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These numbers are exclusive of 11,835 Chinese Tasmania is growing in population, but its and 770 aborigines. Melbourne, the capital, imports from the United Kingdom in 1879 dehas a population of 65,675. The cities or towns creased by £36,416 as compared with 1878. in the colony with a population of over 20,000 They also decreased from the Australian coloare the following: Ballarat, 22,425; Colling- nies. The wool-clip had gained 16 per cent wood, 23,797; Einerald Hill, 25,178; Fitzroy, as compared with the weight in 1874. Gold22,979; Prahran, 20,306; Richmond, 23,294; mining was never so productive as in 1879. and Sandhurst, 28,128. In 1836 the popula- The average number of persons employed in tion of the whole colony was 224; in 1838, it was nearly twice the number in 1878; the 3,511; in 1841, 11,738; in 1846, 32,879; in quartz yielded the highest average of the last 1851, 77,345; in 1861, 540,322 ; in 1871, 731,- ten years; and the value of the gold produced, 528; in 1881, 858,582.
£230,895, was more than double the value of The gold-mining industry of Victoria has the previous year. The exports of other prodwithin a year or two begun to show slightly ucts were less than in the two preceding years. increased activity and profits. The quantity Tasmania has still twelve and a half million of gold produced in 1880 was 829,121 ounces, acres of arable public land unsold to distribute 529,195 from quartz-mines and 299,196 from among agricultural immigrants; the average of alluvial mines, being 70,173 ounces more than land under cultivation in 1879-'80 was considthe total of 1879. The number of miners em- erably less than half a million acres. ployed was 38,568, an increase of 1,000. The The question of the monopoly of the land number of Chinese employed has diminished by large sheep-raisers is one of exciting moof late years; in 1880 there were 8,486—624 ment in some of the Australian colonies, parless than in 1879. The engines used in quartz ticularly New Zealand. Of a total area in mining give 16,438 horse-power in the aggre- both islands of 64,000,000 acres, there are gate, and those employed in alluvial mining about 44,000,000 acres adapted for tillage or 6,041 horse-power. In the mines at Stawell the pasture, of which 16,000,000 belong to the shafts have reached from 1,220 to 2,410 feet Maoris and their assignees, 14,000,000 have below the surface. The principal improve- been sold to Europeans, and 14,000,000 rement in the returns of 1880 was in the quality main the property of the Government. Nearas well as the quantity of the quartz crushed. ly the whole of the Government land is farmed There are 3,630 auriferous reefs known. Als out on terminable leases to about nine hunluvial deposits, which are covered over by erup- dred sheep-farmers, who pay for their licenses tive rocks, are located by boring through the an annual sum to the Government of about thick overlying basalts with the diamond drill. £110,000. The terms on which the crown The considerable increase in the product is said lands are open to purchase are not similar in to be due to the use of this tool, which was different land districts, but discouraging in all. first tried in 1880. £16,894 was paid into the In some sections the lands are offered at pubcolonial Treasury for mining privileges in 1880. lic auction, with the limitation of an upset The aggregate production of gold in Victoria price of £1; in others at private sale, but at since the first discovery of the gold-fields has the minimum price of £2. A popular feeling been more than $1,000,000,000.
has naturally arisen against the large sheepThe ministry of South Australia handed in runs whose owners seem to be favored by the their resignations March 19th, and a new Cabi- laws, which is taking political shape in a denet was formed by William Morgan, in which mand that the public lands should be offered J. H.Symon was Attorney-General; G.S. Swan, to settlers on inviting terms. The expectation Treasurer; and Thomas Playford, Commissioner that this would result in a great extension of of Lands and Immigration. This ministry re- agriculture and dependent industries is not signed in June, and were succeeded by John likely to be realized. Wool is destined to reCox Bray, Chief Secretary and Premier; John main for some time the only profitable product, W. Downer, Attorney - General ; Lavington the prices of meat and grain being exceedingly Glyde, Treasurer; Alfred Catt, Commissioner low and wages high. There are in the whole of Crown Lands and Immigration; and John colony not above 800,000 acres sown to crops Langdon Parsons, Minister of Education. The of all kinds. There are about 13,000,000 finances, as in all the Australian colonies, are sheep in New Zealand, chiefly merinos, with a in a prosperous condition. The revenue for mixture in the plains of the standard British the year ending June 25th exceeded that of the breeds. The exports of wool, for the year preceding year by £165,000.
