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atomic weights. Lothar Meyer has constructed heat are found also to depend upon atomic a graphic representation exhibiting the rela- weight, according to the same law of periotion of the physical properties of the elements dicity. Fizeau's experiments have proved that to their atomic weights and volumes. The the co-efficient of expansion rises and sinks regelements are arranged at distances from the ularly as the atomic weight increases. Duorigin along the axis of abscissæ proportional long's law of relativity between atomic weights to their atomic weights. The ordinates of the and specific heats, probably for lack of exact curve indicate their atomic volumes, and the measurements, can only be determined in cases curve the variations of these in their successive where atomic weights and atomic volume are order. From the portions of this curve which both low. Dulong's law is not periodic, the have been determined, it appears that it repre- specific heat being uniformly inversely proporsents also variations in the above-mentioned tional to the atomic weight. Lecoq do Boisphysical properties. It is seen that the posi- baudran has proved that, in the homologous tion of the elements on the ascending or de- series of elements, the wave-lengths of the luscending portions of the curve determines their minous rays which they emit are proportional properties, which may thus be very different to their atomic weights. The electro-chemical for bodies possessing nearly the same atomic character of the elements follows the law of weight, and yet harmonize in a remarkable periodic variations, the passage from the elecmanner with the other terms of the theory. tro-positive to the electro-negative character The light metals which occupy the summits taking place in certain groups twice in the and contiguous descending parts of the curve same period of density variation. The elecare ductile ; and the heavy metals at the bottom tro-chemical condition governs the power of and lower part of the ascending curve are par- combination, to a certain extent; the stable tially ductile. In the fourth group the ductil- protoxides, for example, being formed with ity is seen to increase and diminish twice in one electro-positive metals, and powerful acids rich period of the variations of density. Fusibile in oxygen with electro-negative elements. ity and conductivity, with increasing atomic Electro-negative hydrogen, on the contrary, weights, exhibit the same principle of variabil- forms its most stable simple compounds with ity. Crystalline form and expansibility by electro-positive elements.
In each of the periodical series the capacity mercury, chromium, vanadium, and gold, new of combining with oxygen seems to increase up determinations are wanted ; and the remaining to a certain point, and then to decrease. The 8 are still subject to slight revision. Professor series headed by silver may be taken as a type Clarke concludes, then, that as three fourths of of the oxygen compounds formed by the ele- the well-determined atomic weights agree with ments in the other periods, the formulæ being Prout's hypothesis, the seeming exceptions here doubled for the sake of uniformity : may be due to undetected constant errors, such
Ag:0; Cd,02; In2O3; Sn,0,; Sb2O6; Tez as bave been brought recently to light in some 06; 1,07; Os0s; Ir02 ; Pt02.
of the most familiar bodies in the entire list of The first five members of every period but elements. one follow these types exactly. The variations Maximilien Gerber has sought to determine of affinities for chlorine and hydrogen within common factors in the atomic weights of the the groups are made evident by the following component members of each of the elemental formulæ, combinations with hydrogen being groups, and has determined empirically certain confined to the last four terms of the groups : common divisors in the several groups whose Li Ol; Cl2; B C]; C Cl..
multiples vary but slightly from the experiNa Cl; Mg Cla; Al Cls; Si Cl.. mentally-determined atomic weights. In the O H4; N Hs; O H.; F H.
group of mono-atomic elements the common Si H.; PH3; S H, ; CI H.
factor is 0.769. The alkaline metals, lithium, Dumas, to whom the merit of grouping the sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cæsium, elements into natural families belongs, called which combine with oxygen after the type attention again to Prout's neglected hypothe- R,0, and with chlorine according to the forsis in 1879. The French chemist discovered mula P. CI, have, excepting the last named, the simple numerical relations between the metal- additional common factor 3. The non-metallic loids and some of the families of metals be- halogens, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iolonging to each group. In the sulphur group, dine, are another division of this class, and are for instance, at the head of which oxygen is likewise multiples of 0.769. now placed, there is a progression representing The atomic weight of hydrogen is related to additions to the atomic weight of the initial this number in the ratio 10:13, and that of body of multiples of a common difference. silver is an exact multiple. The di- and tetraStarting with oxygen, whose atomic weight is atomic elements have the common divisor 1.995. 8, the next member, sulphur, has the atomic Oxygen has an atomic weight equal to eight weight 16, formed by the addition of the in- times this number, and the weights of sulphur, crement 8; selenium has 40, corresponding to selenium, and tellurium are multiples of that the addition of four times this difference to the of oxygen. weight of oxygen; and tellurium 64, an incre The alkaline-earthy metals, magnesium, calment of seven times the difference. In the cium, and strontium, which have the combinlithinm and magnesium groups there are like ing formula RO, have the quadruple of the simple progressions. In the families of fluorine original factor for a divisor; but barium, which and nitrogen he has established arithmetical belongs to the same group, does not. Carbon, relations of a more complex order.
