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to make money and speculate in the lives of ing September 30, 1880, shows the following: others. Forty-two companies reported to The number of patients in the hospital at this department their business for the year the beginning of the year was 253 males and 1880.
191 females; total, 444. The admissions durFrom these reports it appears that the com- ing the year were 113 males and 59 females ; panies named had a total income from applica- total, 172, making the whole number under tions, assessments, and miscellaneous sources, treatment, for the period covered by the report, amounting to $1,353,988.74, which was all ex 366 males and 250 females; total, 616. The pended excepting the sum of $3,218.74. The discharges were 143 males and 89 females; sum of $906,867.67, or 67 per cent of the total, 232. Of these, 17 males and 18 females entire income, was used in the payment of were considered restored, 56 improved, 106 death-claims or returned to members, the sum stationary, and 35 died. The number remainof $96,698.64, or 7 per cent of the income, ing at the end of the year was 384, of whom was paid to officers; the sum of $242,889.93, 223 were males and 161 females, or 60 less or 18 per cent of the income, was paid to than at the beginning. This diminution is the agents; and the sum of $104,313.76, or 7} per result of the transfer to the Norristown Hoscent, was paid for general expenses. Thus it pital, near the end of August, of all the Philaappears that in the aggregate more than 32 delphia patients (92) at that time in the hospiper cent of the money collected by these com tal which were supported at public expense. panies was absorbed by the expenses of man- The receipts of the hospital from all sources, agement.
including $10,000 from the State Treasury, About 40 per cent of the entire business of were $89,273.86, and the expenditures $89,the companies was done by the United Breth- 339.43, making the average weekly cost per ren Mutual Aid Society of Lebanon, whose ex- patient, $3.82. This includes everything-salperience shows more favorable results than the aries, repairs, and insurance. aggregated experience of the other companies. There were, in 1880, 7,037 graded schools in Deducting the business of the United Breth- the State, an increase of 232 during the year. ren, the remaining companies received from It is a remarkable fact that while the increase applications, assessments, and other sources, in the number of pupils was only 1,570, the in$812,014.57, of which sum $430,596.24, or crease in the average attendance was 18,955. 53 per cent, was expended in death-claims or The whole nuinber of pupils on the rolls was returned to members; $73,142.10, or 9 per 937,310, and the average attendance 601,627, cent, was paid to officers; $196,287.04, or 24 or 77 per cent. The average length of the per cent, to agents; and 10 per cent to miscel- school term remains about the same, seven laneous expenses: showing an expenditure of months. The average cost of tuition for each 43 per cent of the entire income in manage- pupil per month is only seventy-five cents, ment. Twenty-three companies organized in which shows a very economical administration 1880, or at the close of 1879, received $265,125 of the school systein. The expenditures of all in premiums and assessments. Of this sum 70 kinds during the year, exclusive of orphan and per cent, or $186,796, went to officers, agents, normal schools, amounted to $7,482,577.75. expenses, and 25 per cent, or $66,886, to pay The school property of the State was valued death-losses or return premiums, leaving a bal- at $25,467,097. "The total indebtedness of all ance of less than 5 per cent, or $11,443, unex the school districts in the State, cities included, pended. Included in the above number are was only $2,648,495.84, and there remained in twelve companies that collected $48,673, spent the school board treasuries, at the end of the $38,520, and did not pay a dollar for death- year, $1,425,213.16. losses.