ending March 1st, amounted to over £3,500,Queensland has abandoned the policy pur- 000. Among the exports for the same year sued by the other colonies, of building rail- figure six million or more rabbit-skins, valued roads with state means, and adopted the at some £57,000. These animals have so mulAmerican plan of subsidizing private corpo. tiplied in certain districts as to become a source rations with belts of land along the route of of danger to the sheep-growing industry, and lines constructed by them. On such condi- the Government has consequently co-operated tions an English company has undertaken to with the local authorities in a plan for exterbuild a railway across Queensland to the Gulf minating them by poison. A special official of Carpentaria.
employs men to scatter in their way grain
steeped in phosphorus. The only other risk Dr. Julian Dunajewski, Finance (1880); Florian the sheep-grazer has to encounter is the occa- Ziemialkowski (April, 1873). sional occurrence of inundations. Of the The area of the entire monarchy is 622,837 “squatters " who raise sheep on the public square kilometres; population, according to land some possess flocks numbering 200,000 or the census of 1880, 37,741,413. The area of 300,000, one as many as 500,000, and a con Cisleithan Austria, or Austria proper, is 300,siderable number owning from 50,000 to 100,- 249 square miles; the population, according to 000 sheep.
the census of 1880, was 22,130,684. The popuIn the autumn an outbreak of the Maori lation of the different crown-lands, according population was threatened. The cause of the to the census of 1869 and that of 1880, was as trouble was the survey of territory occupied follows: by natives, preliminary to opening it to wbite settlement. It was a district in the province of Taranaki which was declared confiscated by Austria below the Enns
1,990,708 2,829,021 the Government after the Waikato war. In
Austria above the Enns..
736,557 760,879 the confiscated territory, Te Whiti, a chief who Salzburg..
158, 159 168,566 has been converted to Christianity and passes Carinthia
849,670 for a prophet among the natives, fixed his Carniola.
466,884 481,176 residence and gathered the discontented na
127,547 144,437 tives around him. The same man championed Istria.
266,784 the cause of natives who were expelled from Tyrol,
805,326 their lands two years before, and nearly Bohemia..
6,146,544 5,557,134 brought about a collision between them and Moravia
2,161,619 the Government. The danger of an outbreak
5,414,689 5,953,170 was still more imminent this time, but was
618,404 569,599 averted by the prompt capture and arrest of
474,489 the instigator.
20,896,680 22,180,684 The British possessions in the Pacific have been increased by the annexation of the Island
The population of the principal cities and of Rotunah, which has been placed under the towns, according to the census of December direction of the Governor of the Feejee Islands. 31, 1880, was as follows: The new dependency has an area of about
707,532 twenty-four square miles, and contained in
Vienna (withont suburbs).
Prague 1871 2,680 inhabitants. A massacre was per Lemberg..
108,000 petrated by the Christian natives of Tapitawa,
91,869 one of the Equator Islands, under the leader Cracow..
60,679 ship of a convert named Kabu. The victims
85,917 were the inhabitants of the southern portion
81,200 of the island, who had renounced Christianity, Reichenberg and refused to submit to the rule of Kabu.
24,940 AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY, an Salzburg
22,825 empire in Central Europe. Emperor, Francis
Iglau.. Joseph I, born August 18, 1830; succeeded his
20,124 uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand Í, December 2, Goritz
19,488 1848. Heir-apparent to the throne, Archduke
16,670 daughter of the King of Belgium, born May
Aussig. 21, 1864.
Marburg The Ministry for the Common Affairs of the
15,082 Empire consisted, toward the close of the year 1881, of Count Kalnoky, Minister of Foreign In accordance with the political constitution Affairs and of the Imperial House (appointed of the Austrian Empire, there are three dis1881); Joseph von Szlavy, Minister of the tinct budgets: the first, that of the delega. Finances of the Empire (appointed April 8, tions for the whole empire; the second, that 1880); and Count Arthur Bylandt - Rheidt, of the Reichsrath for Austria proper; and the Minister of War (appointed 1876).
