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fel Cabinet. Two years after he entered the dip- titled "La Gloria del tirano Rosas," cited on a plomatic service as Consul-General at Antwerp. par with a remarkable paper on the political In 1859 he went to China and Japan as Em- situation of the Argentine Confederation conbassador Extraordinary to secure commercial sequent upon the victory of Monte Caseros. treaties. In 1862 Bismarck, soon after he had He afterward, as Envoy Extraordinary and risen to the head of affairs, called him into his Minister Plenipotentiary to Chili, served his Cabinet as Minister of the Interior. Bismarck, government with zeal and ability in the proRoon, and Fritz Eulenberg carried through the tracted discussion of the question of limits beplans for the solution of the Schleswig-Hol- tween the two republics. Several times depstein question, and the accomplishment of Ger- uty, he was once called to the presidency of man unity under the Prussian headship, only by the Chambers. His opinions savored somebreaking the sacredly pledged charter of repre- what of asceticism. sentative rights. In the hot conflict between the GARNIER, JOSEPH, a French political econotrio and the will of the nation, Eulenberg's best- mist and senator; died September 25th. IIe known act was the suppression of the freedom was born at a village near Nice, in 1813, and of the press. The great work of his life was studied at the School of Commerce in Paris, in the unification of the system of administration in which he became a professor. In 1844 he was the Prussian dominions, the old as well as those appointed Professor of Political Economy at conquered in the Danish and German wars. the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées. He was With Bismarck he formed the alliance with the elected a senator in 1876. He edited the National Liberal party, a step of the highest "Journal des Economistes," was an organizer historical moment, that was chiefly due to his of the Free-Trade Association and of peace influence; and when Bismarck broke the al- congresses, and wrote several text-books on liance, and struck out on new political courses, political economy. he parted with Eulenberg. After the latter's GOULD, John, an English ornithologist; died dismissal, in 1878, from the ministry, his half- in London, February 3d, at the age of seventycompleted administrative reforms were neg seven years. The fruit of his explorations in lected, and in important features altered and Australia was his remarkable work, “ The Birds abandoned.
of Australia,” and one on Australian mamFörster, Heinrich, Prince-Bishop of Bres- mals. He also wrote a standard work on humlau, born November 24, 1799; died October ming-birds, and one on the birds of the Hima20, 1881. He studied theology in the Univer- layas, which was his earliest production. sity of Breslau, and in the clerical seminary in Gholam Hussein Khan, an Indian official that city, and was ordained as priest in 1825. who rendered important services in establishHe soon gained considerable celebrity as a pul- ing British rule in the Punjab; died in March, pit-orator, and in 1837 was appointed to the at the age of sixty. He was a Pathan chief by cathedral in Breslau. In 1853 he was elected birth. His assistance in the Sikh wars and the Prince-Bishop of Breslau, and did much to pro- Sepoy mutiny was indispensable, and in peace mote the spiritual and temporal welfare of the time his services in accust oming the native members of his diocese. When the conflict races to British administration were equally between the church and state arose in Prus- valuable. He was envoy to Dost Mohammed, sia, he stood firmly by the church, and in 1875 and formed friendly personal relations with was deposed by the Prussian Government, and Shere Ali, but was unable in the then existing took up his residence at Johannesberg, in the political situation to secure the favorable reAustrian part of his diocese.
