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lished a business. At the breaking out of the moved to Springfield. In April, 1849, he patwar, Colonel Race was chosen captain of the ented "combination lock," of which Hobbs, City Guard, and went out with the Confed- after having picked all the locks brought to him erates when the city was captured by the in London, said, “It can not be picked.” This Union forces. He served on General Hardee's lock was also patented in England. At about staff, and only at the close of the war returned this time he invented an improvement on the to New Orleans to resume his practice. In first iron lathe dog, which can now be seen in 1866 the firm of Race & Foster was joined any machine-shop. A peg-splitting machine by Judge Merrick, who had been Chief-Justice and two sewing-machines were also invented of the State of Louisiana. Although Mr. Race by him. Next he invented the patent clotheswas before the public for thirty-four years, he pin. In 1860 he commenced the manufacture never mingled in politics, and held no office of a spring hook-and-eye, for which he also inexcept the position on Governor Wickliffe's vented the machinery. The blanket-book was staff, with the rank of colonel. He was a also his invention. Not least among the invenprominent Odd-Fellow and Mason, holding im- tions of Mr. Smith was the machinery by wbich portant commissions of trust in each of these his patent machines were made. Besides perorganizations.

fecting the ideas of other parties who secured Saulsbury, Eli, ex-Governor of Delaware, patents, he had taken out about sixty, among died August, 1881. He was probably the most which was that for the machinery now used in able and accomplished Governor that Delaware folding newspapers. Although his inventive had had for several generations, and his admin- genius was so comprehensive, his talents were istration was such as might have been expect- not, as is sometimes the case, confined to invened from one actively engaged in publio affairs tions. from his early manhood. He was considered SNEAD, J. TIMBERLAKE, born near Ashland, a model American citizen, equally faithful in Kentucky, June 10, 1820; died in New York, the discharge of political duty, from a primary December 17, 1881. The paternal plantation election in his own neighborhood to active of Colonel Snead adjoined that of Henry Clay, participation in the National Convention of who was the early instructor and partner of his party. As a private individual his charac- Snead. In politics he was a Henry Clay Whig, ter for honor, integrity, and Christian benevo- and he retired from public affairs when his lence was without blemish. He was a warm chief was defeated for the presidency. In friend of education, and was largely instru- 1850 he went among the Indian tribes on mental in establishing the Wilmington Confer- the Plains, and spent four years studying their ence Academy at Dover, which institution was character and customs. Subsequently he visactively supported by him to the end of his ited the Mormon territory, and there remained life.

for one year. At the outbreak of the war he Sheldon, Rev. George, D. D., born at North left Washington and joined the Confederate ampton, Massachusetts; died at Princeton, New ranks. He was wounded three times in one Jersey, June 16, 1881. Dr. Sheldon graduated battle. At one time he was attached to Genat Williams College in 1835, and afterward at eral Joe Johnston's command, and at another Andover Theological Seminary. Previous to in charge of an independent command. At 1818 he was eight years pastor of a Presbyterian the close of the war he returned to Washingchurch in South Carolina. After that time he ton. Colonel Snead originated and was for a devoted himself to the circulation of the Bible, time at the head of the Fort St. Philip Canal and was Superintendent of the American Bible enterprise; after that, various railroad schemes Society in New Jersey and Delaware. In 1862 engaged his attention, and later still he organhe received the degree of D. D. from Jefferson ized the Combination Trust Company of PhilaCollege, Pennsylvania. He was an active mem- delphia. In connection with English capitalber of the New Jersey Historical Society, and ists, two years ago, he bought the controlling published an historical sketch of the colony interest in the Continental Railroad Company, which left Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1796, of which he was president at the time of his for South Carolina and Georgia.

