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Board of Equalization tells. For it has been murder had become one of the commonest incidents shown in the report that the ways in which of trade and manufacture. Nothing can be more hor

rible than the cold indifference to consequences with taxation is escaped are more numerous than which manufacturers of all kinds appear to employ ever before ; that while personal property has deadly and noxious materials. We are forced to conalways evaded assessment, real property has clude that there are in this country thousands upon now found it possible to follow the same

thousands of men who are perfectly willing to spread course; that the attempts to impose double death and disease broadcast over the community it in

so doing they can make a little larger profit. Swintaxation have in a large number of cases been dling, cheating, substituting bad and sham for good and eluded by resort to shifts which resulted in genuine materials, are methods so usual as to be althe loss of even single taxation; that the en most the rule. Adulterations enter into almost everydeavor to break up land monopoly, by taxing thing that is caten, that is drunk, that is worn, that is uncultivated lands at the same rate as culti. used. And disease and death go hand in hand with

adulteration everywhere. vated, has operated as a raid upon the small Our children are poisoned by the dye-stuffs used farmers; that owing to the exemption of upon their dresses and their stockings. The candy growing crops from taxation, and the failure they eat is poisoned. The papers which we put on to provide for the assessinent of the mature visiting or for social purposes are poisoned. The arti:

our walls aro poisoned. The cards which we use in crops, this important class of personal prop- ficial flowers our wives and daughters employ are poierty largely escapes taxation; that owing to the soned. The bread we eat is poisoned. The bakingambiguities and confusions of the new Consti- powders, of which some two hundred kinds are on tution, the Board of Equalization has been pre- which we put upon our tables are deadly. Our

coffee, vented from equalizing assessments generally; that under the new system the State is at the canned goods are poisoned. Our candles, our oils, the

our tea, our sugar, our butter and cheese, all our mercy, first of the assessors, secondly of the cosmetics our women use so freely, are full of danger. tax-payers; that whether the assessments are The toys, the puzzles, the block maps, which we put made by the first or the second, the interests with them. And as for the medicines with which dis

in the hands of our children, may carry destruction of the State appear to be equally subordinated; ease is to be warded off, there is scarcely a genuine and it is apparent that some three or four hun- drug to be had anywhere. dred millions of property continue to pay no taxes whatever.

The attention of the Legislature was so enThe board wants some provision which will grossed with the drainage act that little time render the assessors intelligent or conscien- remained for the consideration of many other tious. That they are not so at present the important measures; consequently a final adboard thinks itself bound to conclude from the journment took place on March 4th, under the manner in which real estate has been assessed. provisions of the Constitution. No appropriWith a unanimity and a perversity seldom ation bill was passed, nor an apportionment equaled and never surpassed, the assessors bill. The latter was required to conform to have reversed the new constitutional role in the returns of the recent census. So much imregard to cultivated and uncultivated land, and portant business remained to be considered, have in practice evidently assessed the former that the Governor, on March 24th, called an by the latter. But the most remarkable re

extra session of the Legislature, and appointed sult of all is the graduation of the assessments April 4th as the day on which it should comin accordance with the increase in size of the mence. The objects of this session were: farms. Everywhere the small farm has been 1. To enact a general appropriation bill, which assessed higher than the large one. In every shall contain no item or items of appropriation other county the value per acre of ten, twenty, and than such as are required to pay the salaries of the fifty-acre farms has been rated higher than that the institutions under the exclusive control and man

State officers, the expenses of the government, and of of the hundred, two-hundred, four-hundred, and agement of the State, for the thirty-third and thirtysix-hundred-and-forty-acre farms. The fact re fourth fiscal years. mains that the new rule has thus far failed, 2. To levy the rates of taxation, or, in the disand it is to be ascertained whether the princi- cretion of the Legislature, to provide that the State ple underlying it, or the method of appointing rate of taxation upon each one hundred dollars of taxassessors, is most at fault. In regard to the able property of the State, which, after allowing the latter, it must be admitted that thus far the per cent required by law to be allowed for delinquenplan of electing these officers has not resulted cies in and cost of collection of taxes, shall be sufficient well for the State. It is notorious that prop- upon and directed to be raised by the Legislature for

to raise the specific amount of revenue determined erty of all kinds escapes assessment.