ception of an English envoy at Cabool, when Frias, Félix, an Argentine publicist and sent on that mission in 1878. In the late war diplomat, son of the distinguished lawyer Don he was on his way to join Cavagnari at Cabool, Félix Ignacio Frias, was born in 1820, and when the massacre of the English mission took died at Paris in 1881. He came early into no- place. Gholam Hussein received for bis servtice as an eloquent denouncer and uncompro- ices the titles of Khan Bahadoor, Nawab, and mising opponent of Rosas, in the general move- Knight Commander of the Star of India. ment against whose dictature he took so active Hall, Anna Maria, née FIELDING, a British a part as caused him to be driven into exile. authoress, born in 1805, in County Wexford, In the neighboring Republic of Chili he pub- Ireland; died January 30, 1881. As early as lished several works which gained for him 1829 she gained considerable celebrity by her lasting renown; and later, in France, the pro- “Sketches of Irish Character” (latest edition, duction of others, inspired by his intimacy 1871), which was followed by “Chronicles of with Montalembert, added fresh luster to his a School-Room” (1831), and the novels, “ The name. After the battle of Monte Caseros (Feb- Buccaneers” (1832), "Tales of Women's Triruary, 1852), which decided the overthrow of als ” (1835), “The Outlaws," a tale from the the dictator, Frias returned to his native land time of James II (1833), and “Uncle Horace" and became editor-in-chief of “El Órden,” (1837). Her “Lights and Shadows of Irish dignified journal devoted to the consideration, Life" (1838) is regarded as her best work, from an elevated point of view, of the true in- During this time she also produced a drama. terests of the country. Conspicuous among “The French Refugee.” Then followed a very the historical works due to his pen is that en- large number of works of various kinds, among
which are “The Redderbox," an Irish novel a new career for himself, as did some of his (1839); “ The Book of Royalty : Characteristics compatriots. He even refused brilliant diploof British Palaces” (1839); “Marian " (1840), matic positions, feeling an honorable reluctance her most popular novel; “The White Boy" to accept a personal gain in requital for the (1815); “ Stories and Studies from the Chron- effective services he performed for the party to icles and History of England” (1847); “Mid- which he attached himself. The anti-slavery summer-Eve” (1848); “A Woman's Story” cause awakened all the passion and enthusiasm (1857); “ Can Wrong be Right?” (1862); “The of his nature, and to the end of his life he was Fight of Faith" (1869); and “ The Rift in the an indefatigable and powerful stump-orator on Rock” (1871). În 1852 she became the editor the Republican side. He joined the Repubof Sharp's " London Magazine," and in 1860 of lican party on its formation, and in the civil the “St. James Magazine." She was mar war led a regiment of volunteers in Fremont's ried to Samuel Carter Hall, who was also well division of the Northern army. He resigned known as an author.
his colonelcy in 1864, and devoted himself Hecker, Friedrich, one of the leading spir- thenceforth to agricultural occupations. Durits and popular heroes of the democratic upris. ing the Franco-German War he uttered inspiring in Germany in 1848; died at St. Louis, U. iting words of hope and sympathy for the cause S. A., March 24, 1881. Born September 28, of the Fatherland; but when he visited Ger1811, at Eichtersheim, in Baden, he went to many, in 1873, he felt a keen disappointment school in Mannheim, and studied law at Heidel- at the actual political condition, though he deberg. Commencing practice as an advocate tected the rising spirit of liberty. at Mannheim in 1838, he plunged at once into HEEMSKERK, M. J., a Dutch statesman; died political life, and was elected to the Baden in January, 1881. He had for a long time repAssembly in 1842. His expulsion from the resented Haarlem, and afterward Amsterdam, Prassian dominions, upon a visit to Berlin with in the States-General, in which body he had Itzstein in 1845, made his name known in all been for a long time the most prominent repGerman lands. His spirit, vitality, and re resentative of the Liberal party. He was exmarkable eloquence made him exceedingly pop- aminer-in-chief for the diplomatic service, a ular. He was carried further and further by councilor of state, and author of several rethe drift of the age toward republicanism, un markable treatises on history and on English til he openly took ground with Struve as a constitutional law. Republican and Socialist-Democrat when the HILDEBRANDT, THEODOR, a German explorer, arrangements for a German Parliament were was born May 19, 1847, in Düsseldorf; died on under discussion in Heidelberg among the rev the Island of Madagascar, May 29, 1881. He was olutionary politicians. From this time he be- educated in the gymasium at Düsseldorf, entered came the hero of the masses, and the exponent a machine-shop at the age of seventeen, in acof their democratic aspirations. His political cordance with the request of his father, but, as plans he could not bring the majority of the he lost an eye here, he devoted himself to the Constituent Assembly to accept. He then ap- study of botany. He was filled at an early age pealed to the masses. Appearing at the head with a desire to travel, and for this purpose of columns of working-men, who bad marched studied Arabic. In March, 1871, he set out on from the interior of France, he unfolded the his first journey to Eastern Africa, where he banner of the social republic, and advanced explored the shores of the Red Sea. The geowith his revolutionary army into the highlands logical, botanical, zoological, and ethnological of Baden from Constance. He was beaten by collections which he sent to Berlin attracted so the Baden soldiery at Kandern, May 20, 1848, louch attention that he received considerable and retreated into Switzerland. There he pecuniary assistance from the African and Anlearned that the National Assembly, which had thropological Associations and the Academy of met meanwhile at Frankfort, had denounced Sciences. In 1874 he was compelled by sickhim as a traitor. His enthusiastic hopes of a ness to return to Berlin, just as he was about great revolution completely dashed, with the to depart on a journey to the country of the prospect of a felon's death before him, he fled Gallas. He set out on his second journey in to America in September. The following year, June, 1875, went again to Eastern Africa, and at the news of the “May revolution," bis san made many valuable botanical discoveries on guine spirit mounted again, only to be more this trip. In 1877 he was again compelled effectually casi down when he learned, upon by sickness to return, and on February 20, hastening to the scene, that the abortive revo- 1879, set out on his third and last journey. lution was already ended.