silicon, titanium, zirconium, and tin, have only A recalculation of atomic weights, based on the one common factor. Mercury, molybdethe determinations of Stas and other data, has num, tungsten, and uranium, are also multiples impelled Professor F. W. Clarke, following of this number. The tri- and penta-valent eleMallet and Dumas, to revive the abandoned ments, the group of nitrogen, boron, etc., which hypothesis of Prout, according to which the form a stable oxide of the type R203, and atomic weights of all the elements are multi- chlorides of the types RCl, or RC, have ples of the atomic weight of hydrogen. Among most of them the common factor 1.559 in their the 65 determined elements when their atomic atomic weights. The fourth and most numerweights are referred to that of oxygen, in order ous class, combining into the oxides RO and to avoid the multiplication of the variation of R,03, have atomic weights which are approxioxygen from Prout's hypothetical law, it is mate multiples of 1.245. Gerber's provisional found that 39, as calculated by Clarke, do not determination of common divisors is found to vary more than 0.1 from exact multiples of the agree with two recent corrections of atomic atomic weight of hydrogen; and of the re- weights: that of tellurium, which, as redetermaining 26, 3 are almost exact half-multiples; mined by Will, is 127.8, a number which ac5 are rare or vaguely determined elements; 2 cords better with Mendelejeffos scheme; and are subject to the constant error from the oc- that of glucinum, which, according to the findclusion of oxygen, detected by Dumas in the ings of Nilson and Petterson, should not be case of silver, potassium, and iodine; 1, thal- classed among the diatomic alkaline-earthy lium, is brought within the limit by a correc- metals, as its oxide is of the type R20s, as tion of Crookes's calculation; 2, glucinum and originally established by Berzelius, and its ytterbium, can also brought by a recalcula nic weight nust therefore be taken as tion within the limit; and 1, antimony, is al. 13.65. most an exact multiple of hydrogen, according AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. I. GENto a recent analysis of the bromide; for 4, ERAL STATISTICS.—The area in square kilo
metres; 1 square kilometre = 0.386 English An intercolonial conference of statesmen square mile) and population of the principal convened in Sydney, in January, to consider in divisions of Australia and Polynesia are given what particulars and by what methods federal as follows in the new volume of the “ Bevölker- action would at the present time be desirable. ung der Erde” (sixth volume, Gotha, 1880): It was the continuation of a conference which
was held in Melbourne in the latter part of DIVISIONS.
Population. 1880, which discussed an arrangement regardAustralia..
7,696,598 2,173,568 ing the border customs between New South New Zealand and adjacent islands. 272,989 477,814
807,956 New Guinea and islands.
Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. Those Oceanic islands...
176,184 879,850 three colonies alone participated in the former Total......
conference. In the present one all the colonies 6,953,727 4,031,000
were represented, informally, by pro:pinent adII. British POSSESSIONS.—The following ta- ministrative officials. It was composed of the ble exbibits the area (in English square miles) following members : Henry Parks, Colonial and population on December 31, 1879, of the Secretary of New South Wales, chairman of Australasian colonies of Great Britain, accord- Conference; Graham Berry, Chief Secretary, ing to a statistical abstract prepared by the and Williain M. K. Vale, Attorney-General, Registrar-General of New South Wales: Victoria; James Watson, Colonial Treasurer,
New South Wales; Thomas Dick, Colonial Population.
Secretary, New Zealand; William Morgan, New South Wales....