death. SMITH, DAVID M., was born in Iartland, Ver SPOONER, ALDEN J., born in Brooklyn, New mont, 1809; died at Springfield, Vermont, Now York; died in Hempstead, Long Island, Auvember, 1881. When about twelve years old gust 2, 1881, aged seventy-three. He was tho he began to learn the carpenter's trade, in Gil- oldest son of Alden Spooner, the founder of sum, New Hampshire. At nineteen he was the “Long Island City Star," and, after his teaching school in Gilsum, and later on he com father's death, he with his brother carried on menced the manufacture of “awls on the haft,” the paper for many years. He was educated for of which he had granted him, October 25, 1832, the law, studying in the office of Silas Wood, letters-patent that were signed by Andrew at Huntington; but that profession was not Jackson. The awl-haft manufactured ander congenial to his taste, although he practiced it this patent was nearly, if not quite, identical in the Brooklyn courts for thirty years. His with the one now known as the Aiken awl. tastes were early turned to local history, and He represented the town of Gilsum in the New he wrote many articles on the Indians of Long Hampshire Legislature for 1840–41, when he Island. He was also a writer on literary sub

jects, and the author of the biographies of many guished men were frequently entertained by of Brooklyn's most noted men. His chief work, him in the trout-fishing season. perhaps, was the founding of the Long Island VETROMILLE, EUGÈNE, born at Gallipoli, ItHistorical Society. He drew up the original aly; died at Gallipoli, August 23, 1881. Facircular for the society in 1863, and obtained ther Vetromille came to America at the age the sigpatures. He contributed at once five of twenty-one, and traveled so extensively and hundred and fifty-three bound volumes and familiarly among the Indians that he was able five hundred and seventy-two pamphlets as a to translate the Bible into fourteen of their lannucleus for a library, and made many other guages. He was particularly interested in the gifts afterward. He lived to see the comple- Abenaquis Indians, and published a book in tion of the library edifice, at a cost of $135,000, their tongue for their benefit, entitled "Indian and the largest collection of books on local Good Book.” He was for a long time pastor of history to be found, together with a museum St. Mary's Church, Machias, Maine. After his of natural history containing specimens of ev- travels through Europe and the Holy Land, he ery reptile, bird, and beast that has its habita- published a large volume on the subject. He tion on Long Island, or fish that swims in its was a member of many scientific societies, and waters.

left in charge of the Interior Department a STILLWELL, Silas M., died May 16, 1881, in great mass of valuable manuscripts in regard to New York, at the age of eighty-one. He was the various idioms of the North American Innoted as the author of the Stillwell Act, abol- dians. In his will be leaves a certain amount ishing the law of imprisonment for debt, which of money for the benefit of the widows and orwas passed by the New York Legislature many phans of the Passam aquoddy and Penobscot years ago.

Indians, also a large sum to charitable instituTappan, H. P., born at Rhinebeck, New tions, and a dowry to Italian orphan girls, York, April 23, 1805; died at Vevay, Switzer- payable every year from the interest of five land, November, 1881. He graduated at Un- thousand dollars. He desired to have his body ion College in 1825. Subsequently he studied interred at Passam aquoddy, Maine. theology at Princeton, New Jersey, and aft WALLACE, WILLIAM Ross, born in Lexington, er having been for a year associate pastor of a Kentucky, in 1819; died in New York city, Dutch Reformed Church in Schenectady, New May 5, 1881. He commenced his education at York, became in 1828 pastor of a Congrega- the Bloomington and South Hanover College tional Church in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. In in Indiana, and then studied law in Lexington. 1832 Dr. Tappan became Professor of Moral In 1841 he became a resident of New York, Philosophy in the University of the City of where he engaged in literary pursuits. Witli New York, which position he resigned in 1838, the exception of a brief period spent in Europe, and opened a private school. He was elected his life was passed in New York. He was a Chancellor of the University of Michigan in contributor to “Harper's" and the “Knicker1852 ; in 1859, corresponding member of the bocker” Magazines, and to other publications. French Imperial Institute, and President of the He practiced law at the same time, but is chiefly American Association for the Advancement of known by his literary productions. His first Education. He devoted much attention to the work that attracted attention was a poem subject of university education, and studied its entitled “Perdita,” published in the “ Union system both in England and Germany. He Magazine.” He published a volume of verse also published a book on the freedom of the entitled “Meditations in America," in 1845; will, a treatise on university education, and Alton," a poetical romance; "The Loved and other literary works.

the Lost," a prose and poetical work; and THaxter, EDWARD R., born in Maine; died The Liberty Bell," a poem, besides a numJune 29, 1881, in Naples, Italy, aged twenty- ber of others, contributed to various period

