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OPIUM-TRAFFIC IN INDIA AND CHI- known, but it is believed to have been indulged NA. There have been indications during the in to some degree as a luxury by the mandayear of a renewed effort on the part of the au- rins of Canton. It was after this that the thorities of China to suppress or at least to cir- taste for the drug was revealed in a marked cumscribe the traffic in opium, with a view to degree among the official classes in China. restricting its consumption in that empire. At After 1767 the traffic rapidly increased to the same time the agitation has been continued about 1,000 chests annually, and the profit in England in favor of the policy of discour- which accrued from it, notwithstanding heavy aging the exportation of the drug from India. import duties, induced the British East India The difficulties in the way of this movement Company to enter into competition with the arise from the fact that both the Indian Gov- Portuguese in supplying the Chinese markets. ernment and China derive no inconsiderable Its first venture was made in 1773, and was part of their revenue from this trade, and in- followed by another on a larger scale three dulgence in the opium-habit among the Chi- years later. By this time the traffic bad been nese has become so prevalent as to suggest an made contraband by imperial edicts, and two almost universal resistance to measures calcu- vessels were left at anchor in Larks Bay, to lated to interfere with it. Originally the prod- the south of Macao, to serve as depots through uct of the opium poppy, which was cultivated which it could be carried on. At this time, it most successfully in Asiatic Turkey and Persia, is said, the drug, which cost 500 rupees a chest was used exclusively as an article of medicine. at Calcutta, was sold in China at a profit of There are evidences of the practice of opium about 100 per cent. The trade increased until eating and smoking among the Persian mag. in 1794 the importation of Indian opium nates of some centuries ago, and the example through English agents had risen to 1,500 seems to have been imitated by some of the chests. Hindoo princes of Rajpootana, and a few of the It was about the end of the last century that later emperors of the Ming dynasty in China; the practice of indulging in opium had made but the habit was not at all common until such progress as to be regarded as a national within a comparatively recent period. During evil, and to evoko vigorous efforts to suppress the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the total the trade in what was officially called "the supply in the East was very small, and derived flowing poison." In the year 1800 Hea King, chiefly from Asiatic Turkey and Persia. A who had recently succeeded his grandfather, small quantity of an inferior grade was pro- the illustrious Keen Lung, issued a formal procduced in the Chinese province of Yunnan, which lamation, not only forbidding the importation was either consumed locally or sent abroad for of the drug, but absolutely prohibiting its culmedicinal purposes. The Portuguese were the tivation in Yunnan. This was followed by sefirst to introduce Indian opium into China, vere edicts against all who cultivated, importwhich they did in small quantities through their ed, or consumed opium; but the mandarins of possessions of Goa and Macao. The amount Canton, for whom the trade was a prolific up to the year 1767 did not exceed 200 chests source of revenue, continued to connive at it, annually. The use to which it was put is not and it went on increasing. In 1827 it had risen
to 10,000 chests annually, and ten years later pated that the state derived from it a net profit amounted to more than 40,000. This progress of nearly £8,000,000, about one half of which had been made under all the difficulties, incon- came from the Bengal monopoly. Perhaps a veniences, and dangers of carrying on a purely million pounds in value of the product was contraband traffic. More vigorous efforts for destined for Burmah and the Malay settlements, its suppression led to the so-called “Opium but nearly eleven million pounds' worth was War” with England in 1840, which ended with sold to the Chinese. The difficulty of reinthe treaty of Nanking in 1842. This and the stating the policy of prohibiting or materially subsequent treaty of Peking presented the first restricting the opium-traffic is manifestly renrecognized basis of traffic between the English dered very great by its importance for revenue and Chinese, and gave opium a place among purposes to both the Chinese and British Indian the legal imports into China, thereby removing Governments. So far as it depends on negothe obstacles to the development of the traffic. tiations with Great Britain, the difficulty is The importation from India had reached 70,- further magnified by the fact that that nation 000 chests in 1856, and is now computed at does not share, to any appreciable degree, the about 90,000. Meantime the cultivation of the evil consequences it is desired to check, while poppy-seed had continued in Yunnan, and ex- its share of the financial benefit is very great. iended_to the neighboring province of Sech- To strike opium from the sources of revenue uen. Even after the treaties which followed for the Indian Government would necessitate a the “Opium War," the Emperor of China re- difficult readjustment of the finances of India. fused to recognize the traffic as a legitimate Another obstacle which the Chinese Govern. source of national revenue. He said: “It is ment is likely to encounter is to be found in true that I can not prevent the introduction of the remarkable increase in the home producthe flowing poison; gain-seeking and corrupt tion of opium in the provinces of Yunnan and men will, for profit and sensuality, defeat my Sechuen, and the almost universal prevalence wishes; but nothing will induce me to derive which the habit of opium-smoking has attained a revenue from the vice and misery of my peo- in a large part of the empire. While it is eviple.” This sentiment controlled the avowed dent, from recent utterances of the minister policy of the Government until after the second Li Hung Chang, that negotiations are likely to foreign war, which closed with the treaties of be opened with a view to restricting the imTien-tsin and Peking in 1858, after which a portation, there is little prospect of immediate party gained the ascendant which took a prac- success, either in the effort to suppress the tical view of utilizing the inevitable traffic as traffic from abroad or that within the empire, a source of revenue. The new tariff issued at or to circumscribe the use of the drug which that time recognized opium as a legal import, is regarded as so pernicious, so long as such and subjected it to a tax of 30 taels per picul
, powerful interests and such wide-spread popa, or about £10 sterling per chest. It was alsó lar tastes are arrayed against the policy, and made subject to transit dues after being re- the means of enforcing it are so inadequate in moved from the port.