He sent homo many valuable collections of Hecker recrossed the Atlantic, and became a specimens of all kinds, and was highly prized on citizen of the American Republic. He settled this account. down as a farmer in Illinois. Like others of Keller, Dr. FERDINAND, of Zürich, the discorthe German revolutionists of that epoch, who erer of the Swiss lake-dwellings, born Decemfound a refuge and more congenial political in-ber 24, 1800; died July 21st. After studying stitutions in the United States, he took a part in Switzerland and in Paris he became the tutor in American politics, but did not become im- of an English boy, the late Henry Danby Seymersed in American political affairs, nor make mour, M. P., and afterward teacher of English
in the Technical Institute at Zürich. He ac way which suited the spirit of the times, and quired a name, by his researches in geology and secured for the work a wide popular reception. archæology, before his great discovery of the Of his great work, the "System of Philosophy, pile-dwellings, in the winter of 1853, at Ober- only " Logic" (1874, second edition, 1980) and meilen.
Metaphysics" (1879) were completed. Though KUTSCHKER, Cardinal, Prince-Archbishop of infused with a vein of idealism, Lotze's philosVienna, born at Wiese, in Silesia, April 11, ophy approaches very closely the teachings of 1810; died January 24th. He studied theology Herbart and the materialistic school. in the Vienna University and in the Seminary MACDONALD, ALEXANDER, the member for of St. Augustine, was ordained a priest in Stafford, and Workingmen's representative in 1833, and advanced to a doctorate in 1834. the British Parliament, died October 31st. He From 1835 to 1852 he was Professor of Moral was born in 1821, and began to work in the coalTheology in the University of Olmütz. In the lines of Lanarkshire, beside his father, when latter year he was appointed chaplain to the but seven years of age, and was a working miner court at Vienna, and two years later a mem- until 1851. He studied at evening schools ber of the Ministerial Council for Instruction so faithfully that he was able to attend certain and Worship. He took a prominent part in classes in the Glasgow University, and when the alterations wrought in the education and he left the mines he taught school for four or marriage laws, and it was owing in a great de- five years. From that time he devoted himself gree to his prudence and skill that the Concor- entirely to publicly championing the interests dat was abrogated and the confessional laws of the mine-operatives, among whom he first acmaterially modified without a breach between quired the lead in a strike in Lanarkshire, while the Government and Rome. Vicar-General working in the mines. He labored earnestly and Suffragan Bishop of the Archiepiscopal Di- as executive officer in miners' associations, ocese since 1862, he succeeded Cardinal Rau- and in the general election of 1874, and again scher as archbishop in:1876, and received his in 1880, he was returned to Parliament as an nomination as cardinal in 1877.