Mr. Thaxter's reputation as a sculptor icals. began in Boston. In 1878 he went to Florence, WARE, Rev. John F. W., born in Boston where be occupied the studio of the late Amer- in 1818; died in Boston, February 26, 1881. ican sculptor Jackson. His most important He entered Harvard University in 1834, and work, which he had only counpleted in clay, and graduated in 1838, with several classmates had cast preparatory to being cut in marble, who afterward became distinguished men. In is called "Love's First Dream.” This young 1839 he entered the Divinity School, and gradsculptor gave promise of high attainments, and uated in 1842. His first settlement as pastor has left indications of his genius in several ideal was with the Unitarian Society in Fall River, study busts, and one marble statue called “Re- Massachusetts, from which he removed to Camproof."

bridgeport Parish. In 1864 he accepted an VAL, Aaron S., died December 17, 1881, at invitation to become pastor of the Unitarian Smithtown, Long Island, in the eighty-fifth year Society in Baltimore, Maryland, where his of his age. Mr. Vail was one of the oldest and ministry was energetic and successful." He most successful trout-breeders on Long Island. gave much attention to the religious and perHe owned several trout ponds and streams, and sonal needs of the colored people. Before and his house was a noted resort for anglers. Dan- during the war he was an anti-slavery man. A iel Webster, Henry Clay, and other distin- strong feature in his Baltimore ministry was a

VOL. XXI.-44 A

seven.

series of theatre meetings which he inaugu- attained great prominence in 1820, when he was rated. At Swampscott, Massachusetts, he or- arrested for having taken part in the disturbganized a Unitarian Society, of which he was ances of the Carbonari. He was soon released pastor at the time of his death, as well as of through the efforts of influential friends, but, as the Arlington Street Church, in Boston, to he aided the Piedmontese revolutionists with which he was called in 1872. Among the money, he was compelled to leave the country members of the Grand Army he was a special shortly after, and went to Switzerland, from favorite, having worked for and among the there to France, and finally to London. In the soldiers during the war, and was a frequent mean while his estates had been confiscated by orator before their organizations after the the Austrian Government, and he bimself had establishment of peace.

As a writer he con- been sentenced to death in contumaciam. In tributed to denominational periodicals, and London he turned his attention to the charitapublished several books, namely, “The Silent ble institutions, and wrote a work, “BenificenPastor," " Hymns and Tunes for Sunday- za della citta di Londra" (1827–32), which was School Worship,” and “ Home Life : What it is, bighly praised. In 1827 he went to Belgium, and what it Needs."

organized the Congress of Political Economy Warxer, Hiram, born in Hampshire Coun- in Brussels in 1846, and returned to Italy in ty, Massachusetts, October 29, 1802; died in 1860. Here he was created a Senator, and was Atlanta, Georgia, in 1881. He received a for a long time President of the Italian Assogood common-school education, and, in ad- ciation of Political Economy, and promoter of dition, acquired some knowledge of the clas- the organization of savings-banks, but took no sics. At the age of seventeen he went to part whatever in political affairs. Georgia, where he taught school for three BENEDEK, LUDWIG von, an Austrian generyears. At the expiration of that time he had al, born in Oedenburg, Hungary, in 1804; died saved sufficient of his earnings to study law, April 27, 1881. He graduated at the Neustadt and was admitted to practice in 1825, when he Military Academy, entered the Austrian army opened an office at Knoxville, in Crawford in 1822, and attained the rank of colonel in County. He soon obtained lucrative business, 1843; quelled an insurrection in Galicia in and in 1828 was elected to the General Assem- 1845, took part in the Italian campaign of 1848 bly, where he served until 1831, when he de- _49, and distinguished himself particularly at clined a re-election. Two years later he was Curtatone and afterward at Novara. In the elected one of the Judges of the Superior Court Hungarian campaign of 1849 he commanded, of the State, wbich office he held until 1840. with the rank of a major-general, the advance In 1815 he was appointed a Judge of the Su- at Raab and Oszöny, and took part in the batpreme Court, and served for eight years. In tles of Szöroy and Osz-Ivany. In the Italian war 1855 he was elected Representative in the of 1859 he commanded the eighth army corps, Thirty-fourth Congress, and declined re-elec- rendering good service at Solferino. In the tion in 1857.