310,983 734,252 Chief Secretary, and 0. Mann, Treasurer, Victoria...,
South Australia; A. H. Palmer, Colonial SecSouth Australia.
330,070 259,287 Queensland..
retary, and Boyd D. Morehead, PostmasterTasmania..
26,215 112,469 General, Queensland; W. R. Giblin, Colonial Western Australia..
Treasurer, and W. Moore, Colonial Secretary, Total.
2,474,941 2,251,690 Tasmania ; Chief-Justice Wrenfordsley, WestNew Zealand.
ern Australia. Total for Australasian Continent 2,550,258 2,715,619
The final federal union of the Australasian
colonies has been looked forward to since the The movement of population in the several release of the principal colonies from crown colonies was as follows in 1878:
administration alike by British and colonial
statesmen. Confederation might have been acDeathi. Marriages.
complished with less difficulty at the time when Victoria
the right of self-government was first con26,581 12,702 5,092 42,263 New South Wales. 25,823 10,763 5,817 89,879 ferred, and before the development of diverQueensland.
7,897 4,220 1,444 16,189 gent policies. The conflict of policies and South Australia.
14,572 Western Australia.
diversity of laws since the growth of popula
tion and material prosperity has brought the Total..... 69,459 81,828 14,334 113,180
colonies into closer contact afford the real inTasmania. 8.502 1,700
9,569 centive, while constituting a serious practical New Zealand..
4,642 3,385 16,263 difficulty, to the movement, which has been Grand total. 90,731 88,170 | 48,583 189,011
begun, toward conformity and federation.
The greatest actual obstacle in the way of a The financial condition of the colonies in federal union is the opposite commercial poli1879 was as follows:
cies pursued by the two leading and contiguous
colonies, Victoria and New South Wales. VicCOLONIES.
Dec. 31, 1879.
toria has lived ten years under a tariff framed
for the encouragement of domestic industries, New South Wales..
£4,473,059 £14,937,419 Victoria.
and her people tenaciously adhere to the proSouth Australia.
1,662,499 6,603,750 tective idea. Her neighbor and riral, New Queensland..
South Wales, is equally attached to her revenue
875,367 1,786,800 Western Australia..
198,815 361,000 tariff, and the people are thoroughly devoted New Zealand...
3,184,905 23,953,811 to free-trade principles. The less populous Total. £15,927,488 £77,896,183
colonies incline to the British doctrine, and
have constructed tariffs which do not differ The commercial statistics for 1879 were as greatly from that of New South Wales, and follows:
can, without friction, be brought into exact
conformity. The Intercolonial Conference did COLONIES. Importa. Exports.
not hesitate to attack the vital subject of a cusNew South Wales..
£14,198,847 £13,086,919 toms union, although an immediate agreement Victoria
15,085,589 12,454,170 South Australia.
is out of the question. Amid the protests of
0,014, 150 4,762,727 Queensland
8,050.899 3,434,034 Mr. Berry at the proposed "insulation" of Tasmania..
1,267.476 1,301,097 Western Australia.
Victoria, the conference voted that a joint
407,299 494,893 New Zealand.
commission be appointed by the autonomous
colonies to construct a common tariff.* VicTotal... £47,878,789 41,276,856
* West Australia is the only Australasian colony which
Public debt on
toria cast the only dissentient vote. This colony In regard to Chinese immigration the harmay appoint delegates to the tariff commission, monious action of the colonies is difficult. The but will not be disposed to abandon easily a Government of West Australia issued an order tariff system under which powerful interests encouraging this immigration at the public have grown up.
expense—a step which was condemned by The commercial rivalry between the two the representatives of all the other colonies. older colonies has entered a sharper stage since Queensland and South Australia, which also the completion, in the early part of 1881, of possess territory within the torrid zone, favor the railroad from Sydney to the Murray River, limited immigration, while in New South Wales where it meets the railroad from Melbourne. and Victoria intense hostility to the Chinese The New South Wales ministry have fixed the prevails. The conference embodied their obfreight rates at a low figure, in order to attract jections to the importation of these laborers the trade of the extensive Riverina district by the Government into the crown colony of away from Melbourne to Sydney. This is a West Australia in a memorial addressed to reversal of free-trade principles which provokes Lord Kimberly, British Secretary for the Colthe sarcasm the Victorian statesmen ; but onies. against its economic effects they can have no The New South Wales Parliament gave their remedy except to conform their tariff to that principal attention, upon convening in the sumof the sister colony.