third, that of the Hungarian Diet, for the kingThe Ministry of Cisleithan Austria, at the dom of Hungary. By an agreement, or soclose of 1880, was composed of Count Eduard called "compromise," entered into in FebTaaffe, President (appointed August 14, 1879); ruary, 1868, between the Governments and Baron Pino, Justice (1881); Baron Sigmund Legislatures of Austria and Hungary, the Conrad von Eybesfeldt, Public Worship and former has to pay seventy and the latter thirty Instruction (1880); Count Zeno von Welsers- per cent toward the common expenditures of heimb, Defense of the Country (1880); Count the empire, not including the interest on the Julius von Falkenhayn (August 14, 1879), Ag- national debt. The common budget of the riculture; Dr. Alois Prazak, Commerce (1881); empire for 1880 was as follows:
Florins. proper gave the net revenue at 301,109,093
(1 florin = 48 cta.) forins, and the expenses at 425,551,018 iorins. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
632,880 of War..
The floating debt of the whole empire on Janof Finance..
1,860 uary 1, 1880, amounted to 411,999,923 florins. Supreme Court of Accounts.
236 Customs, net receipts...
The public debt of Austria proper on January Matricular contributions:
1, 1880, was as follows: From Hungarian Treasury.
2,155,537 Cisleithania (70 per cent)... 73,844,006 Transleithania (80 per cent). 81,656,359
Total. Total. .....
Consolidated debt.. 2,590,260,457 117,428,351 3,007,658.889 EXPENDITURES.
Floating debt.. 132,993, 107 862,838 138,956,945 Ministry of Foreign Affairs...... 4,158,900 Rentes for damages 12,519,208
12,519,208 Ministry of War:
Rentes to Bavaria.. 1,750,000
Total...... 8,037,552,797 118,291,189 8,155,843,986 Ministry of Finance..
1,860,830 Supreme Court of Accounts...
The commerce of Austro-IIungary, comprisTotal ordinary expenditures. 116,029,683
ing imports and exports of merchandise and of Extraordinary expenditures.. 12,506,533
bullion, was as follows in each of the years Total.......
128,536,216 from 1870 to 1878 (value expressed in Austrian The budget estimates for 1880 for Austria florins):
1867. 1868. 1869. 1870. 1871. 1672 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878. 1679 1860.
835 17 892.93 674.28 443.66 477.94 47.04 77.16 40.13
128.19 878.62 183.28 73978 921.32 974.72 663.71 171.92
73.56 217.76 59.78 20.08
664.84 1,602.88 2,128.88 2,129.18 1,703.88 504.86 677.13 727.56 651.51 264.80 136.94 60.21
8,122 270,891 24,972
The army in 1880 consisted, on a peace footing, of 16,635 officers and 275,571 men; and on a war footing, of 29,653 officers and 1,013,953 and the ministry, which had assumed so large
The breach between the Constitutional party men.
The naval force at the end of the year 1879 proportions in 1880, continued during the year was 58 vessels, of 16,086 horse-power, and 320 than in 1880 to look for support from the Right.
1881, and Count Taaffe was forced still more guns. The total length of railways in opera- The first result of this policy was the resignation on January 1, 1880, was: in Austria prop- tion of Baron Streit, the Minister of Justice, er, 11,352 kilometres; in Hungary, 7,029 ; total, and Ritter von Kremer, Minister of Commerce, 18,381. The length of the telegraph wires and who were succeeded, the former by Baron Pino, lines, and the number of stations, and the mes
and the latter by Dr. Prazak. Count Taaffe sages sent, were in 1878 as follows:
met an unexpected obstacle in his desire to depend upon the Right, in the Herrenhaus, or House of Lords. To overcome this he created twelve new life-members, of whom four were
Poles, two Czechs, and six Clericals or ConserMessages 5,588,881 2,832,259 8,370,590 vatives, all factions of the Right being repre
sented. The following table shows the length of A new feature in the struggles of the Gerrailroads built during the past fourteen years man and Slavic nationalities was the proposi(in kilometres):
tion to transform the old German University of
48,932 kil. 188.453