following year he became Governor-General of OBITUARIES, FOREIGN. AdaM, WILL- Hungary, and soon afterward commander-inIAM PATRICK, a British statesman; died in In- chief in Venetia. At the outbreak of the war dia, May 24th. He was one of the most acute with Prussia, in 1866, he was appointed comand able of British politicians, and during the mander-in-chief of the Army of the North. seven years of the Disraeli Ministry he dis- Owing to various causes, he did not fulfill the played remarkable skill and energy as opposi- expectations of him, and, foreseeing the result tion“whip" in the House of Commons. The of the war, he called upon the Emperor to conLiberal victory of 1890 surprised every one but clude peace at any cost. After the battle of Adam, to whose shrewd electioneering tactics Sadowa, he retired to Olmütz, and was superit was largely due. He was rewarded with the seded by Archduke Albrecht. An investigation governorship of Madras, and had hardly com- by a court-martial, which was begun some time menced what promised to be a successful career afterward, was stopped by an imperial order, as an Indian administrator when he was taken because “no code exists which makes the aboff by death. He had gained an Indian experi- sence of talent a penal offense," and because ence already as secretary to Lord Elphinstone, the destruction of his military reputation must Governor of Bombay, from 1853 to 1858. He have been his severest punishment. He lived was born in 1823, his father having been Admi- in complete retirement after the war of 1866, ral Sir Charles Adam, representative in Parlia- and remained silent to all attacks made upon ment of the Scotch counties of Clackmannan bim for his incompetency. But his last will, and Kinross. The late Governor of Madras which was drawn up in 1873 and was published was educated at Cambridge, and practiced as a after his death, contains barrister. On his return from India, in 1859, throws considerable new light on the events he obtained the seat in Parliament which sev of those days. This passage is as follows: "I eral of his ancestors had filled, and which he look forward to my death with a clear conheld until his retirement from politics. science, and declare that I leave no memoirs

ARRIVABENE, GIOVANNI, Count, an Italian whatever. I have burned all my notes on the patriot and political economist, born in Man- campaign of 1866, and on the command of the tua, in 1787; died January 12, 1881. He first Army of the North, which was forced upon

a passage which

me. On November 19, 1866, I promised Arch- 1851, third edition, 1873). He severed his conduke Albrecht, in writing, to be silent on these nection with the Bible Society in 1839, and conmatters in future. This promise may be called tinued his travels in Hungary, Roumania, and a rash and even a foolish one, but it was the. Turkey, publishing “Romany Rye,” a sequel characteristic expression of my soldierly char- to “Lavengro" (3 vols., 1857, third edition, acter. It passes my ideas of right, honor, and 1873), and “ Wild Wales " (3 vols., 1862, second decency, that the Austrian Governinent, hav- edition, 1873). ing my promise, had its strange article on me Bosco, FERDINANDO BENEVENTANO, Baron published in the papers on December 9 or DEL, general of the army of the former King of 10, 1866, in which even my entire past career Naples; died at Naples, January 8th, aged sixwas belittled ; that this article was composed ty-seven years. He was the ablest officer in the by Field-Marshal John and —-, and was pub- Bourbon service, and the most esteemed; he lished by order of the Government. I have was given the rank of field-marshal, and after endured it silently, and have now borne my the fall of the King, whom he served with hard lot for seven years with patience and self- bravery and fidelity, he entered the Italian denial."

service. BERTHAUT, General, French Minister of War BRESTEL, RUDOLF, formerly Austrian Minisin the Dufaure Cabinet, under President Mac- ter of Finance, and the author of reforms which Mahon, and one of the prominent organizers of prevented the frequent deficits; died March the French army; died December 24th, at the 2d, at Vienna, where he was born in 1816. age of sixty-four. In the defense of Paris, dur- He was Minister from 1867 to 1870. ing the war of 1870, he displayed signal brav BUDBERG, Baron ANDREAS, formerly Russian ery at the head of his division of Gardes Mo- embassador at Berlin and other capitals; died biliers.