mer, to an act restricting Chinese immigration. The only actual result of the conference, be- A poll-tax of ten pounds is levied on every sides the majority vote in favor of a tariff com- Chinaman upon landing, and ship-masters are mission, and the only unanimously approved forbidden, under a heavy penalty, to bring more proposition, was the decision in favor of the than one to every one hundred tons of ship's establishment of an Australian Court of Appeal. burden. The Government is also empowered A project was drawn up and adopted for a law to quarantine, indefinitely, any vessel carrying to be brought before each of the colonial Parlia- Chinese passengers-a provision intended as a ments, and then submitted for ratification to menace to deter the importation of these unthe Imperial Government. Fugitives from ar welcome producers. rest on criminal charges, or men who have By the returns of the late census it appears abandoned wife or child, may be apprehended, that the area of wheat cultivation in Australia according to one of the provisions of the pro- has doubled in ten years. South Australia posed legal convention, upon warrants taken leads in this product. The Australian crop is out in any one of the colonies, or upon tele- only one third as great as that of the British graphic notification that the warrants have Islands, although the area sown is nearly the been issued.
same. Only about one half of the crop is The intercolonial conference in discussing available for export, and the prices must be plans looking to confederation did not commit high enough to amply remunerate the British themselves to the conjugate principle of self- wheat-grower before the Australians can exmaintenance, for, on adopting a resolution rec- port wheat to Europe with a protit. The prosommending the increase of the naval squadron, pects of gold-mining in all of the colonies are they rejected a proposal that the colonies should better than they have been for years. New bear half the cost. With reference to out- fields have been opened on the northern coast rages committed by islanders in the South of Australia. In New South Wales new digSeas, the conference proposed that the High gings of remarkable richness have been disCommissioner who has jurisdiction in such covered. The opening of gold and tin mines cases should be granted extended powers, but in Tasmania has given that colony a commerthat in felony cases appeal should lie to the cial impulse, and produced an influx of capital Supreme Court of one of the colonies against and immigration such as never were known his decisions. The murders of Bishop Patter- before. son and Commodore Goodenough, and more The revenues of New South Wales continue recent outrages committed by the natives of to increase beyond current wants from the sales the Solomon, New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, and of land. The revenue for the year ending March New Ireland groups, were probably reprisals 1, 1881, exceeded that of the preceding year provoked by the atrocities of the cruisers for by £1,080,000. The revenue for the fiscal year laborers to supply the sugar-plantations of 1880 was £4,912,000. The Treasurer's estimate Queensland and other demands for “ Karnack- for 1881 was £5,440,000, which was consideries.” The practice of kidnapping, and other ably exceeded in the receipts for the first half cruelties of this form of slave-traffic, have con of the year, and promised to reach £6,000,000. tinued to the most recent years, if they do not still take place.*
outrages committed by the crews of labor-vessels, notably the brig Carl, were made the subject of a Parliamentary investigation eight years ago, and measures were taken by the
British Government to suppress the evil. The employers of governed from Downing Street. For the three classes of Polynesian coolies in Queensland are obliged, under a law of British colonies see " Annual Cyclopædia" for 1879, under the colony, to return them, on the expiration of their term of GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
service, to their native islands. The familiar term for the * During the year 1981 natives of the Pacific islands have South Sea coolies among'Australians, Karnackie, is a cortaken
reprisals on one British labor-ship and on a French ves ruption of Kanako, the native name for the Sandwich Islandsel which was probably mistaken for a labor-cruiser. The
remains under the control of the British Parliament and is
The population was found by the census to ex- lic, and pressed it in the Legislature. The ceed 750,000, showing an increase of 250,000 Liberal party made it their sole issue, and were in the ten years. Owing to its vast area of supported by a great popular majority. The attractive land, it has gained upon the much Legislative Council and their electors were smaller but still more populous colony of Vic- naturally loath to abandon the only conservatoria, the difference between their populations tive safeguard—the right of those who hold a having fallen in the ten years from 250,000 stake in the country to control the will of the to 100,000. The debt of New South Wales absolute numerical majority. amounts to about £15,000,000; but of this at For four years the ministry were supported least £12,000,000 is invested in railroads. by the people in demanding a reform, until all
The enormous railroad construction which grew tired of the fruitless agitation. An aphas been carried out by the Government in peal had even been made to the Imperial GovNew South Wales received its first impetus ernment. In March Mr. Berry introduced into from the circumstance that the Government the Assembly a final compromise measure, refound coming into its bands large sums of sur- ducing the tenure of seats in the Council, one plus revenue derived from the sales of public third of which should be refilled every thr lands which the prosperous sheep-graziers, who years, from ten to six years, and lowering the bad rented them of the Government at jd. an limitations of the franchise. The bill passed acre, commenced to buy in vast blocks at the the Legislative Assembly but was rejected by upset price of £1 per acre. The railroad sys- the Council, March 25th, on the ground that a tem, well started with these means, has been bill affecting the powers and composition of extended by loans raised in London. At the that House should originate there. The Counbeginning of the year, 679 miles of new road cil had itself passed a reform bill of its own. were under construction, and surveys for The subject was next discussed in a joint comfurther extensions had been made.