consequence of the
character and attitude of a Not only has imported opium become a fruit- large part of the official and influential classes ful source of revenue to China, but it is a very in China. important article of taxation and profit for the OREGON. The Oregon State Woman SufBritish Indian Government. The poppy is frage Association met in Portland on the 8th grown and the drug manufactured chiefly in of February. The following resolutions were two special districts, the valley of the Ganges, adopted : about Patna and Benares, and a fertile table
Whereas, The social relations between men and land in Central India, which corresponds to women are mutual, their individual needs equal, and the old kingdom of Malwah and is for the most their conjugal interests identical ; and, part still under the rule of native princes, fore
Whereas, Man, by virtue of the law-making power, most among whom are Scindia and Holkar. as expressed through the ballot, has supreme advanThe cultivation of the poppy in the Malwah in providing for his individual needs, and in control
tage over woman in reaching exalted social positions, district is free, but a duty of £65 per chest is ling the individual interests of mutual conjugal relaraised on it as it passes through British terri- tions; and, tory. In Bengal, on the other hand, the pro- both unwise and unjust, and not to be continued ;
Whereas, This advantage of one over the other is duction of opium' is a government monopoly.
and, Outside of these two districts, with the excep Tlhereas, The era of physical force is rapidly givtion of Rajpootana and a few places in the ing way to the era of intellectual and moral influence Punjab, the cultivation of the poppy is pro- between men and men : therefore, hibited in India. The manufacture of the abolished wherever it exists between men and women.
Resolved, 1. That this same era of force should be opium of commerce from the juice of the pop 2. That the ballot is the key to men's advantage py grown in British territory is performed at over women; and women, who are by nature equal Patna and Ghazepoor, while that from the prod- with men, ought by right of law to be equally free and uct of the Malwah district is made at Indore independent with men in all things pertaining to their and Gwalior. In 1878–79 the total product domestic, civil, and political rights.
3. That what the ballot has done for man, native was 91,200 chests, of which the export value or foreign-born, it is equally capable of doing for was £12,993,985, and it was officially com- woman, and we demand it for her as a means of self
improvement, social advantage, and moral power, as receiving consideration from the political parties : well as political equality.
therefore, 4. That the present phase of the woman moveinent Resolved, That while in the judgment of this Allidoes not arise from domestic grievances, but from ance no separate political party should be formed, yet governmental injustice.
we should be consolidated in political action. 5. That woman suffrage is a question of human Resolved, That a balance-of-power party should be right, in exact accordance with the fundamental prin- now formed, whose members shall be pledged to conciples of a republican form of government.
certed action not to vote for any but temperance men. 6. That we demand the ballot as a practical appli Resolved, That a committee of twelve men be apcation of those principles of liberty and justice which pointed to outline and organize this work. are taught in every district school-among girls as Resolved, That we will unite our efforts, and we call well as boys.
upon all the friends of temperance in Oregon to unite 7. That the present phase of the woman movement with us in petitioning the next Legislature at Salem is practical, and it is woman's duty to assume the re- (1892) to enact a stringent civil damage law at that time. sponsibilities of citizenship whenever possible. 8. That the Executive Committee shall have the held in the same city, on the 30th of July, it
At a meeting of the Executive Committee, power to appoint picked men and women in county as committees upon political action, whose was determined to circulate petitions and take duty shall be to attend primary meetings and nomi- other measures to induce the Legislature at its nating conventions, and secure woman-suffrage planks next regular session to adopt the following conand resolutions in party platforms.