Prague, one of the earliest in Germany, into a belief, but that the conscientious fulfillment of bilingual establishment; or, leaving the Univer- duty did not insure success. He did not think sity of Prague in its old position, to establish that he could interpret the events that had a new Czech university. The efforts of the taken place in the House of late, otherwise Czech party were directed in 1880 to getting than by concluding from them that he no longer its teachers gradually introduced, and a resolu- possessed the confidence of the House. He had tion was passed by the House authorizing the become painfully aware that, in these circumGovernment to ask from it the grant of money stances, he could no longer be of service to the necessary for this purpose. In the estimates House, and he had, therefore, decided to give presented for 1881 no such grant was asked up his position. As the rules of the House did for. Upon the demands of the Czech party, not allow of his resignation, and as he was not the Government appointed a commission to in- certain that the House would accede to his revestigate the feasibility of the plan. The mat- quest to relieve him from the office, he had ter was settled by an imperial order in April, chosen the only course open and had resigned providing that henceforth two separate univer- his seat. His seat was filled by the election of sities should exist under the common name of Dr. Smolka, the First Vice-President, while “Carolo-Ferdinandea,” in one of which the Prince Lobkowitz was elected to fill the latter medium of instruction shall be the German, post, so that the presidency, as well as both and in the other the Czech language. The vice-presidencies, had now passed into the two faculties of Philosophy and Law were to be hands of the majority. in readiness by October 1st. On May 15th the The session of the Reichstag was closed by Government presented to the Chamber two the Government in June. bills relating to this matter. One related to The continual anti-German policy of the the legal status and the course of study, while Government brought about a union of the two the other provided for the necessary credits factions of the Liberal and Constitutional parfor creating the two Czech faculties. The sum ties into a German party, a union which was necessary for this purpose was set down at heartily approved by Dr. Herbst, the leader of 23,000 forins for the current year. The first the Constitutional party. bill provided, among other matters, that all In April the Emperor sanctioned a measure property belonging to the university, or to any empowering the Cisleithan ministry to raise of the faculties, should in future be regarded a 5 per cent loan of 50,000,000 forins, which as the common property of both universities, amount was required to make up the deficit in or of the respective faculties. A student can the last budget of this half of the empire. not be immatriculated in both universities, but The loan was at once subscribed, and twentya student of one shall be at liberty to attend five times over, the amount actually offered bethe lectures of the other, and these lectures are ing upward of 1,250,000,000 florins. The real to be credited to him as if he had attended amount of the issue was 54,347,800 florins, the them in his own university. The bill was price being at 92. passed on May 31st, after a motion making it The foreign relations of the empire during compulsory upon every student at the new the year were of the most friendly character. Czech university, who should intend entering In Angust the Emperor met Emperor William a public profession, to have a perfect knowledge of Germany at Gastein, and the usual demonof the German language, had been rejected. strations of friendship were made, while the
In the early part of the year a bill was intro- meeting was said to be without any political duced in the Lower House by Herr Lienbacher significance. of the Clerical party, providing that in future On October 27th, King Humbert and Queen any provincial Diet should have the power of Margharita of Italy arrived in Vienna on a visdecreasing the term of compulsory school at- it to the imperial family. It did not transpire tendance, which heretofore had been eight what occurred at this meeting, but it was genyears. The bill was supported by the Auton- erally agreed that the greatest political signifiomist party, who thought in this way to in cance was to be attached to it. It was regardcrease the autonomy of the several crown-lands, ed as marking the admission of Italy to the and was strongly opposed by the Constitutional Austro-German alliance, while it was thought party. It passed the Lower House with a ma- that at the same time questions relating to the jority of 13, but was rejected by the Herren- estates of the deposed princes of Naples and haus by the decisive vote of 74 to 32, a vote Parma, who were closely related to the impewhich was entirely unexpected, as it was rial family of Austria, were definitely settled. thought that the recent creation of new life. They were received with great demonstrations members had given the ministry who support- of friendship, and on their return the Emperor ed the bill a majority in this House.