advanced Liberal for Stafford. In the shrewd LAFAYETTE, OSCAR DE, a French senator, and speculative venture of smuggling quinine into grandson of the Marquis de Lafayette, born in the Southern States through the Charleston 1816; died March 27, 1881. Ile entered the blockade, he won a handsome fortune with a army in 1835 as an officer in the artillery, took meager sum which he had saved. Notwithpart in several campaigns in Algeria, and rose standing his radical views and his anomalous to the rank of captain. In 1848 he was ap- position as a representative of labor in Parliapointed by the Provisional Government Com- ment, he won the ear of the House of Commissioner of the Republic in the department of mons, and was always heard with attention on Seine-et-Marne, and was elected by this depart- questions affecting the industrial classes. ment a member of the Constituent Assembly, MACEDO, Conselheiro ManoEL BUARQUE DE, where he acted with the Republican Center. a Brazilian statesman, born at Pernambuco After the coup d'état he retired from public on March 1, 1837; died August 29, 1881. He life, and did not return to it until, in 1870, the graduated in law at the University of Brussels third republic was proclaimed. In 1871 he be- in 1859, and in the following year was apcame a member of the National Assembly, and pointed fiscal engineer of the Recife (Pernamwas elected by that body a life-senator. Short- buco) and San Francisco Railway. In 1874, ly before his death he received an invitation although a Liberal, he was given, by the then from the United States to attend the Yorktown Conservative Cabinet, the important post of celebration.
Director of the Department of Agriculture, a Le FAURE, AMÉDÉE, member of the French position for which his talents and specific abilChamber of Deputies, and known as a critic ity rendered bim eminently eligible. Deputy and author on military affairs; died November for Pernambuco in 1877, and re-elected in 1878, 22d, aged forty-three years.
he took so prominent a part in the legislative disLotze, Hermann, one of the leading philoso- cussions of 1878–79 that he was considered one phers of Germany, born at Bautzen, May 21, of the leaders in the Chamber. On the retire1817; died at Berlin, July 1st, having been ment of Conselheiro Sinimbú's Cabinet in 1880, called to the university a few months before, he succeeded that gentleman as Minister of Agfrom Göttingen, where he had officiated as pro- riculture and Public Works, and remained in fessor since 1844. His “General Pathology" possession of the portfolio until the time of his (1842) won him a name in the medical world, death. Long experience with the details of his which was enhanced by “General Physiolo- department, professional skill, and an energy gy" and "Medical Psychology," published ten strongly contrasting with the habitual supineyears later. His “Metaphysics" (1841) and ness of public men in his country, foreshadowed "Logic" (1843), and two treatises on ästhetics, in Macedo at once a brilliant statesman and a gave him possession of the field to which his leading agent in the solution of the most pressactivity was afterward confined. The “Micro- ing problems of the day for Brazil-immigracosmus” (1856-'64, third edition, 1876-'80), a tion, labor, and internal communication. philosophical work on anthropology, reconciled McHale, John, Archbishop of Tuam, O'Conmodern science with German philosophy in a nell's powerful ally in the Repeal agitation,
and one of the most distinguished and popu- born July 20, 1842, the eldest son of Prince lar of Irish Roman Catholic prelates, died No- Joseph Colloredo-Mannsfeld, and after serving vember 7th, at the age of ninety, having been some years in the army, entered upon his poborn March 6, 1791. He was the son of a litical career as deputy in 1872, and was called small tenant farmer at Tobernaveen, in the to the ministry in 1875. county of Mayo. His earliest instruction was MARIETTE Bey, the organizer of the Boolak received clandestinely under hedge-rows from Museum at Cairo, and director of Egyptian exthe Catholic village schoolmaster, who was cavations; died January 18th. The deceased persecuted in those days, although the laws French Egyptologist, without possessing the inaking it a felony for him to teach had been highest degree of learning in his department, repealed. He was sent to school at Castlebar had a talent for discovery, and furnished more at the age of twelve or thirteen, where he materials for Egyptian archæology than the relearned the rudiments of the classics. Entered searches of all other persons in recent times. in 1807 at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, as Mason, Sir Josian, an English philanthroan ecclesiastical student, he made brilliant pist; died in June, at the age of eighty-six. He progress in scholarship. Before reaching the was born of humble parentage, February 23, canonical age he was ordained a priest, and 1795, at Kidderminster, and commenced life as assisted the Professor of Dogmatic Theology, a street hawker of cakes and fruit. After trywhom, six years later, he succeeded. When ing his hand at various trades, he found emhis authorship of the powerful letters in de- ployment in making metallic toys at Birmingfense of the Roman Catholic Church and its ham, and soon started as a manufacturer of system, published in the newspapers over the split steel rings, and afterward of steel pens, signature of “ Hierophilos,” became known, of which he was one of the inventors. He behe was marked out for a more prominent posi- came the largest manufacturer of pens in the tion in the priesthood in that time of agitation world, besides carrying on other industrial esand controversy, when the Church felt the tablishments. He received no education, but need of bringing its strongest men to the front. taught himself to