stitutional amendment: 9. That it is the sense of this convention that universal suffrage is both a civil and a natural right, ARTICLE I, SECTION 1. That the manufacture, sale, and as such it recognizes neither sex nor previous or the giving away, or the offering to sell or give away, condition of servitude.
of any or all kinds of spirituous, vinous, malt, or any 10. That as universal suffrage is a civil as well as other intoxicating liquor, within the State of Oregon, natural right, it carries with it the duties and obliga- is prohibited, except for medicinal, scientific, or metions of citizenship.
chanical purposes. 11. That it is the sense of this convention that God SEO. 2. The Legislative Assembly shall enforce this made it a law of this universe that justice is the high- article by appropriate legislation forth with after the est expediency.
adoption of said amendment. 12. "That wc heartily concur in the recent act of the
The exports to foreign countries of wheat State Legislature in granting equal property rights to
and flour froin Portland, for the last four calen13. That we thank the Legislature of 1880 for its dar years, have been as follow: just and generous act in passing a resolution for so amending the State Constitution that it may be legally possible for the next Legislature to submit the proposition for a constitutional woman-suffrage amendment to the vote of the people in 1884.
1,885,556 $1,976,772 102,943 14. That we will use all honorable means to elect
2,789,115 161,141 men to the Legislature of 1882 who are pledged to
1,762,515 1,845,637 sustain the woman's suffrage resolution passed by
4,076,508 8,765,232 874,480 1,484,311 the Legislature of 1880. The Oregon State Temperance Alliance met 503. From Astoria there were exported dur
The value of all exports in 1881 was $5,324,in Portland on the 16th of February. The ing the year 474,336 centals of wlieat, valued following are the resolutions adopted :
at $739,170; 49,652 barrels of flour, valued at Resolved, That the Oregon State Temperance Alo $248,752; and 342,149 cans of salmon, valued liance takes this the earliest opportunity afforded of expressing its protound disappointment and regret at
at $1,736,993. The total value of wheat and the course the Legislature of this state pursued in flour exported from the two ports was $6,312,refusing to pass a civil damage act for this State, or 425; and of all articles, $8,124,368. The imany act whatever to check the growth of the terrible ports to Portland amounted to $639,316; and scourge-intemperance. Resolved, That we renew our pledges never to cease
to Astoria, $220,218; total, $859,534. The enour work and labors until the organic law of the State tire shipments from the Columbia River for of Oregon is so anended as to for ever banish all kinds the year amounted in value to fully $14,000,000. and classes of intoxicating liquors from the State; and Adding to foreign exports shipments to San submitting to the voters of the State at as early a day Francisco, consisting of wheat, flour, wool, as possible, an amendment to the Constitution provid- salmon, and other products, the value of which in; for the entire prohibition of the manufacture, im- at a moderate estimate would be $6,000,000, portation, sale, or giving away as a beverage any in we have the total above indicated. Salmon toxicating liquor whatever.
alone shipped to San Francisco reached a total Resolved, That as an efficient means to the accomplishment of all the ends had in view by this alliance, of 222,000 cases, valued at $1,100,000. Wheat we look to and rely upon the assistance of the Chris- shipments to that city were about 400,000 centian Church and Christian people, as well as the united tals, valued at $600,000; and flour shipments, and hearty co-operation of all other organizations of 320,000 sacks, valued at about $400,000. Of the State whose object is to reclaim and reform the wool, 27,762 bales were shipped, having a value inebriate, and build up a strong and healthy temper- of about $1,400,000. Oats, flaxseed, potatoes, ance sentiment among the people.
Resolved, That we invite an lovers of temperance hides, hops, etc., would make up another half and sobriety, of all political parties, and all branches million of value. of the Christian Church, to join in the grand work of redeeming our State and nation from the curse of 150,000 tons of wheat in excess of the demands
The Willamette Valley yields an average of strong drink.
Whereas, The liquor interest in Oregon is organized for seed and home consumption. There has and consolidated as a political force, demanding and been little gain for four or five years, owing to
VOL. XX1.-45 A
1878.. 1879. 1880.. 1881..
1871.. 1872.. 1678.. 1874..