mittee, but without result. The Berry bill The railroad earnings in 1880 were £1,594,- was finally, considerably altered by the amend000, being £89,000 more than the Treasurer's ments, passed by the Council in the middle of estimate, and yielding 44 per cent on the capi- May. The measure reduces the property qualital invested. A still larger profit was expect- tication for Councilors to £100, and fixes the ed in 1881.
qualification for freehold electors at £10, and Victoria has for the last four years been pass- for occupiers at £25 annual rental. The qualiing through a constitutional crisis. Conflicts fications for electors and candidates under the between the two flouses of the Legislature mark old law were respectively a freehold of £50 the advances in popular self-government made and one of £250 annual value. The number in the British colonies. In the transition from of electors is increased by this sweeping reform crown administration to autonomy, the Council, from 32,000 to 108,000, and the number of composed of appointees of the crown, is the members from thirty to forty-two. There are vehicle, through which the Government re- supposed to be only about 80,000 citizens, who fuses the popular demands emanating from the vote for members of the Lower House, that are representative ball. Under responsible govern- not possessed of sufficient property to qualify ment the Legislative Council is balanced against them as electors of members of the Council. the popular Assembly as the representatives of The reform act which was the final outcome the property-holding class, the conservators of of the long struggle was not satisfactory to the the interests of wealth, and the only repository people. The Legislative Council had given up of the veto-power and check upon immature the limited franchise to the extent of reconstiand democratic legislation. This branch thus tuting itself on nearly as broad a basis of popurepresents an entirely different constituency lar representation as the Lower Chamber. It from that of the Assembly, which body is elect- had abandoned the controlling voice of propered on the broad basis of universal suffrage. ty; but it had not sacrificed any part of its coParty majorities in the Upper House for this equal legislative authority. The public looked reason, and because the Councilors hold their upon the reform act as an extension rather seats much longer than delegates in the Assem- than a curtailment of the powers of the Counbly, do not change with the transfer of power cil. It was supposed to contain no remedy in the Lower House and the consequent change for the “dead-locks," which were the actual of ministers. Frequent “dead-locks" are the ground and reason for reform. As a result of unavoidable result. The whole political ma the popular disappointment in the measure, the chinery is clogged, useful legislation is ren- Legislative Assembly in the beginning of July dered impossible, and political passions are passed a vote of want of confidence in the minexcited simply through this defect in the Con- istry. The Governor refused to dissolve Parstitution. This unwholesome condition of af- liament, and, upon the resignation of Berry and fairs has become chronic of late years in the his colleagues, called upon Sir Bryan O'Loghprosperous and democratic colony of Victoria. len to form a Cabinet, in which, after some difMr. Berry, the Premier and Liberal leader, bas ficulty and delay, he succeeded. brought in various bills for the popularization The returns of the decennial census place of the Legislative Council. An active Reform the population of Victoria at 845,977, comLeague has kept the qnestion before the pub- posed of 438,186 males and 407,791 females.