The report of the Superintendent of Soldiers' The Western Pennsylvania Hospital is com- Orphans' Schools, for the year ending May 31, posed of two departments, the medical and 1881, shows that there were under the supersurgical in Pittsburg, and that for the insane vision of the department 2,602 children. Be. at Dixmont, eight miles distant. The number sides these, there were in scattered homes and of patients at Dixmont, September 30, 1879, receiving out-door relief” twenty-eight othwas 609; during the year ending September ers. The increase over the preceding year was 30, 1880, 238 were admitted, making the total twenty-two. The whole amount expended by number under treatment during that period the State for the support of these schools has 847. Of these, 249 were discharged or died, been $7,252,695. The Legislature of 1878 proleaving in the institution at the end of the year vided that no more children should be admitted 598 patients. On the 30th of September, 1879, into these schools after the 1st of June, 1882, there were 105 patients in the medical and and that they should be finally closed on the 1st surgical department; 795 have been since ad- of June, 1885. mitted, making the number 900 under treat According to the census of 1880, the total ment during the year. Of these, 784 were net debt of the State, both local and of the discharged or died, leaving in the hospital on State proper, is $114,073,342. The following September 30, 1880, 116 patients.
table shows it in detail, the word "local" beThe report of the trustees of the Hospital ing used to comprise county, township, city; for the Insane at Danville, for the year end- borough, and school-district debts :
Philadelphia.. 846,984 | Altoona..
19,716 Pittsburg. 156,881 Williamsport.
18,068 Bonded debt. $107,248.000 $22,076,845 $129,824, 845 Scranton.
14,906 Floating debt 5,353,601 118,845 5,467,446 Reading
48,280 | York Gross debt. 112,601,601 22, 199,669 184,792,270 Harrisburg.
13,253 Sinking-fund. 19,440,351 1,808,577 20,718,928 Erie.
13,064 Net debt.. 93,191,250 20,882,092 114,073,342 Lancaster.
11,924 Wilkesbarre.. 28,339 Shenandoah.
10,143 The counties having the largest net debt In the production of iron and steel in blastare:
furnaces, rolling-mills, steel-works, forges, and Allegheny. $21,594.001 | Delaware. $1,014,896 bloomeries, Pennsylvania takes the first rank. Berks. 1,243,535 Erie..
1,194,589 Chester. 951,821 Lancaster..
The capital invested in these industries in the Crawford. 761,925 Lehigh
973,897 United States in 1880 amounted to $230,971,Dauphin... 1,472,259 Schuylkill...
745,878 884, of which Pennsylvania furnished 46 per These figures represent the sum of the debts cent. The total product was 7,265,140 tons, owed by all the corporate divisions of the of which Pennsylvania produced 3,616,668, or counties with the county debt proper. The nearly 50 per cent. net county debt proper of Allegheny County The following counties are the principal cenis $4,839,254; of Berks, $180,000; Chester, ters of production of iron and steel: Alle. $418,020; Crawford, 290,000; Dauphin, $283,- gheny, 848,146 tons; Lehigh, 324,875; North278; Delaware, $473,200; Erie, $9,114; Lan- ampton, 322,882; Cambria, 260,140; Dauphin, caster, $368,972; Lehigh, $73,349; and Schuyl- 223,676; Berks, 213,580 ; Mercer, 182,881 ; kill, $254,900.
Montgomery, 168,628; Lackawanna, 151,273. The following counties have no debt as coun Of 3,781,021 tons of pig-iron and direct castties: Adams, Butler, Cambria, Fayette, Fulton, ings produced in 1880, in twenty-two States, Green, Lycoming, Northampton, Snyder, Sus- Pennsylvania made 1,930,314 tons, or 51 per quehanna, Union, Washington, Westmoreland, cent. Of 2,353,248 tons of rolled iron of all and Wyoming.
kinds produced in twenty-vine States and TerThe total township debt of the State is $389,- ritories in 1880, Pennsylvania made 46 per cent. 051, of which $293,568 is floating. There are The total production of rails for 1880 was twenty-nine cities in the State, each having 1,217,497 tons. Of the total production of over 7,500 population. Their net debt and its rails, Pennsylvania made 47 per cent. per capita are shown in the following table: Of steel ingots, the total production in 1880
was 985,208 tons. Of this, Pennsylvania made 56 per cent. Of the production of Bessemer
steel rails, Pennsylvania made 55 per cent.
$430,443 $23 82 The total product of iron-ore in the United Allegheny City. 1,596,429
States in 1880 was 8,022,398 tons, of which
Pennsylvania produced more than any other Chester..
State, viz., 2,173,415 tons, or 27.09 per cent. Columbia..
The principal ore-producing counties are: Le219,949
high, 321,322 tons; Lebanon, 285,629; Berks, Erie.
1,143,729 Harrisburg.. 1,065,800
252,940 ; Blair, 154,914; Northampton, 104,
84 59 Johnstown..
788. The State produced, in 1880, 28,640,819 464,142
tons of anthracite, being the entire product of Lebanon..
the country except 6,176 tons. It also proMeadville
duces more bituminous coal than any other New Castle
State, viz., 18,423,163 tons in 1880, out of a
6 22 Pbiladelphia..
64 02 total of 42,420,581 tons for the United States. Pittsburg 14,184,296
Of barley, it produced 438,100 bushels; buckPottsville.
wheat, 3,593,326 ; corn, 45,821,531; oats, 33,Scranton..
841,439; rye, 3,683,621 ; wheat, 19,462,405. Shamokin Shenandoah.
The Republican State Convention met at Titusville..
Harrisburg on the 8th of September, and nomiWilkesbarre
nated General Silas M. Baily, of Fayette Coun651,272 33,000
ty, for State Treasurer. The platform adopted
contained the following among other resoluThe debt of Philadelphia city in detail is:
Resolved, That the Republican party of PennsylFloating..
vania is in most hearty accord with the Administra
tion of President Garfield, and, while uniting in the Gross
$72,264.596 prayers of all good people for his speedy recovery, Sinking-fund.
18,040,752 pledges continued fealty and most active support in
prompt and courageous correction of all governmental Net....
abuses. As Republicans, we are in favor of any propThe following is the official return of the er, . well-considered reform, either in government, population of towns and cities in Pennsylvania suggestions to any or all of these ends, and only ask
nation, State, municipality or county, and we court of 10,000 inhabitants and upward:
that in their advocacy well-established safeguards
CITIES AND TOWNS.
Net debt per
6 15 23 08 7 09
60 6 98 86 28
4 07 34 40 2 86
shall not be hastily supplemented by experiments. for oppression or extortion, or when otherwise abused. The Adininistration of President Garfield has set the No corporation should be above the people or the law. right example in this direction, and, whilo firmly ad- We thus reaffirm the ancient doctrines of the Demohering to the principles and better practices of the cratic party and most cordially invite our fellowgreat party which called it into existence, it yet insists citizens, of whatever party, to join with us in carryupon faithfulness and honesty in every branch of the ing out the principles and policy, we hereby anpublic service. The bullet of the assassin should not nounce, and to the advocacy of which we pledge ourinterrupt this work. It should be pursued while its selves until the right shall prevail. author lives, and beyond his life, if through increasing misfortune it should be taken away.
The Greenback State Convention was held Resolved, That the Republican party has ever been at Pottsville on the 15th of June. R. W. Jackprogressive and reformatory, and while realizing that son, of Mercer County, was nominated. The nothing in government is wholly right, we desire to be platform which was adopted by this convenalways brave to seek every avenue of approach to the right, to the end that all our people may enjoy ever
tion denounces the aggregation of real estate the increasing blessings of good government.
by corporations, when not in actual use; the Resolved, That in any revision of our tariff legisla- agents of money, commerce, and transportation which may be made, care shall be taken to dis- tion; and claims that the transmission of incriminate in favor of our own industries, and thereby telligence should be made subservient to the ca the controlling power in the finances as it already Constitution, and that the yoters should deis the established leader in political thought.
mand the necessary statutes to keep these The Democratic State Convention convened agents under the control of the people; deat Williamsport on the 28th of September, and nounces monopolies; censures the Legislature nominated Orange Noble, of Erie. The plat- for its failure to pass the anti-freight discrimform adopted contained the following among ination bill; demands protection to American other resolutions :
labor and produce; denounces national banks Resolved, That we, the Democratic party of Penn- for their attempt to coerce Congress by withsylvania, in convention assembled declare:
drawal of their circulation; indignantly denies 1. For the preservation of the Constitution of the the charge of the subsidized press that the United States, home rule, freedom of elections, for Greenback-Labor party favors an unlimited resistance to revolutionary changes tending to con- issue of currency, and declares that only such solidation or empire ; against the election of any per volume of currency as business requires shall son to the presidency a third time, and against tho presence of troops at the polls; against the appropria- be issued; denounces the national-bank system tion of public money for any purpose but the sur as legalized robbery; and indorses Weaver aud port of Government, and against class legislation Chambers. which despoils labor to build up monopoly: 2. That the Democratic party, as of old, favors a
After the Republican State Convention, constitutional currency of gold and silver in all forms, Charles S. Wolfe announced himself as an inand coalition with repudiators merits the condemna- dependent candidate for State Treasurer, and tion of honest people. The refusal of a Republican appealed for support to those Republicans who Administration to accede to the Democratic demand for a further reduction in the rate of interest on the The election resulted in the choice of General
were dissatisfied with the party management. national debt subjects the Government to a needless expense of millions of dollars annually. ..
Baily by a plurality of 6,824. The vote was 7. That no monopoly or exclusive right in the as follows: Baily, 265,295; Noble, 258,471; forces of nature, in grants of eminent domiain, in the Wolfe, 49,984; Jackson, 14,976; Wilson (Prodiffusion of information among the people by telegraph hibition), 4,507; scattering, 168. and associations for furnishing dispatches to the press, or the grant of privileges affecting the daily business
After the election the supporters of Mr. of the citizen, can or ought rightfully to exist under Wolfe, organized as the Citizens' Republican our form of government. These are at all times to Association, announced their determination to be subject to such legislative regulation and control continue their efforts, and issued an address as the rights and interests of the people demand. That the delegated power of Congress to regulate which sets forth their objects thus: "It is the commerce among the states and the reserved power purpose of the Citizens' Republican Association of the States to regulate the same within their borders of Pennsylvania to labor for the maintenance should be forthwith exercised to prevent unjust dis- of the following principles, and the attainment and localities, and all the provisions of the Constitu- of the following objects: The purification and tion of Pennsylvania relative to the exercise and abusc preservation of the Republican party; the of the corporate franchise and the duties of common overthrow of bossism; the right of a fairly carriers to the public should be enforced without de- chosen and unfettered majority to nominate; Jay by appropriate legislation. That all governmental the reform of the civil service; the elevation not in aid of them, and simple and speedy remedies of the intellectual and moral standard of our should be provided by legislative enactment by which officials—national, State, and municipal; and any citizen injured in his business may, in State and a ceaseless warfare against the spoils systemcertain, and adequate redress for corporate wrongs; evils which menace the perpetuation of our Federal courts, by due process of law, have quick, that fruitful parent of the numberless political that vested rights must be protected and respected, and great corporations warring between themselves republican form of government, and which to the injury of the public interests and their own led to the cowardly assassination of the Chief shareholders must be regulated and controlled by Magistrate of our nation." wise and effective laws; that franchises, the property of the people, shall be granted and exercised solely
Following is the population of Pennsylvanis for the public' benefit, and subject to immediate and by counties, as finally returned by the census absolutē forfeiture by due process of law when used of 1880, and as reported in 1870:
PERSIA,+ a country of Asia. Reigning sov sia. The Sheik Abdullah was aiming at the ereign, the Shah Nasr-ed-Din, born April 24, creation of an independent Kurdistan, and, it 1831 ; succeeded his father, Shah Mohammed, was stated, offered the sovereignty to Abbas in Septe:nber, 1848. The heir-apparent to the Mirza, the brother of the Shah. This prince throne, Muzaffer-ed-Din, was born in 1854, and was the son of a Kurdislı mother, and had has two sons.
lived some time in banishment. The Persians The area of Persia is about 1,647,700 square had more than they could do to keep out the kilometres, or 637,000 square miles. The pop- Kurds, who make admirable infantry, and, ulation is estimated at about 7,653,606, of whom armed with breech-loaders, in that mountain1,963,800 are inhabitants of cities, 3,780,000 ous country were a dangerous foe. But the belong to the rural population, and 1,909,800 more efficient Turkish troops were quickly are nomads. The population is divided, ac- brought into the field, and deprived the Ruscording to the religion, as follows: 6,860,600 sians of the opportunity, if one were sought, Shiites, 700,000 Sunnites and other Moham- of occupying that desirable province, on the medan sects, 8,000 Parsees, 19,000 Jews, 43,- pretext of bringing assistance to the Shah. 000 Armenians, and 23,000 Nestorians and The defense on the part of the Persians also Chaldeans. In 1876 the revenue was esti was much more efficient after the appointment mated at 34,720,000 francs in money and of Ala-ed-Dauleh to the command of the 6,360,000 francs in grain, making a total of troops. By July peace reigned in nearly the 41,080,000 francs, of which 31,000,000 francs entire province. Austrian officers' were emare direct taxes and 5,000,000 francs customs. ployed to instruct and lead the troops, and conThe expenditure amounted to 40,000,000 francs. siderable quantities of improved arms were
The first regular postal service was opened brought from Austria. in January, 1877. In 1879 the number of The Shah some years ago announced to the post-offices was thirty-five; of letters sent, powers that he had appointed as his successor 423,608; of postal-cards, 2,400; of printed to the throne his second son, Muzaffer-edmatter, etc., 6,430 pieces.
Din, who is Governor of Tabreez, to the excluThe Kurdish troubles in the north of Per- sion of his eldest son, Massud Mirza, the Zilsia seem to have been connected with the es-Sultan (“Shadow of the Shah "), who is Russian advance in Central Asia and Armenia. Governor of Ispahan. This act was in accordThe followers of the Sheik Abdullah, who ance with the Persian custom of making the proved more than a match for the Persian sol son of the mother of highest birth the heir, as diers, were armed with Martini rifles, such as the Shah's second wife was a princess, while were captured from the Turks in the late war the first was of lower rank. The Zil-es-Sultan at Kars and Ardahan. The scene of the inva- has administered the central provinces of Persion was the great province of Azerbaijan, a sia for several years, and by his extortions acportion of which projects in the form of a quired great wealth. A large loan which he wedge between the Russian Trans-Caucasian made to his father recently was given on the dominion and Turkish Kurdistan, reaching condition that he should receive larger powers nearly to Mount Ararat. The defeat of the than before. He is the more resolute of the Persian troops by the Kurds, who captured a two princes, and the enlargement of his aunumber of ca non in the engagement, made thority which he obtained is intended probably the Kurdish invasion a serious matter for Per- to enable him the better to dispute bis broth
er's title to the throne upon the demise of the * In 1878, from part of Luzerne. + For other statistics, see " Annual Cyclopædia " for 1880. present Shah. A conflict between the brothers
would take the form of a civil war between the prosperous town of Tabreez; but the latter connorth and the south of Persia. If Russia took cession—which would bring the Russians close the part of the northern claimant, Great Brit- to the Caspian port of Reshd, or Enzellee, and ain might be impelled to take sides with the the prime provinces of Ghilan and Mazanderan, other, and Persia be divided into two king- and within striking distance of the Persian doms dominated by the two great rival powers. capital, Teheran, and would place Herat within
The governorship of Kermanshah was con- reach-was canceled at the instance of the ferred upon Massud Mirza in addition to his Disraeli Government. A scheme for a Persian other offices, making him the ruler of more railway from Tabreez, through Reshd, Teheran, than half Persia.
and Ispahan, to Bushire on the Persian Gulf, Six great schemes for railroads in Persia was proposed by Baron Reuter, but encounhave been proposed. The British scheme of tered the opposition of both the English and an international railway from Scutari to India the Russian Governments. does not seem as near accomplishment as it did The Russians and the British are already a few years ago. This ronte would lead through rivals in Persia. The latter are attracted by Bagdad, Ispaban, Yezd, and Bunder Abbas, the valuable trade of the country, and by the and thence along the coast of Kurrachee. The consideration that the overland routes to India English have proposed also to merely connect lead through Persia. The English political India with Persia, and Russia and Turkey have thinkers who have not lulled themselves into a each planned to extend their railway systems restful security, which even the blunt acknowlinto Persia. The Persians have projected a edgment that Russia will meet British opposirailroad net-work of their own, with inter- tion in Europe with diversions on the side of national connections under their own control. India does not disturb, are now more than ever In all of these projects the strategic and polit- eager for the establishment of British control ical aspect is of not less importance than the in Persia. Since the attempt to guard the commercial, and the two can not be discon- road to India by way of Herat and Candanected in railroad enterprise in the East. Four þar, the only practical military route, ended of the projected routes were to enter Persia in a fiasco, the voluntary submission or forcifrom the west, and two from the east. The ble subjection of Persia to a British protectBritish operations in Afghanistan led to the orate seems the only safeguard against such discussion of a new route from India, which diversions and their consequences. If the would have some advantages over the one Russians obtain the ascendency in Persia, they along the coast of the Persian Gulf from Kur can establish themselves in Herat and march rachee. From the same port, at the mouth of at any time into India; whereas, if the British the Indus, it would pass through the Can- obtain the military control of Persia, they dahar-Herat depression and reach Ispahan by would possess a line of impregnable natural the route north of the plateau of Iran via fortresses which command the Russian routes Meshed. The Afghanistan section of this rail- all the way from the Caspian. road was begun during the British invasion of The English have a preponderant interest in Afghanistan, and the line was completed to the commerce of Persia, and would soon acSibi, half-way to Candahar. The Turks have quire the political control which follows upon a line built from Scutari to Ismeed, and under mercantile supremacy if they were not opposed construction to Angora; while they are pre- by the more astute, vigilant, and aggressive paring to extend it to Sinope and Samsoon on political policy of Russia. When Russian and the Black Sea. The British or anti-Russian British influences are brought into contact and scheme of an intercontinental railroad would antagonism in Oriental courts and nations, the have this line extended to Bagdad, and con- former seem destined always to prevail. The nected with a road from India. The extension Russian policy, if less truthful and square, is of the Austrian railroads to Salonica, and the oftentimes more humane, generous, and subconnection of Vienna and Pesth with Con- stantially just, and is guided by a perfect stantinople by rail, would join this trans-Asian knowledge of the mind and character of the line to all the capitals of Europe by means of Oriental peoples, which centuries of contact a ferry across the Bosporus. The strategic can not give to the English. Persia is divided necessities connected with the defense of India, between English and Russian counsels, but the which constitute the main argument in favor geographical position of Russia, as well as her of the Euphrates Valley scheme with the active spirit of encroachment, and the intellectBritish, are now fully met by the Suez Canal. ual affinity between Russians and Orientals, The Russians are more active and sagacious give to her a decided advantage in the contest. than either the British or the Turks in their The Russian railroads already extend into the efforts to obtain railroad connection with Per- Persian dominions. Russia has acquired Ashusia, which is the key to both commercial and rada, the most commanding Persian port on the political supremacy. The road from St. Peters- Caspian, and has obtained the complete mariburg into the Caucasus, which has been built time supremacy on that sea. The military domsome time as far as Vladikavkas, is advancing ination and commercial primacy which Russia to Erivan, and a concession was obtained from now possesses in the northern provinces, which the Persian Government to extend it to the are the richest part of Persia, the abode of the