1876.. 1877.. 1578.. 1879.. 1850..
emigration from the valley to Eastern Oregon The number of patients in the Asylum for and Washington. The yield of the latter re the Insane is rapidly increasing, and was as gion in 1881, in excess of the demands for seed follows: Number of patients on June 1, 1881, and home consumption, is estimated at 100,000 304; admitted during the quarter, 33; retons, delivered at the shipping centers in about turned, 3; under treatment, 340; number disthe following proportions:
charged during the quarter, 23; died, 6; numWalla Walla.
22,000 ber of patients in hospital August 31, 1881, 311. Weston...
The admissions during the quarter were much Waitsburg
10,000 larger than ever before, and the sum paid by the Upper Snake River..
12,500 State for their care and treatment during the Milton..
5,000 Umatilla to mouth of Snake River.
10,000 quarter amounted to $20,282.85.
2,000 The total expenditure on account of the Various small shipping points..
10,000 School for Deaf-Mutes, for the year ending Total
100,000 According to the estimates of the Depart- enrolled, 31 ; average attendance, 27.
May 1, 1881, was $3,619.48; number of pupils ment of Agriculture, the wheat-crop of Oregon has been as follows: 1879, 7,486,492 bushels; Railway and Navigation Company owned the
At the beginning of the year, the Oregon 1880, 11,743,420 ; 1881, 13,889,000. The following table shows the canning of ington: From the Dalles to Walla Walla, one
following lines of road in Oregon and WashColumbia River salmon during the ten years hundred and fifty-eight miles; Blue Mountain ending 1880:
extension from Whitman Junction to the State line, fourteen miles; Cascade Portage, six miles.
During the year the company has acquired 85,000
by a lease of ninety-nine years the following
450,000 lines: Narrow-gauge line from Ray's Landing 244,000
to Brownsville, seventy miles; narrow-gauge 1675.. 291,000
line from Fulquartz's Landing to Airlie, fiftyThe census returns of 1880 show, on the three miles; narrow-gauge line from Sheridan Columbia River, twenty-nine canneries, having Junction to Sheridan, seven miles; narrowa capital of $1,100,000; product, 539,587 cases, gauge line from Perrydale to Smithfield, four and 25,900,176 pounds, in one-pound tins, val- miles. ued at $2,697,930; hands employed, 6,500. The same company has constructed the fol
The following are the principal towns and lowing lines during the year: From Walla Walcities, with their population, in 1880: Baker la to Texas Ferry, sixty miles; with Dayton City, 1,258; Corvallis, 1,128; Oregon City, branch from Bolles's Junction, thirteen miles ; 1,263; Astoria, 2,803; Eugene, 1,117; Albany, grade-work on line from the Dalles to the Cas1,867; Salem, 2,538, Portland, 17,578; East cades, forty-six miles; grade-work from UmaPortland, 2,409; Dalles, 2,232.
tilla to Pendleton, thirty miles. The gold product of the State for the year During 1882 the company will build the folending June 30, 1880, was $1,090,000; silver, lowing lines: From Umatilla toward Baker $15,000.
City as far as possible-probably one hundred The following statement shows the amount miles; from Portland on to a point on the Oreof State taxes due from the several counties in gon side of the Columbia two miles below the State, as levied for the year 1881, together Kalama, forty-three miles ; to extend the Colwith the total amount of taxable property:
fax road from Rebel Flat to a point on the Northern Pacific Railroad, forty miles east of Ainsworth, fifty miles.
The Oregon and California Railroad ComBaker..
$1,027,542 $5,651 47
pany now owns two lines of road—from Port2,450,446
2,069,900 11,384 45 land to Roseburg, two hundred miles; from Clatsop
1,418,612 7,967 85 Portland to Corvallis, one hundred miles. 899,345
During 1882 it will extend the east side line
865,574 4,760 64 Curry.
276,532 1,522 56 toward the junction with the California end of Douglas.
2,426,820 13,847 51
the line as far as possible.
The Oregon Pacific Company during 1882 Josephine..
propose to build a line from Yaquina Bay eastLake
ward toward Boisé City as far as possible, Lane.
8,396,849 18,679 90
probably one hundred and fifty miles.
The relations of the Northern Pacific RailMultnomah
13,903,205 76,467 62
2,408,279 13,245 51 road and the Oregon Railway and Navigation Tillamook
Company are set forth in the report of PresiUmatilla
2,941,625 16,178 95
dent Villard to the stockholders of the latter,
8,221,200 17,716 60 dated September 15th, in which he says that his Washington.