February 10th. He enjoyed the favor of the BONAPARTE, PIERRE, Prince, a son of Lucien Emperor Nicholas, and represented the Russian Bonaparte and a nephew of Napoleon I, born pretensions and hatred of the constitutional October 11, 1815; died April 8, 1881. He was developments in Germany so faithfully as to one of those members of the Bonaparte family become exceedingly unpopular at Berlin, where who by their adventurous lives have gained he was embassador from 1851 to 1856, and a considerable notoriety. He was elected to the second time from 1858 to 1862. National Assembly from Corsica in 1848, and BURGERS, Thomas François, ex-President of after the coup d'état was recognized as a French the Transvaal Republic, born April 15, 1834; prince. He very seldom came to court, and in died December 9, 1881. He was born in the 1869 married his mistress, the daughter of a Cape Colony, of one of the oldest Dutch familaborer. In 1870 he shot Victor Noir, who came lies, and was educated at the University of to him as the second of Pascal Groussets, and, Utrecht in Holland, where he imbibed some although acquitted by the court at Tours, the rationalistic views, which, on his return to Afexcitement in the country was so intense that rica and his accession to the ministry, caused he was compelled to leave France. After the him considerable trouble. He became the clerwar with Germany he became so reduced finan- gyman of the Dutch Reformed Church at Hancially that his wife opened a milliner's shop in over, in Cape Colony, and won great renown London, to the great disgust of the Bonapart- by his eloquence. As the doctrines he preached ists.

were at variance with the Calvinistic tenets Borrow, George, a British author, born in of his church, he was accused of heresy, but, February, 1803; died July 30, 1881. He was in the trial which followed, judgment was the son of a British officer, and spent a roving given in bis favor. When Mr. Pretorius retired life in following his father about." He lived for from the presidency of the Transvaal Republic some time among gypsies, and acquired an ac- in 1872, Mr. Burgers became the candidate of curate knowledge of the language and customs the Liberal party, and was elected by an overof this race.

Afterward he studied theology whelming majority. His administration exat Edinburgh, and since 1835 traveled through tended up to 1877, when the republic was anmost of the countries of Europe and parts of nexed by the British, and was characterized by Africa as agent of the British and Foreign Bible magnificent but for the greater part impractiSociety. In this way he acquired a knowledge cable schemes. of a large number of modern languages and di Caroline, ex-Queen of Denmark, born June alects. In St. Petersburg he published a trans- 28, 1796 ; died March 9, 1881. She was the lation of the New Testament in the Manchoo daughter of Frederick Christian, Duke of language and a volume of poetical translations Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, from thirty languages. In Spain he translated and married King Christian VIII of Denmark the Gospel of St. Luke into the language of the in 1815, shortly after he had come forward as gypsies and recounted the bistory of his wan the champion of national independence of Norderings in “The Bible in Spain” (2 vols., 1843, way, and had been proclaimed king of that third edition, 1873); “The Zincali: an Ac- country. He was compelled to relinquish this count of the Gypsies in Spaiu” (2 vols., 1841, title soon after, and it was not until the death third edition, 1873); and “ Lavengro, thé of Frederick VI, in 1839, that he ascended the Scholar, the Gypsy, and the Priest" (3 'vols., throne of Denmark. He died in 1848.

CATERINI, Cardinal Prospero, the oldest theatre in that city in 1850. Ilere he attracted member of the Sacred College, First Deacon general attention by his combination of the of the Roman Church, Secretary of the Inqui- greatest German actors of that time in twelve sition, President of the Congregation of the classical dramas. Frorn Munich he went to Council, and of varions other Congregations of Weimar, in 1856, where he devoted himself parCardinals; died October 30th. He was born ticularly to Sbakespeare's dramas, and for the October 15, 1795, and without the advantage first time produced in German a series of the hisof noble birth won his way early in life to high torical dramas, translated by himself. In 1867 positions in the Papal service through his ex- he went to Vienna as director of the Imperial traordinary attainments in canonical law and Opera House, which position he exchanged for the protection of Cardinal Sala. This influen- a similar one at the Hofburg Theatre, which he tial prelate brought the talents of his young as- retained up to the time of his death. His “Posistant to the notice of Leo XII, who gave him ems" (1845, second edition, 1858) are fine dea post in the Congregation of the Council. scriptions of love. His best novel is “ Unter Pope Gregory XVI appointed him Secretary der Erde" (2 vols., 1840). Among his other to the Congregation of Studies, in which office novels are “Licht und Schatten in der Liebe" he made the valued collection of laws and de- (1838); “ Heptameron” (2 vols., 1841); “Nocrees “ De Recta Studiorum Ratione.” He vellenbuch" (1855); and “ Deutsche Nächte in was rapidly promoted by that Pontiff, and in Paris," from his "Sieben friedliche Erzählung1853 was raised to the cardinalate by Pius IX. en” (2 vols., 1844). His volume of poems,