write when a shoemaker's Accordingly, in 1825, he was consecrated à apprentice. The sense of his own misfortune bishop as coadjutor to the Bishop of Killala. in this regard prompted him to the generous His learned work on "The Evidences and Doc- endowment of the orphanage at Erdington, trines of the Church" had already extended where he resided, where five hundred children his reputation abroad. His pen was vigorously are supported and instructed; and the more employed in aid of O'Connell's labors in the magnificent and important benefaction of the Catholic Association. In 1834 he was pro- Mason Science College, where only science and moted to the highest order of the clergy as useful knowledge will be taught. Archbishop of Tuam. In the political contro MIALL, EDWARD, member of the British Parversy which waxed hotter, and the agitation liament and a leader in the disestablishment with which Ireland was heaving, and Great movement; died April 30th, at the age of sevenBritain worked into a fever in the next decade, ty-two. He was in early life a Congregationalthe “Lion of the Fold of Judah," as the arch- ist minister; he founded “The Non-conformbishop was called by his friend O'Connell, was ist " newspaper in 1841, and gathered around the next prominent figure to the “Liberator,” him a party of political Dissenters. From 1852, and after the death of the latter he was the when he was elected for Rocbdale, to 1874, leader of the Irish movement. His caustic and when he retired from public life, he was the impassioned polemical letters in the newspa- champion of the Dissenters in Parliament, and pers, bearing the familiar signature, “ John, a prominent agitator outside for the removal Archbishop of Tuam," treated of all the burning of their political grievances. questions of the time-national education, the STREET, GEORGE EDMUND, an English arcbi. tithes, the poor laws, the charitable bequest tect; died December 23d. He was born in act, the great famine, the tenant right, and the 1824, at Woodford, and studied architecture repeal agitations; and when O'Connell held his under Sir Gilbert Scott. His master's work meetings of the peasantry near Connemara, the in reviving Gothic architecture was carried archbishop was always at his side.
forward by Street, whose restorations and deIn the meetings of the Vatican Council in signs accord better with the spirit of the medi1869 and 1870 Archbishop McHale spoke more æval models than the earlier products of the than once, and was the first to announce its Gothic revival. His principal works are the decrees in Ireland. He was most conscientious nave of Bristol Cathedral and the unfinished in the discharge of clerical duties, and labored Royal Courts of Justice in London. Many in the hamblest pastoral functions as actively churches were built after his designs. He as the youngest priest almost to the close of his wrote extensively on the subject of Gothic long life.
architecture, his principal works being "The MANNSFELD, Count HIERONYMUS, Minister of Brick and Marble Architecture of North Italy Agriculture of Austro-Hungary in the Auer- in the Middle Ages" (1855), and “Some Acsperg Cabinet; died of scarlatina, at Blanken- count of Gothic Architecture in Spain " (1865). berghe, July 29th. He was one of the leaders UOHATIUS, Lieutenant Field-Marshal Baron of the Constitutional party in Austria. He was Franz von, of the Austrian army, took his
own life, at the age of seventy, in a fit of inelan- studied the theory of music with Sechter. choly occasioned by a sense of slighted merits After a short trip to England, he went to Paris, and wounded dignity. General Uchatius won where he received lessons in composition from his advancement from the ranks to one of the Reicha. From this time on he was constantly highest positions in the army through his in- traveling, except for six years when he was ventive genius. He served as a cannoneer from first violin soloist to the Emperor of Russia. his nineteenth to his thirty-third year, when he He made several visits to America. He was was rewarded with a commission. In 1866 he also a composer of great merit, and his works, was appointed superintendent of the gun-foun- no less than his playing, were remarkable for dry, with the rank of major; a year later he was combining the vigor of the modern school of made a colonel, in 1874 major-general, and in music with the purity of the classics. 1879 lieutenant field-marshal. He was com WEBER, KARL PHILIPP Max MARIA Von, a mandant of the artillery arsenal since 1871. German railroad manager, was born April 25, While a lieutenant he invented a new fuse, and 1824; died April 19, 1881. He was a son of paved the way for his improvements in the the great composer Karl Maria von Weber, manufacture of cannon. He used balloons for and was educated at the Polytechnic School casting bombs at the siege of Venice in 1849. at Dresden, and, after having traveled through For the testing of metals in the arsenal, he con- the different countries of Europe and parts structed new apparatus. In 1856 he devised a of Northern Africa, he entered the service of new inethod for the production of steel, and Saxony in 1850, which he exchanged for the from that time devoted his attention to increas- Austrian service, and subsequently entered the ing the strength of guns. He first constructed Prussian Ministry of Commerce in 1878. Ile cannon with concentric metal bands. In 1874 was the author of a large number of works on he perfected the invention of steel-bronze, railroads, among which are " Technik des Eisenwhich in popular speech bears his name and bahnbetriebs" (1854); "Schule des Eisenbahnwhich has rendered it illustrious. The whole wesens” (third edition, 1873), which was transof the Austrian field artillery was cast anew lated into nearly all the languages of Europe; from Uchatius bronze.
