at the head, was in full ary, though defeat following defeat had brought operation at the beginning of January, 1881. the blush of shame into many Englishmen's British garrisons were beleaguered in Pretoria faces and stirred thoughts of revenge in their and Potchefstroom. The Boers secured Natal hearts, and although enough British troops as far as Newanka, and took possession of had just landed in Natal to speedily extermi- the Barkly district of Griqualand West. Sir nate the valiant descendants of Huguenot refu- George Colley was mustering his forces at Newgees and stalwart Dutch pioneers.

castle, with about fifteen hundred within call; One of the strongest reasons for the annexa- while re-enforcements from India and Gibraltar tion had been the frequent difficulties of the were on the sea. General Colley advanced his Boers with the native tribes. The principal column slowly toward Pretoria. The means danger had been averted by the extinction of of transport were nearly all in the possession of the Zooloo power, accompanied by the reversal the Boers and their sympathizers. On the 28th of the British commissioners' decision on the of January he attempted to force the pass of chief matter in dispute, their award to Cete- the Drakensberg at Laing's Neck, which the wayo of the land which he had formally ceded Boers were massed to defend. The repablito the Transvaal, and which had already been cans displayed steadiness and courage of the settled by Transvaal farmers. The cession of highest order, and repulsed the rash British Keate's award, in which diamonds had been commander with severe losses. The Fiftydiscovered, to natives by a British arbitrator, eighth Regiment, which stormed the strong inprobably preparatory to engrossing it in the trenched position of the Boers, was driven back British dominion, as had been done with West with terrible slaughter. Many of the officers Griqualand, was another instance of the ob were picked off by sharp-shooters. Sir George liquity of British arbitrations. Nevertheless the Colley was now himself hemmed in on all sides. Boers were content from the beginning to re- In an attempt to restore communications with fer boundary questions and disputes with the Newcastle he was attacked by the Boers near aborigines to English adjudication, and much the crossing of the Ingogo, February 8th, and more so after the punishment of their old ene- lost one hundred and fitty men and six officers. inies the Zooloos. If it had not been for the Re-enforcements landed at Durban at this wars with Cetewayo and Secocoeni, the Boers juncture, when every British force in Africa would have struck earlier for independence. was surrounded by the Boers, of whom 10,000

In the middle of December, 1880, the repub to 12,000 were under arms. They withdrew lican flag was raised in Heidelberg, a Volks- beyond the Drakensberg and perfected the raad was convened, and the South African Re fortifications at Laing's Neck as Sir Evelyn public proclaimed. The Boer Government Wood brought up re-enforcements to Newcaswas originally composed of Kruger as Presi tle. Proposals for a treaty had already come dent; Joubert, Commandant-General; Joris from Kruger, and had been forwarded to Engsen, Attorney-General ; and Bok, acting State land, when General Colley proceeded to ocSecretary. Pretorius was afterward associated cupy with about 700 men the height of the with Kruger and Joubert in the supreme di Spitzkop on Majuba Mountain, which comrection. A proclamation of the Boer Govern- manded the Boers' position. On the following ment set forth their desire to form a confeder day, February 27th, the Boers carried the emacy with the other colonies and states; their inence by storm, with the most beroic exerwillingness to receive a British resident diplo- tions. The British commander, Sir George matic agent to represent the interests of Brit- Pomeroy Colley, who was also the High Comish subjects; and also to submit to arbitration missioner for Southeast Africa, was slain with their disputes over boundaries with native 82 others, and 184 were disabled or captured. tribes. Besides the quarrel concerning a small The repeated successes which the Dutch farmtract in the southeast, which had led to the ers gained over the British regulars were won Zooloo war, there was the standing difficulty in nearly every instance with astonishingly about the large and fertile region in the south- small numbers, although the morale of the west corner of the Transvaal, called the Keate British troops was not particularly defective. award, which the British referee had awarded they were due to their desperate and religions unconditionally to native claimants, and the devotion to the cause in which they were envast region of the northeast from which the gaged, not less than to their splendid marksBoer settlers had been expelled by native tribes manship with the rifle, and their alert and who had been for a long time in possession of intelligent tactics. Sir Frederick Roberts was the entire country. The titles to lands in this now appointed commander-in-chief, and about reconquered territory had been bought up by 15,000 troops were sent to the field of action speculators.

from all parts of the empire. Before his arThe first engagement of the war was the rival Sir Evelyn Wood, acting under instruc

quo ante.

tions from home, and Commandant-General represented by the High Commissioner in Cape Joubert, had arranged an armistice, procured Town, and in the Transvaal by a resident through the intermediation of President Brand, imperial agent. This peculiar form of a proof the Orange River Republic, to allow time tectorate was defined under the new term of for Kruger and the Boer authorities to con the suzerainty of the Queen. The determinasider terms of peace which the Imperial Gov- tion of the rights and claims of the natives and ernment offered. Under the terms of the ar- of provisions for the protection of native inmistice the English were permitted to provision terests was the task imposed upon the comtheir beleaguered garrisons in Potchefstroom, missioners, who immediately commenced their Pretoria, Wakkerstroom, and Standerton with labors. They were also empowered by the a week's rations. Before the supply - train terms of the settlement to decide the question reached Potchefstroom, the garrison surren- of the severance from the Transvaal of pordered, March 21st, giving up their guns and tions of the territory in the east and northeast departing on parole for Natal. The withhold- settled by natives, and thus separate the Zooloo ing from the besieged force knowledge of the and Swazi districts from the Transvaal. The approach of succor was adjudged a violation last proposition was loudly condemned by the of the arinistice, and it was agreed to allow Boer people. After the conclusion of this prethe fort to be reoccupied, to restore the status liminary settlement, the Boers departed for

their farms. The British commander, General The strongest sympathy with the Boers and Wood, did not decrease bis armaments, but indignation at the course of Great Britain pre- prepared vigorously for the case of a renewal vailed among the entire Dutch population of the war. of South Africa. It was this state of feel After many difficulties and compromises a ing which was advanced as the reason for convention was settled between the Boer autaking vengeance upon the insurgents. The thorities and the commissioners on the 8th of apprehensions caused by the known tension August. The Transvaal Government underamong the old families were augmented by a took the debt of £425,893, payable in twentymanifesto of Kruger, which said at, whether seven years, at 44 per cent interest, on account the Boers were now successful or not, the of the liabilities which the British Government struggle would lead to the redemption of the had assumed at the annexation, and the excolonies from the British yoke, and independ- penses of Secocoeni's war. The Boers and the ence, like that achieved by the American colo- British each agreed to reimburse sufferers of nies, when “ Africa will be for the Afrikander damages through the military operations. The from the Zambesi to Martin's Bay.” The peo- convention was ratified by the Volksraad in ple of Holland and Belgium manifested publicly October. their sense of England's injustice, and a large The Cape Parliament met March 25th. The section of the British public expressed the Premier of Cape Colony, Gordon Sprigg, the same sentiment. Public men in Germany, in author of the Basuto war, was nearly removed France, and in other Continental countries set from office in April by a vote of censure, for their names to memorials pleading for the be- raising, on liis own responsibility, a loan of stowal of independence upon the Transvaal. £1,250,000, for the prosecution of that unfor

The negotiations with the Boers were con tunate military essay, and for the other war cluded by their acceptance of the terms of expenditures of the colony. The war itself peace, March 21st, subject to their final agree was not condemned by either the West or the ment in the decisions of a royal commission East colonists, the Afrikander or the English settling the details of boundaries and questions section of the community. _Mr. Sprigg repreof the rights of natives. The commission was sented more especially the English element, as to consist of Sir Hercules Robinson, Governor opposed to the Dutch, and the aggressive spirit of Cape Colony and High Commissioner for of the former Imperial Government. He had South Africa, President, and Sir Henry De been called upon by Sir Bartle Frere three Villiers, Chief-Justice of the Cape, and Sir years before to succeed Molteno, who had been Evelyn Wood, associate members. "The Boers arbitrarily dismissed while still backed by a agreed to withdraw from Laing's Neck and parliamentary majority. Upon a subsequent disperse to their homes. The English garrisons renewal of Mr. Scanlan's motion, Mr. Sprigg should remain as they were pending the final resigned. A new ministry was formed, comsettlement, but no troops or munitions of war posed of Mr. Molteno, the Prime Minister were to be sent into the Transvaal. The main whom Sir Bartle Frere had removed, Colonial principles of the treaty were that the Boers Secretary; Mr. Hutton, Treasurer - General ; should enjoy complete independence in making Mr. Scanlan, Attorney-General and Premier; and administering their own laws; but the Mr. Merriman, Commissioner of Crown Lands right to regulate and superintend their rela- and Public Works; Mr. Sauer, Secretary for tions with the native population, which num Native Affairs; Mr. Hoffmeyer, without a portbers nearly 700,000, the adjustment of frontier folio. questions with the resident and neighboring In the budget of the Cape Treasurer the tribes, and the control of foreign relations, revenue of the colony for 1881 is estimated at were reserved by the Imperial Government, £2,968,210, and the expenditure at £2,852,083.

The revenue for the year concluded was £2, school, wishing to be near his friend Edward 800,000, and the expenditure £2,633,783. Irving, who had a private school in the same

The Assembly resolved that an amendment town. After two more years spent in this unto the Constitution be adopted, to allow the congenial pursuit, in which he acquired the option of addressing Parliament in the Dutch name of a stern pedagogue, Carlyle went up language. The further extension of railroads to Edinburgh to embark in the profession of was decided upon, including a line to West literature. His first employment was in the Griqualand. Harbor improvement: were also compilation of Brewster's “Edinburgh Encycloauthorized. The railroad construction author- pædia.” At the instance of Sir David Brewized involves expenditures announting to five ster he translated Legendre's “Geometry and millions sterling.

Trigonometry," prefacing it with an essay on CARLYLE, Thomas, an eloquent British proportion. At this time he made the acquaintauthor and leader of contemporary thought, ance of the German language and its literature, died at his house in Chelsea, February 5th. the treasures of which were first unlocked to He was the eldest of a family of eight children. the English-reading public by his sympathetic His father, James Carlyle, the son of a small translations and criticisms. His brother, Dr. Scotch tenant farmer, was a working stone- John Carlyle, who afterward acquired a place mason at the time of the author's birth, and in literature by his translation of Dante, was afterward became a prosperous farmer; he at that time studying in Germany. Carlyle was a man of rectitude and energy, possessing contributed to the “ New Edinburgh Review" mental traits and endowments similar to those an article on “Faust,” the first product of his which, developed in literary form, gave his son German studies. He was for several years the mighty influence he has exercised over the tutor to the gifted Charles Buller.

He joined English mind. All his sons became men of the staff of brilliant writers engaged upon the character and ability. Thomas Carlyle was“ London Magazine,” to which be contributed born at Ecclefechan, a village near Dumfries, in 1823 the first part of his “Life of Schiller," December 4, 1795. He learned to read and and in the following year a translation of Wilwrite in the parish school of Hoddam, and was helm Meister's Lehrjahre.” Goethe's novel taught the elements of Latin by the minister. and the style of the translation were sharply In his ninth year he passed into the burgh assailed by the critics, led by De Quincey, one school at Annan. Before his fourteenth birth of the few Englishmen who at that time knew day he entered the University of Edinburgh. anything about the master-poet of Germany. He made few friends, and was little interested Undeterred by the contempt with which that in the professors and their teachings, although masterpiece of German literature had been they numbered among them men of European received, Carlyle in 1827 published several reputation, who were able to inspire an unu volumes of “German Romance," containing sual zest in the generality of students for the translations of short pieces of fiction by the literary and philosophical studies of the class- principal writers of the romantic school. room. Carlyle devoted himself to reading, In 1827 Carlyle married Jane Welsh, daughexploring with avidity the college library and ter of Dr. Welsh, of Haddington, who was a dethe various circulating libraries of the city. scendant of John Knox. Carlyle's wife owned These independent and desultory studies were a farm ainong the Dumfriesshire hills, whither so confining as to impair his health. Under he betook himself and lived for six years, Sir John Leslie, whom alone among the pro- wrapped in his literary work, with his wife for fessors he made his friend, he obtained a knowl. his only companion. Mrs. Carlyle was in charedge of mathematics rare among youths of his acter and intellect bardly inferior to her husyears. He was destined for the ministry by band. In the seclusion of Craigenputtock farm his father, but after passing through the four Carlyle wrote the essays on Burns, Goethe, and years' curriculum of arts he concluded that he Johnson, Heyne, Novalis, Voltaire, and Didecould not conscientiously follow that profes- rot. “Sartor Resartns " was written at this sion. “Now that I had gained man's estate," period, but not published till years afterward. he said, recounting the spiritual crisis he passed The young author, by the independent and selfthrough in deciding the question, " I was not prompted work which he was enabled to acsure that I believed the doctrines of my father's complish in his mountain retreat, gained a great kirk; and it was needful I should now settle name, and was occasionally sought out by visitit. And so I entered my chamber and closed ors from afar who had drawn light from his phithe door, and around mě there came a troop- losophy and hailed him as their teacher. Èming throng of phantasms dire from the abys- erson visited him at Craigenpittock, and listmal depths of nethermost perdition ; doubt, ened with wonder to the brilliant and original fear, unbelief, mockery, and scoffing were talk which streamel from the lips of his host. there; and I wrestled with them in agony of Carlyle wrote for the “Edinburgh Review,” spirit.” He embraced the calling of a teacher, but was frequently offended at the ruthless liband first taught mathematics in the school hé erties that Jeffrey took with his manuscript, had lately attended in Annan; and after re- which was pruned and patched by that pedanmaining there two years went to Kirkcaldy to tic editor into conformity with his finical canteach mathematics and the classics in the burgh ons of taste. With Napier as editor, Carlyle's