the thirty-third and thirty-fourth fiscal years. A bill to authorize a commission to act on 3. To appropriate money to pay the deticiencies in the subject of the adulteration of food and appropriations for the support of the civil governmedicines was introduced in the House and ment of this State for the thirty-first and thirty-second

fiscal years. referred to the Committee on Epidemics and

4. To divide the State into senatorial, assembly, Diseases. Their report presented an alarming and congressional districts. state of affairs, of which the following state 5. To enact a general road law. ment contains some details :

6. To send appointments to the Senate for their

confirmation. The extent to which poisonous adulteration appears to be carried on in the United States is such The extra session commenced on April 4th. that it would hardly be an exaggeration to say that In the Senate, the first business was the adop


tion of a resolution to proceed to the election This extra session continued until May 14th. of officers for the session, by a vote of 19 to The bill for the apportionment of the State into 14. The House assembled at the same time, election districts failed to pass. Many efforts and the Speaker chosen at the previous session were made to legislate on subjects not embraced took the chair. A point of order was raised in the proclamation of the Governor calling the that the House was not organized. The Chair session. The time of the Legislature was thus held the House to be regularly organized by its unnecessarily occupied, and some important officers all being in place as elected at the open- measures failed to pass. ing of the regular session. A motion was made The report of the Railroad Commissioners to notify the Senate of the organization of the was a clear statement of the difficulties encounHouse. A substitute was offered to this mo- tered by them, and of the conclusions forced tion, that the House proceed to organize by upon them by the study of the transportation electing certain officers. On a point of order question. They discovered, before they had raised, the Chair ruled the motion by way of been at work long, that it was impossible to substitute out of order. The House, if not or- regulate freights and fares in an arbitrary and ganized, can not entertain the motion under sweeping way without producing far greater the prevailing organization. If the House bad evils than any beretofore alleged to exist. desired to organize over, it could have done so They found also that to regulate transportaat twelve o'clock, and, if it should have done so tion charges on any other principles than those then, the Speaker is a usurper. However, by which were already in operation, would necesconsent, debate would be heard on the resolu- sitate an entire reorganization of the whole tion. The following proceedings then took business, and would demand a knowledge and place:

a capacity such as that business has never deMr. Kellogg argued that the officers do not hold veloped yet in any country, notwithstanding over; that an extra session, so far as officers are con- its employment of the most acute intelligences. cerned, is a new Legislature, as they are elected not There were but two methods of procedure for a legislative term, but for the session.

Mr. May held that the officers hold over, and open to them. They might pander to the unthought there could be no doubt of it. This is the reasoning demand for a sweeping reduction of twenty-fourth, not the twenty-fifth Legislature. There charges, with the certainty that in so doing is no precedent that the officers lose place by ad- they must injure the public quite as much as journment sine die, except at the end of the term. The Senate re-elected this year, but it was a new

the railroads; or they might follow out the Senato, although composed of the same men as in the principles already established, and endeavor, twenty-third Senate.

through them, to reach results which would Mr. Freer held to the same views, and said the ad- benefit the public without injuring the corpojournment sine die was adjournment without day, but rations. They have chosen the second of these that did not cut off the terms when a day is given for reassembling. He read from Cushing's “ Elements" in support, and additional sections, showing that the

They point out, in vindication of their declerks hold (until removed by resolution) for the en- cision, that no commission appointed for simtire term for which the Legislature is elected. He ilar purposes has ever yet been able to arrive opposed reorganization because it would cause dela and be revolutionary in character.

at any other general conclusion; that every Mr. Griffiths favored reorganization. He cited the attempt to deal violently with the problem, journal of the House of Louisiana, March, 1878, then and to adjust it by sheer force, has failed convened in extra session, where the officials were re- disastrously; that every such failure has intained by resolution regularly passed. Also journal volved serious injury to the public interests; of the lowa House, January, 1862, in extra session, and that the unavoidable deduction from all where, by resolution, the old officers, so far as deemed necessary, were reappointed. Also journal of the existing experience in this direction is, that Senate of Illinois, 1867, in extra session, when by equitable and reasonable methods are the only resolution certain officers were chosen. Also journal ones which can produce beneficial results. The of the House of Indiana, 1872, extra session, when the House entered into a new clection. He said if any

commissioners dwell upon the importance of doubt was left as to the matter, it might involve the understanding the principle of tho maximum laws passed, and so a reorganization had better be had. in transportation. They quote the maxim that There might also be officers who can be dispensed with. high maximum means low minimum; they

Mr. Young had at first thought adjournment sine show that this is the secret of successful transdie dissolved the organization, but on examining the law he had come to the settled conviction that he had portation; that, in fact, it is only possible to been in error. Adjournment is a term somewhat con- provide for the carriage of low-priced staples fused in some minds; adjournment is not prorogation, at minimum rates by fixing the rates on highnot dissolution. The members-elect constitute the class merchandise correspondingly high. Legislature, even when not in session, and hence the power given in the Constitution to call the Legislature the Legislature on Prisons is more of a gener

The report of the Assembly Committee of together after adjournment, thus recognizing the existence of the body, though not in session. He cited al survey of the most important conclusions Cushing's “ Law and Practice," section 196, in sup- reached by experiment in all parts of the port.

country, than a presentation of the features of The motion by way of a substitute was lost, the system in California. It shows that the yeas 17, nays 47; and the original motion to question of the disposition and treatment of notify the Senate of the organization of the convicts is undergoing more and more radical House was adopted, yeas 36, nays 28.

changes, and that the old views and ways are


being discarded wherever the existing institu- relative to the general management of penal tions render it practicable to introduce reforms institutions. It was subsequently followed by in prison management. It is now recognized a prison-reform convention, at which imporby all who have examined the subject that tant papers were read and questions discussed. every prison ought to be at least as much a The Drainage Act of the Legislature, for the reformatory as a place of confinement; that repeal of which a protracted and unsuccessful the reformation of criminals can only be under- effort was made at the last session, was finally taken hopefully by such methods as give the declared to be unconstitutional by the Supreme convicts definite desirable objects, which they Court of the State. The principal grounds of may attain by their unassisted efforts; that objection to the act were that it provided for rewards and punishments are the necessary other purposes than those which are specified groundwork of any such system; that it must in the title, and that it established double taxbe applied by men specially fitted for the work, ation, and delegated unconstitutional powers and who ought to have undergone a distinct to local boards. This decision was final. training in penology. It is also beginning to be The progress of the State has been of the believed that when the sentence of the prisoner most substantial character. Banks of issue is indeterminate—that is, left to be decided by being probibited by her Constitution from the his own conduct—the prospect of reformation beginning, and even when the national curis much greater than under the old method, rency was adopted and made legal tender by since the prisoner is thus afforded hope with: Federal law, the feeling against paper money out restriction. The Crofton Prison system, of any kind was strong enough to maintain the and those which have grown out of it, all tend gold standard all through the war, and through more and more toward reliance upon the pris- the era of inflation which followed it. Calioner bimself, and this is evidently the scientific fornia, consequently, did not feel the seeming mode of procedure. For, if a man who has prosperity attendant upon the great rise in fallen into evil courses is to be reclaimed, it is nominal values which took place in the East as clear that he must determine to help himself, the currency depreciated, and she also escaped and that, no matter what assistance he derives the inevitable reaction which came with the from without, all the really useful action must appreciation of the currency and the fall of come from within.

prices. Yet the State did not escape the efIt has been found that by appealing to men's fects of the failure of some of the most producself-respect, and by treating them as though tive mines and a consequent shrinkage of valthey were by no means irreclaimable, the latent ues. This was strikingly manifested in stock ambition, the slumbering conscience, the par- values, the highest prices of which were reached alyzed manhood, can be stimulated and given in January, 1875, and is shown by the follownew life, and that the reformations wrought by ing table: these means are practically the only ones which Aggregate value of mining stocks on San Franare permanent. It is important to observe that cisco board, January, 1875...

$282,305,404 economy goes hand-in-hand with humanity. Ales ralucu of mining stocks on San Fran

cisco board, July,

17,902,700 Not only is it right to attempt the reform of the criminal, but it is to the interest of the Highest value consolidated Virginia, January,

$264,402,704 pnblic Treasury to do so. Crime is waste, in

75,600,000 all its forms, and our old systems of dealing Value consolidated Virginia, July, 1881.

945,000 with it have been as wasteful as itself. “In Shrinkage...

$74,656,000 fact, we have only continued to give crime a Highest valuo California, January, 1875.. 84,2 10,000

851,000 fixed abiding-place and a central rallying-point, Value of California, July, 1851. and there can be no doubt that our jails and Shrinkage ....,

$83,889,000 State prisons have made ten times more scoun- Highest value Sierra Nevada, September, 1878.. 27,000,000

Value of Sierra Nevada, July, 1881...

825,000 drels than they ever cured. To alter all this in accordance with the new lights is not only to Shrinkage ......

$26,175,000 rid the community of its most dangerous ele It should be remembered that the famous ments, but to prevent the revival of these ele- Comstock mine did not reach its maximum ments, and at the same time to make crime until 1877, that in twenty years it yielded three largely self-sustaining in the prisons.”

hundred million dollars, and that it dropped By the new Constitution of the State the nearly thirty-three millions in three years. management of the State prisons is vested in The tendency of gold-mining to assume a a board of directors. Five persons were ap- stable character is shown by the annual steadipointed by the Governor in 1880. Subsequently ness of the crop. The great improvements charges of a serious character were made by which have taken place in mining machinery the public press reflecting upon the board of and methods now enable the working with directors and the warden of St. Quentin's Pris- profit of low-grade ores, of which there are on; whereupon these officers requested the regular and enormous deposits. How mining Governor to appoint a commission to examine of this kind is developing is shown by the fact into the general management of the prisons. that the foundries of San Francisco during the This commission made a report in August, year have turned out machinery for over a which contained some important statements thousand stamps. The injunctions which have







683 18,211


14.437 11,092






41 89





this year suspended the operations of some of The share of each stockholder is undoubtedly the principal hydraulic mines of California property, but it is an interest in the very propmay lessen by some millions the gold-harvest; erty held by the corporation, nothing more. but the movement to restrain the hydraulic When the property of a corporation is assessed miners from washing tbeir tailings into the to it, and the tax thereon paid, who but the valleys, where they fill up the beds of the stockholders pay it? It is true that it is paid streams and destroy agricultural lands, is in from the treasury of the corporation before the itself an evidence of a growing conservatisin of money therein is divided, but it is substantially feeling—of the increasing disposition to look the same thing as if paid from the pockets of upon California as a country in which perma- the individual stockholders. nent homes are to be made. In the agricult At the presidential election in 1880, the offiural capabilities of her soil lie the possibili- cial count of the vote was as follows: ties of her greatest wealth. The wheat-crop Total vote.

160,795 of last year, after supplying all home demands, Hancock, Democrat..

Garfield, Republican..

80,878 including that of distilling, gave a surplus for Hancock's majority. export of no less than 1,400,000 tons—a surplus worth, even at the low rates that pre

The vote for members of Congress was as vailed on account of the scarcity of tonnage,

follows: $37,500,000, or more than twice the whole

Rosecrans, Democrat..

21,005 bullion product of the State. Or, in other

Davis, Republican. words, the wheat-crop of California for 1880

May, Green back.. was worth more than half as much as the bull

Glascock, Democrat.
Page, Republican.

21,483 ion product of the whole United States.

III. Berry, Democrat. Among the most valuable of her industries

Knight Republican. | Leach, Democrat.

17,263 in the future will be those of the vineyard and

Bacheco, Republican..

17,328 the orchard. The natural adaptation of the soil and the climate has been proved beyond a

The Legislature was divided as follows: question. The grape-growers of the State can now sell their grapes with as much certainty as the farmer his wheat. There is now sent Republican.. to the Atlantic coast more wine than is imported from France, and it is estimated that the wine-crop of last year yielded to the growers nearly $3,500,000. The curing and pack The compilation of the returns of the cening of raisins has only recently commenced, sus are so incomplete as to add nothing to the but it is already an assured industry.

aggregate statistics of population in the previIn San Francisco, in Alameda, and San José ous volume. are fruit-canning establishments which, during CANAL, INTEROCEANIC. (See PANAMA the busy season, employ over a thousand hands CANAL.) apiece, and all over the State, wherever there

CAPE COLONY AND BRITISH SOUTH is an important fruit district, this industry is AFRICA. The present Constitution of the rapidly developing. Orchards of the finer va- Cape Colony vests the executive power in the rieties of peaches, plums, pears, nectarines, etc., Governor and an Executive Council, comare being set out in all parts of the State, and posed of certain office-bolders appointed by in the southern section the culture of semi- the Crown. The legislative power rests with tropical fruit is attaining large dimensions. a Legislative Council of twenty-one members,

The question arising under the new Consti- ten of whom are elected for ten years, and tution relative to the taxation of certificates of eleven for five years, representing the country stock by assessors of taxes was also decided by districts and towns of the colony. The qualithe Supreme Court. The opinion was deliv- fication for members of the Council is possesered by Justice Ross in the case of Burke vs. sion of immovable property of £2,000, or movthe Assessor. He held that the Constitution of able property worth® £4,000. Members of the State does not require or authorize double both İlouses are elected by the same voters, taxation. On the contrary, its language clear- who are qualified by possession of property, ly prohibits it. The stock of any corporation or receipt of salary or wages, ranging between consists of its franchise and such other proper- twenty-five and fifty pounds sterling per anty as the corporation may own. When, there- num. There were 45,825 registered electors in fore, all of the property of the corporation is 1878. The Governor is, by virtue of his office, assessed—its franchise and all of its other prop. commander-in-chief of the forces within the erty of every character-then all of the stock colony. He has a salary of £5,000 as Govof the corporation is assessed, and the mandate ernor, besides £1,000 as “her Majesty's High of the Constitution is complied with. This Commissioner," and an additional £300 as property is held by the corporation in trust for "allowance for country residence." The adstockholders, who are beneficial owners of it ministration is carried on under the Governor, in certain proportions called shares, and which by a ministry of five members, called the Coare usually evidenced by certificates of stock. lonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the













Treasurer-General, the Commissioner of Crown wars which have afflicted these i!l-fated comLands and Public Works, and the Secretary of munities. Lord Carnarvon, after the happy Native Affairs.

effects of the confederation act in Canada beThe area and population of the several prov- came apparent, conceived the idea of uniting inces were as follows at the close of 1880: all the European settlernents of South Africa

under a similar confederate government, to Square kilometres. Population.

which the virtual sovereignty should be transCape Colony.. 517,849 780,757 (1880)

ferred. This scheme was adopted as the traBasutoland

128,176 (1875) ditional policy in Downing Street, and was Griqualand West..

45,300 48,128 (1877) Transkei district (Caffraria).

409,944 (1979)

enthusiastically pursued by the Queen's repreNatal.

48,560 864,333 (1880) sentatives at the Cape. The Transvaal was

annexed by Sir Theophilus Shepstone in April, 968,418 1,638,888

1877, in a way which the people of Great The distribution of the population, according Britain have only come to understand since to sex, in Cape Colony, inclusive of British the rebellion of the Boers. The usurpation Caffraria and Basutoland, and in Natal, was as

was excused on the pretext that the people of follows in 1878:

the republic were misgoverned by their own authorities to such an extent that they hailed British rule with thanksgiving. Zoolooland was

then invaded, with scarcely any pretext, for Cape Colony.

849,160 Natal.. 176,766 184,921 361,537

the object of rendering the Boers content with

the annexation, and to remove a possible danThe financial and commercial statistics for ger to the future confederation, and induce 1879 for Cape Colony and Natal were as fol- Cape Colony to join it by crushing the only lows:

organized and formidable native power in this

part of Africa. This disastrous war, which FINANCES. Cape Colony.

cost £5,000,000 and thinned the ranks of BritReceipts

£5,661,000 £473,000

ish regiments, excited a strong repugnance in Expenditures.

3,995,000* 491,000 Great Britain to any further military opera10,017,000 1,632,000

tions in South Africa, although the entire reImports...

7.664,000 2,176,000 Exports..

4,068,000 554,000 sponsibility for the Zooloo campaign lies at the Movement of shipping (in tons)...

1,532,000 412,000 door of the Imperial Government. The people At the close of 1878, 663 miles of railway government since 1872, were given to under

of Cape Colony, who had possessed responsible were in operation in Cape Colony. The Cape settlements are bound to Great their own defenses. Thereupon the colonial

stand that for the future they must undertake Britain by looser ties of interest and senti- ministry under Mr. Sprigg instituted a course ment than any of the other dependencies of the of arbitrary policy entirely in the spirit of Sir empire. The bond has not been strengthened Bartle Frere's Zooloo stroke. by the cares and difficulties which they have

The Basutos of Basutoland, a laborious, pasgiven to every English administration, and the toral, and agricultural people, who were beincessant loss of British blood and treasure in coming rapidly civilized and Christianized, unpopular Caffre wars which the connection has entailed since the first annexation in 1812. populous and wealthy, had the custom of buy? More than two thirds of the Queen's subjects fire-arms from the wall except on one or two

ing every man a gun. They never took their in South Africa are aliens in blood, language, and customs, while the commercial and

military occasions, when they did valiant service for the advantages of the connection bear no propor- late Zooloo war. With frightful rashness, a dis

Queen, affording conspicuous assistance in the tion to the sacrifices it has cost. For these

armament act was carried through the Legisreasons the home Government and the British public have long desired to see the plan of lature, and the command went forth that the

The autonomous government and self-dependence French Protestant missionaries who lived

Basutos should deliver up their guns. realized in these troublesome dependencies. The complicated relations of the British Gov. among them protested against the injustice of ernment with the Anglo-Saxon settlers, the the home Government of its impolicy and

the demand. Sir Garnet Wolseley warned Afrikanders, and the native populations, which under the management of ignorant military danger. The Basutos regarded these weapons commanders and crown officials involved the diamonds were discovered in West Griqua

as a badge of manhood and dignity. When commission of the numberless wrongs and crnelties of the past, still stand in the way of laborers; and each took home as his richest

land, the Basutos were the first and principal England's withdrawing her aid and authority reward a gun which he had purchased at an from the Cape. The fixed idea of an adminis- exorbitant price. The command to give up trative theorist, adopted as a practical policy the weapons which they had been encouraged for the consummation of this object, was one of the chief causes which led to the last three unmerited'disgrace. Letsie, the principal chief,

to acquire, was regarded by every one as an • For the first six months of the year only.

and his people, who remained loyal throughout

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