accompanied them as far as Venice. On March 11th Count Coronini, the Presi The era of good feeling between the empire dent of the Lower House of the Reichsrath, and Italy, which seemed to have been bronght resigned his seat in that House. In his letter about by the visit of King Humbert, was threatof resignation, Count Coronini, who belongs to ened by some remarks made during a debate the Constitutional party, declared that he had in the lungarian delegation. At a committeeendeavored to do his duty according to his best meeting, wbich was held with closed doors,
VOL. XXI.-4 A
after Baron von Kallay, a chief of department He succeeded Count Andrassy as Minister of in the ministry of foreign affairs, had stated Foreign Affairs in 1879, and had continued to that, in spite of the Irredenta movement, Aus- hold the office. This vacancy was filled by tria entertained the most cordial relations to the appointment of Count Kalnoky, the former ward Italy, Count Andrassy, who was at the embassador to Russia. time looked upon as the probable successor of The victory of the Czechs in the university Baron Haymerle, was thereupon reported to question was followed by excesses in Prague. have stated, in the course of a speech, that he Attacks were made on several occasions by the no longer feared the Irredenta movement, since Bohemian students upon the Germans, and it the bond between the monarchy and Germany was necessary for the authorities to interfere had become so strong. If the movement should in behalf of the latter. The Ministry of Edulead to a war between Austria and Italy, and cation, upon the recommendation of the senate the latter country should be defeated, it might of the university, ordered a suspension of the bring about serious consequences for the royal lectures for the summer, and a strict investihouse of Italy. These remarks caused consid- gation. A number of Czech journals, which erable excitement, and it was even stated that attempted to continue the agitation, were conthe Italian embassador was about to ask for fiscated. Other excesses took place later in the his passports. In the full meeting of the Hun- year, in consequence of which the administragarian delegation of November 8th, Baron von tion of the crown-land was placed in the hands Kallay declared the report of the ineeting with of Field-Marshal Kraus, who had been up to these remarks to be incomplete, and added that that time the military governor. he bad laid particular stress upon the friendly The Czech excesses in Prague called forth relations brought about by the late visit of the greatest indignation among the German King Humbert, which seemed to have been re- population of the empire, notably in Vienna, ceived with satisfaction by all classes of the where the Common Council passed resolutions Italian population. Count Andrassy called to condemning those excesses, while the language mind the fact that he had accompanied the Em- employed by the Liberal journals of that city peror to Venice, and that during his term of was so strong as to cause the suspension of the office he had kept up friendly relations with latter. Italy.
A demand was made by the Czechs, that as The meeting of the Emperors of Germany Vienna was the capital of a state containing and Russia at Dantzic, in September, called many different nationalities, of whom the forth considerable surprise in Austria. But Czechs formed a large part, that Czech teachthe prevailing feeling was that it would tend ers be employed in the public and industo strengthen the Austro-German alliance, and trial schools of that city. This demand was the Government hastened to give expression to promptly met and denied by the Town Counthis feeling in a dispatch to the Emperors at cil. Dantzic, declaring its satisfaction at the meet The City Council of Prague, which is entireing.
ly in the hands of the Czechs, ordered that the The assassination of the Emperor of Russia children of Bohemian parents who were atcalled forth expressions of sympathy from the tending German schools should be removed Emperor. In the Upper House of the Reichs- from them. The councils of other communities rath, the President gave expression at its first passed similar resolutions, and, in consequence session to the feelings of abhorrence of the of the troubles arising therefrom, the matter House at the crime. He said the event was the was brought before the Provincial School Counmore painful, on account of the indication it cil. This body annulled the order of the city gave of the existence of a dark but wide-spread councils, and declared that it rested entirely conspiracy, threatening to undermine the prin- with the parents to which school they wished ciples of society, which the Upper House was to send their children. bound to stand in the front rank to defend. On August 12th the Czech National Theatre The President, in conclusion, called upon the in Prague was completely destroyed by fire a members present to rise from their seats in few days before it was to be opened. This order to testify to the sorrow they experienced conflagration called forth the deepest sympathy at this event, as well as to the sympathy they in all parts of the monarchy, and the Germans felt with the grief which filled the heart of the particularly tried to show, by their sympathy Austrian monarch, who in the Emperor Alex- and their contributions to the collection which ander II had lost a true friend. The Presi- was taken up for its restoration, that they bore dent's remarks were warmly applauded. In no ill-will to their Bohemian neighbors, and the Lower House, however, the Poles declared that it was their earnest desire to do away that they could not vote for any resolutions of with the struggle between the different nationregret, and the new President, Smolka, a mem alities. ber of the Polish party, refused to permit any The marriage of the Crown Prince Rudolph resolution of the kind to be discussed.
to Stéphanie, the second daughter of the King The monarchy suffered a severe loss in the of the Belgians, took place on May 10th, in Videath of Baron Haymerle, who died suddenly enna. The ceremony was performed by Caron October 10th, of apoplexy (see HAYMERLE). dinal-Prince Schwarzenberg, Archbishop of