relations with the review were pleasanter. ters and Speeches," a successful book. The Jeffrey in a letter to his successor warns him Great Protector was only known to the Engthat Carlyle would not be a proper contributor lish people before the publication of Carlyle's -"that is,” he explained, "if you do not take memoir in the image of the mingled hypocrite the liberties and pains with him that I did, by and fanatic, lunatic, scoundrel, and buffoon, striking out freely, and writing in occasionally. pictured by his detractors. In 1851 Carlyle The misfortune is that he is very obstinate and published a biography of his friend John SterI am afraid, very conceited.” Carlyle com- ling. Between 1858 and 1865 came out Carposed “Sartor Resartus” in 1831. This re- lyle's "Frederick the Great," the product of markable work of philosophical satire and pro. long labor and critical research. In its prepafound reflection went begging for a publisher, ration he resided some time in Germany, and and first appeared in a magazine, seven years visited the scenes of Frederick's battles. This after it was written. In order to be near was Carlyle's last great work. During the libraries and obtain the advantages of social American civil war he gave out, in “ Ilias in intercourse necessary to an author of his rank, Nuce," his morose reflections on the destiny of he left his rustic home for London in 1834, set- the republic and the value of the institution of tling in the house in Cheyne Row which he slavery. In 1865 Carlyle was elected rector of inhabited till the day of his death. The pro- Edinburgh University. In the following year, ductivity of his genius in the first few years of while he was absent, delivering to the students his metropolitan residence was extraordinary. a lecture on the choice of books, his wife died. He labored incessantly and with intense appli- The loss of his companion was to him a source cation. He worked with the pen from ten to of poignant grief; he wrote that "the light three every day, and, after an intermission for of his life had quite gone out.” In 1867 the disexercise, visiting, and letter-writing, studied cussion of the extension of the suffrage brought all the evening. He had to wait long for rec- out “Shooting Niagara, and After," a dismal ognition in London. The reviewers ridiculed vaticination of the terrible consequences of the eccentricities, the roughness, the strange democratic freedom. In 1870 he published, in choice and collocations of words, the incompre- the London “Times," reflections on the Francohensible Germanicisms, and all the peculiarities German War, expressing approbation of the of his style. The publishers were not eager prospective annexation to Germany of Alsace to print his productions. Even the “French and Lorraine. Revolution,” the most brilliant and impressive, Carlyle exerted as far-reaching an influence and the inost characteristic product of his upon the men of his time through his convergenius, did not immediately find a publisher, sation as through his published writings. In The occasion of the removal of Thomas Car- speaking, he was less apt to fall into the grolyle and his wife to Chelsea was the publication tesque involutions of phrase and idiosyncrasies of “Sartor Resartus.” Only in America did of language which mar his writings. These this work meet with unhesitating admiration. faults of style grew upon him, and render his Thomas and Mrs. Carlyle found cordial and ap- later works difficult and disagreeable to read. preciative friends among the literary profes- His letters were free from these vices. In early sion, and a knot of eminent writers delighted to life, he wrote rapidly, and spent little pains on gather in their small house in the suburb. Be- revision; but in later years he corrected, retween 1837 and 1840 Carlyle read some courses wrote, erased, and interpolated with excessive of lectures in London on “General Literature," “The History of Literature," “ The Revolu Carlyle was ailing several years before his tions of Modern Europe,” and “Heroes and death. He left some autobiographical mateHero-Worship,” which wrought a profound im- rials, which were committed to James Anthony pression in intellectual society. "The French Froude, as his literary executor, and were pubRevolution,” the first work which bore Car- lished by him without excision. The pungent lyle's name on the title-page, was published in and sometimes unkind reflections on friends 1837. The first volume he had been obliged and associates of Carlyle caused much indigto rewrite. He had lent the manuscript to nation against the editor and no little sorrow John Stuart Mill, who had confided it to Mrs. among the friends of the dead philosopher. Taylor, whose servant, it is supposed, took it Thomas Carlyle propounded a social phito kindle the fire.

losophy, which did not fall in with the spirit of In 1839 Carlyle commenced to turn his at the age, but which acted as a corrective to the tention to the wants and hardships of the current doctrines. As a critic, he disclosed real lower classes. Between that year and 1850 flaws in the habit of thinking that has grown he published" Chartism,” “ Past and Present,” up, which regards the collective opinion of the and "Latter-Day Pamphlets,” diatribes filled commonalty, which is only derivative, and with bitter scorn, directed indiscriminately must often be outstripped by the authors and against the indifferentism of the political econ- actors of history, as the prime impulse in social omists, and against the doctrine that remedial progress. He exalted the value of the indilegislation or the extension of popular rights vidual will, and delighted in the exhibitions of can be of use in the work of social reformation. energy and power by the rulers of modern In 1845 was issued “Oliver Cromwell's Let- times, with too little discrimination of their


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