Clinchant, General, one of the most ex “ Nacht und Morgen" (1851) is a companion perienced officers of the French army, died at to the “Nachtwächterlieder.” Besides the Paris, of which post he was commandant, March historical dramas of Shakespeare mentioned 20th, at the age of sixty-one. He fought as a above, he translated “The Tempest," "Twelfth young officer in Africa for many years, was Night," “As you Like it," and the “Comedy proinoted to the rank of major in the Crimean of Errors,” Beaumarchais's comedy, “Figaro's War, distinguished himself by storming the Wedding," and wrote a large number of mistower of Solferino in the Italian campaign of cellaneous works. 1859, commanded a regiment in the Mexican ex DROCYN DE L’IIUys, a French statesman, who pedition, and was a general officer at the com- three times occupied the position of Minister mencement of the Franco-German War. Be- for Foreign Affairs under Napoleon III; died sieged with his brigade in Metz and taken pris- at Paris, March 1st, in the seventy-sixth year oner by the Germans, he escaped and placed of his age. his sword at the service of the Government of Dullert, W. H., President of the Netherlands National Defense. He was appointed to the Assembly; died in February, at the age of sis. command of a corps, and after the defeat at ty-four. He entered the Chamber in 1849, of Villerfexel took command of the Army of the which he was president in 1852 and 1853, and South, but only to capitulate and conduct his was again elected in 1869, holding the office to troops into Switzerland while the German ar- the time of his death. He refused several my beleaguered Paris. After peace was con times to accept a position in the ministry. cluded he led a corps of the Versailles army, and DUPRÉ, Vice-Admiral ; died in Paris, Februin the conflict with the Communards was the ary 8th.' He was born in Strasburg, on Nofirst to lead the troops into Paris. His mod- vember 13, 1813, passed through the Naval eration was praised by the Versaillists, while the School, and was made a captain in 1854. DuCommunards accused him of ordering bloody pré took a part in the Chinese and Cochin-Chiand terrible reprisals to be taken. His death nese expeditions. He commanded the naval is felt the more deeply in France because he division on the coast of Africa in 1861, and has been a firm and influential supporter of the was appointed Governor of Réunion in 1864. republic

He was called in 1870 to the command of the Dingelstedt, Franz von, a German poet, naval division in the China and Japan seas. In born June 30, 1814; died May 17, 1881. He 1871 he was nominated Governor and Military studied theology and philology at the Univer- Commandant of Cochin-China. sity of Marburg, and then acted as instructor EULENBERG, Count FRIEDRICH ZU, one of the in the lyceum at Cassel and the gymnasium at leading statesmen of Prussia; died of a menFulda. His liberal views caused considerable tal disease in an asylum near Berlin, June dissatisfaction at court. He wrote a number 2d. Fritz Eulenberg was the most conspicuof poems published under the title of " Lie- ous member of a family so prominent in the der eines Kosmopolitischen Nachtwächters” Prussian civil service as to have been nick(1841), which were greatly admired at the named the “Eulenberg dynasty." Born June time.” Although he was not troubled by the 29, 1815, the son of a cavalry-officer, he passed Government, he resigned his position in 1841. through the long apprenticeship in the departIn 1846 he became a dramatist to the court ments which is required of Prussian statestheatre at Stuttgart, and in consequence of the men. After completing his studies he became a enthusiastic reception which was given his Government assessor, and received an appointdrama, “ Das Haus der Barneveldt," in Munich, ment in the Ministry of the Interior in 1849, at he was appointed superintendent of the court the stormy period of the Brandenburg-Manteuf

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