18,9 Yam Hill..
operations “resulted in the concentration of a 8,476,382 19,120 09
controlling interest in the stocks of the two comTotal .... $59,256,175 $325,908 75
panies in an association of individuals, includ
8.986 17 1.770 14 4,224 46
501 6.066 2,251 4,778
ing the principal stockholders of our company. ii, 26, 27). The sect was founded by M. H. This control over both corporations is now G. Spafford, formerly a ruling elder in the transferred to a third corporation, the Oregon Presbyterian Church, who was engaged in the and Transcontinental Company, with an au- revival meetings that were held in Chicago thorized capital of $50,000,000, of which, how a few years ago under the preaching of Mr. ever, only $30,000,000 is to be issued at pres- D. L. Moody. Mr. Spafford was led, by the ent, and is now in process of being paid in. studies which his participation in the revival The large proprietary interest of this company meetings incited him to make, to the acceptin the other companies is the very best guar ance of the doctrine, which was at variance antee to the latter that its power will only be with the confession of his own church, that exercised to promote their legitimate develop- only those who “overcome,” or wholly conment to the fullest extent. Or, in other words, verted Christians, are immediately saved, while the new company can only promote its own all others, including the mass of the persons interest as a great bolder of Oregon Railway regarded in the Orthodox churches as and Navigation and Northern Pacific stocks by verted," are "hurt at the second death," and taking the best care of every other stockholder cast into the lake of fire, where they remain in both companies.”
and suffer till they are purified; and that The State elections and the sessions of the punishment is not eternal, but “ age-abiding," Legislature are held biennially. The next occurs and lasts only until the purification is accomin 1882. (See “ Annual Cyclopædia" of 1880.) plished. He was excluded from his church
The population of the State by counties in for heresy, when he, together with a number 1880, as compared with 1870, was as follows: of other church-members who, having adopted
his views, had withdrawn from their churches, organized a new congregation. The Over
comers believe that the Scriptures are the in4,616
spired word of God, and accept the doctrine of
5,993 the Trinity; and they claim that their church Clatsop.
was organized with Abraham, and has since
that time been buried away as a church, but Curry
that the religion to which it testifies has been Douglas.
represented by, sanctified persons in the cor
porate Church throughout the intervening ages. Josephine.
At the same time, they renounce church organizations, and teach that the true children of
God, who constitute the “Bride of Christ," 25,203
11,510 are called to step out and show the world in Polk..
their lives—in every movement of their lives Tillamook.
2,916 -a higher type of absolute holiness, urging a 6,650
2,552 complete and entire consecration of the whole
being to the service of God. They hold that
5,012 all souls will finally be restored through the
atoning blood of Christ, but that, if a soul is 174,768
not entirely consecrated to the service of God OVERCOMERS. A new sect of Christian punishment. Some of the sect are said to be
in this life, it must suffer severe purgatorial believers has sprung up near Chicago, Illinois, lieve that they possess a degree of inspiration and has made a considerable number of conversions among persons who are described as
and gifts of healing, such as were exercised by belonging to the " comfortably situated and
the apostles on the day of Pentecost. A conmore intelligent classes of society." It is
gregation of Overcomers has been organized commonly known as the sect of the “Over- another, a larger one, at Valparaiso, Indiana.
at Lake View, near Chicago, Illinois, and comers," the name being derived from the A party of seventeen persons of this sect application of the word "overcome” as it used in the following passages in the second started during the summer of 1881 for Paleschapter of Revelation and in other parts of the mission to gather the Jews into the land of
tine, where, they believe, they had a divine New Testament: “He that overcometh shall their inheritance, and rule over them. not be hurt at the second death” (Rev. ii, 11);
The " To him that overcometh will I give to eat of failure of the oyster-beds of the New England
OYSTER-BEDS, DETERIORATION OF. the hidden manna, and will give him a white and Middle States, the deterioration of those stone, and in the stone a new name written, lying in Southern waters, and the necessity of which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it” (Rev. ii, 17); “ He that overcometh, governments or by individuals, to maintain
some efforts, either upon the part of the State and keepeth my words unto the end, to him the supply of oysters in sufficient numbers to will be given power over the nations : and he satisfy the large and increasing demand of the shall rule over them with a rod of iron ” (Rev. consumers, bave of late excited much atten* In 1875, from part of Jackson.
tion. There is no doubt that the natural beds
4,831 1.203 9,596 4,303 8,154 2,185 2,804 9,411 12 676 14,576