“Telegraphen- und Signalwesen der Eisenbab. UHRICH, General, the defender of Strasburg, nen" (1867); and "Nationalität und Eisenbahnwho received at first extravagant praise, and politik ” (1876). He also wrote a biography of then unqualified blame, retiring into private his father, which was highly prized. life after the severe judgment passed upon him OHIO.' On the 15th of November, 1880, the by an investigating commission in 1873, died public debt of the State was $6,476,805.30, of at Paris, October 24th, aged seventy-nine which all but $1,665 was foreign debt, payable years.
in New York. Of this amount $2,500 was a VERBOECKHOVEN, EUGÈNE, a Belgian painter, loan payable July 1, 1868, and not bearing inborn June 8, 1799 ; died January 20, 1881. His terest, and $4,072,640.30 loan payable after father, who was an excellent sculptor, wished June 30, 1881, bearing 6 per cent interest. him to follow his profession, but he devoted During the first half of the year redemptions himself almost entirely to painting. He ex were made, by cash payments and the canhibited his first work, an Amazon, in the Salon cellation of State certificates, as follows: of Brussels in 1821, and soon became one of the Loan payable July 1, 1868, not bearing interest $2,500 00 most popular painters of animals. He took an Loan payable after June 30, 1861, bearing 6 per active part in the War of Independence of
1,272,640 80 1830, immediately after the close of which he Total payments.....
$1,275,140 80 painted a picture representing the Belgian sion bursting his chains, which was lithographed
Total outstanding July 1, 1891. $5,201,665 00 and had a large sale. One of his best paintings, The sixty-fourth General Assembly authora flock of sheep surprised by a storm, is in thé ized the Fund Commissioners to place a loan Modern Royal Museum in Brussels. His pict- of $2,800,000, bearing date July 1, 1882, with ures were eagerly sought for and commanded interest at 4 per cent, payable semi-annually, good prices, particularly in England, Russia, and maturing in installments as per statement and America. He also occasionally devoted below. The loan was placed at a premium of himself to sculpture, exhibiting at an histor- $105,000, thus securing it at a rate of interest ical exhibition at Brussels, in 1880, a colossal of about 30 per cent. The fact that this lion.
loan was secured at a rate of interest less than VIEUXTEMPs, Henry, a Belgian violinist, born has yet been paid by any State, or by the United at Verviers, February 17, 1820; died at Algiers, States, attests the high financial standing of June 6, 1881. At the age of six years he played the State. The loan was applied to the payon the violin in public with so much success, ment of a like amount of State certificates that the King of Holland granted a pension which, with $1,275,140.30 from the sinking for the completion of his musical education, fund, paid and canceled $4,075,140.30 of fundand he at once entered on a complete course ed debt due July 1st. of study under M. de Bériot, the most brilliant On the 15th day of November, 1881, the soloist of that period. In 1833 he made his public funded debt of the State was $5,201,first trip to Germany, and while in Vienna 665. This sum consists of the following loans: