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ments of Towns and Rural Districts"; "The England, to which the property and interests Responsibility of the Church as regards the held by the Church might be transferred, and Opiùın-Trade with China”; “The Relation of to have provision made for the future maintethe Church to the Social Movements of the Age, nance of the churches which had hitherto enwith Special Reference to Trades-Unions and joyed the governmental endowments. The Co-operation, and to the Local Administration bishop called a representative assembly, to of the License Laws”; “The Principles of consist of all the presbyters of the diocese and the English Reformation as bearing on Ques- two laymen for each presbyter, elected by the tions of the Present Day”; “ The Temperance congregations, to meet on the 5th of July. Work of the Church, especially in Relation to On the meeting of the synod, differences arose its Parochial Organization"; " The Proper At- respecting the apportionment of delegates, the titude of the Church toward the Question of representatives of the Church Missionary SoSunday Observance"; "The Claims of the ciety claiming that it should have been made Revised Version of the New Testament to Gen- according to the number of members in the eral Acceptance”; “Modes in which Religious churches, and complaining that, according to Life and Thought may be influenced by Archi- the actual allotment, their churches with six tecture, Painting, Sculpture, and Music"; and thousand members bad only thirty-four delequestions relating to the diocese of Durham, gates, while the other churches in the island, and the Elementary Education Act.

with only seven thousand members, were alA judgment on the appeal of Mr. Mackono- lowed seventy delegates. A motion was made chie, a clergyman under censure for ritualism, to assert the incompetency of the Assembly against a decision of the Court of Arches, de- to deal with the questions before it, as it was priving him of his office, was given in the not a fully representative body. This being House of Lords, April 6th. The substantial ruled out of order, the representatives of the question in the case, which had been argued a churches of the Church Missionary Society few weeks before, was whether Lord Pen- withdrew in a body. Four trustees were zance had power, as Dean of Arches, to pro- chosen to take care, under the control of a nounce a sentence suspending Mr. Mackono- Central Board of Finance, of all the property chie, ab officio et beneficio, for disobedience to to be transferred by the crown; and provision a previous monition. The sentence of the was made for the election of a bishop in case Court of Arches had been upheld by the Court a vacancy in the office should occur before the of Appeal, and their lordships now affirmed Constitution of the Church is settled. A comthe decision of that court, and dismissed the mittee to consist of clergymen of all the shades appeal, with costs.

of theological thought, and one layman to be The fourth meeting of the General Synod of selected by each clergyman, was agreed to by the Irish Episcopal Church was held in April. both sides, to which should be referred the The Representative Body reported a summary question of the organization of the synod. of its work during the past ten years. The Body ANGLICAN RITUALISTIC CONTROhad now in its hands a capital of £7,500,000, of VERSY. The controversy concerning the ritwhich £3,000,000 would be left after all claims ual, and with it the collateral question of the and annuities were fully discharged, for the jurisdiction of civil courts over ecclesiastical future re-endowment of the Church. Of this affairs, engaged attention in the Church of amount about £1,500,000 had been derived England above all other subjects. These quesdirectly from the composition of annuities, and tions, or points connected with them, were the about £2,000,000 from voluntary contributions subjects of numerous mernorials to the bishops, made to church funds during the last eleven archbishops, convocation, and officers of the years. About £130,000 a year was provided Government, of many addresses and letters by by way of parochial endowment, which, with bishops, of public meetings, and of important parochial assessments amounting to £136,000, discussions in the convocations. would provide about £266,000 for clerical sus The Archbishop of Canterbury having intentation. About £12,901 per annum would vited those of the clergy who felt dissatisfied be secured for episcopal sustentation, and or alarmed at the present circumstances of the £25,000 would be set apart as the nucleus of a Church to state what they desired in the way fund to provide for aged ministers. Glebe- of remedy, the Dean of St. Paul's and about houses would be provided for 935 out of 1,140 three thousand clergymen and others addressed parishes, at a cost of £513,000. A resolution to him a memorial, as follows: was adopted looking to the revival of the bish First of all, and especially, we would respectfully opric of Clogher, which has been for a long express our desire for a distinctly avowed policy of time amalgamated with the primacy of Ar- toleration and forbearance on the part of our ccclesimagh.

astical superiors in dealing with questions of ritual. The British Government having determined justice and by the best interests of religion. For jus

Such a policy appears to us to be demanded alike by to discontinue the ecclesiastical subsidies which tiee would seem to require that unless a rigid observhad hitherto been paid out of the colonial ance of the rubrical law of the Church, or of recent revenues to the Church of England in Ceylon, parties within her pale, it should no longer be exacted requested the Bishop of Colombo to take steps from one party alone, and under circumstances which to have a trust body elected for the Cburch of often increase the difficulty of complying with the

demand. And, having regard to the uncertainties istration of the sacraments ought there to be granted which have been widely thought to surround some any toleration of the use of vestments and symbols recent interpretations of ecclesiastical laws, as well as avowedly introduced as exponents of doctrines which to the equitable claims of congregations placed in the we believe to be unscriptural, or which had been demost dissimilar religious circumstances, we can not but clared to be not in accordance with the plain intenthink that the recognized toleration of even wide tion of the articles and formularies of the Church of diversities of ceremonial is alone consistent with the England. We therefore respectfully but firmly eninterests of true religion, and with the well-being of treat your Grace to give no countenance to any attempt the English Church at the present time. The imme to procure toleration for ritual practices, which for diate need of our Church is, in our opinion, a tolerant more than three hundred years, and until a very recent recognition of divergent ritual practice; but we feel date, were almost unknown to the Church of England, bound to submit to your Grace that our present and which, when submitted to the highest courts, have troubles are likely to recur unless the courts by which been declared to be contrary to the laws of the Church ecclesiastical causes are decided in the first instance, of the realm. and on appeal, can be so constructed as to secure the conscientious obedience of clergymen who believe the The archbishop, presenting the matter of constitution of the Church of Christ to be of divine these memorials before the Convocation of Canappointment, and who protest against the state's terbury, at its meeting February 8th, remarked encroachment upon rights assured to the Church of that there seemed to be a certain indefiniteness England by solemn acts of Parliament. We do not presume to enter into details upon a subject confessedly

about those addresses which asked for a greater surrounded with great difficulties, but content our amount of liberty in the matter of ritual, and selves with expressing an earnest hope that it may it seemed to have been overlooked that, while receive the attention of your Grace and of the bishops of the Church of England.

there was an innocent liberty, there was a lib

erty which degenerated into license. He had The archbishop replied to the memorial by no reason, however, to believe that those who republishing a letter which he had previously had asked this had any desire for the use in the addressed to Canon Wilkinson, in which be Church of England of any form of the Roman said :

Catholic communion which might be identified It is a peculiarity of the present troubles that the with the profession of Roman Catholic customs. clergymen who have fallen under the penalties of the The bishops in their dioceses, under whose julaw, in a way we all much regret, have come under risdiction these matters came, would not, he the authority of the Provincial Courts of Canterbury and York, as the result of their having positively supposed, be disposed to interfere with lawful refused to conform to the admonition of their bishops'; ornamental ritual not contrary to the doctrines and, indeed, so far as I know, no case of prosecution and principles of the Church of England; and for ritual has (at least for many years past) been he also supposed that the law was now so interallowed to proceed in the case of any clergyman who preted that great discretion was shown to be tainly may fairly be taken to show that there must be left to their lordships as to whether or not some exceptional difficulty in present arrangements prosecutions or suits against clergy in ritual when clergymen of otherwise unimpeachable character matters should proceed ; so that now the think it their duty to run the risk of having their use- bishops could refuse to sanction a mere vexafulness in their parishes rudely interrupted by the tious attempt to interfere with a worship which authority of the law rather than yield to those set over them in the Lord that degree of willing obedience approved itself to the parishioners, and was which seems to most men to be enjoined alike by the not contrary to law. Ile did not think that traditions of their Church and the written words of the any more than this should be claimed, and it prayer-book (in the preface, " Concerning the service could not be expected that there would be any canonical obedience. I am quite sure I may under- legislation in the direction of legalizing those take for my brethren of the Episcopate that we are things which the Reformation had abolished. ready very carefully to consider at the present junct- The convocation suggested a reference of the ure the grounds which appear to have led to so subject to a royal commission, and advised strange a result.

that authority be given to the bishops to settle The archbishop alluded to a petition em difficulties that might arise, and that they exerbodying the views of the memorialists, which cise such authority discreetly and kindly. had been presented to convocation in 1877, A memorial signed by nearly twenty-four referred to a committee, and reported upon by thousand laymen was presented to the Archthe same in 1879, and promised to call the at- bishop of Canterbury, April 2d, entering the tention of convocation to the report and the solemn and emphatic protest of the memorialsubject as soon as the forms of that body would ists against the toleration, within the Church allow. A memorial signed by several digni- of England, of any doctrines or practices fataries of the Church, among whom were voring the restoration of the Roman Catholic Bishops Perry and Ryan, and the Deans of mass or any colorable imitation thereof, any reExeter, Carlisle, Ripon, Chester, Gloucester, introduction of the confessional, or any assumpPeterborough, and Canterbury, was afterward tion of sacerdotal pretensions on the part of the presented to the archbishop, opposing the clergy in the ministration of the Word and sacmemorial of the Dean of St. Paul's and others.

raments. The signers of this address said:

The public attention was kept fixed upon the We have no desire to narrow the comprehensiveness ritualistic controversy by the proceedings in of the national Church, or to abridge that reasonable the courts in cases of ritual, by the fact of in matters non-essential. We are, however, firmly the imprisonment of clergymen who had been convinced that neither in public prayer nor in admin- adjudged guilty of contumacy in violating the

law of ritual and in disregarding the inhibi- he was imprisoned in Lancaster Castle. Aptions of the courts, by the protests of the plication for a writ of habeas corpus with a friends of the imprisoned clergymen against view to his discharge was refused by the Court their imprisonment, by agitations for their re- of Queen's Bench, April 6th. An appeal was lease, and by appeals to the public, the bishops, taken to the House of Lords and was dismissed, and the civil officers, in their behalf. The while the judgment of the Court of Arches was Rev. T. P. Dale, of St. Vedast's, London, and sustained. the Rev. W. R. Enraght, of Holy Trinity, Bor Mr. Green's case was taken up by the Endesley, had been imprisoned in 1880 for disre- glish Church Union, which represented that the garding monitions which had been served upon penalties to which he was subjected were inthem by the Court of Arches, ordering them ficted upon him because he obeyed his conto relinquish certain practices which had been science." It was said on behalf of the courts declared illegal by the Privy Council. They and the Church authorities that he could be both refused to submit to the decree of the released at any time upon his simply promising court, declaring that they could not do so to obey the writ of inhibition and to desist without violation of conscience. Mr. Dale from unlawful practices. The case was brought took an appeal, and was released pending the directly before the Convocation of Canterbury hearing of the appeal, promising as a condition at its session in July, when, an articulus cleri of his freedom that he would not conduct ser- having been adopted by the Lower House, askvices in his church, nor even attend the church ing the bishops to consider what measures could on Sunday. A release was offered to Mr. En- be taken with propriety to secure the release raght on the same conditions, but he refused of Mr. Green, the archbishop said that Mr. to accept it, on the ground that to do so would Green was in prison for refusing to obey the involve his obedience to the inhibition of Lord law, and he did not see how such a case could Penzance, a condition under which he would injure the Church. not rest for a longer or a shorter period, for it Mr. Green's counsel, Mr. Phillimore, pubwas the very ground of the contention. The lished a statement in August respecting his Bishop of Worcester was requested in January client's position, representing that the court for to take some steps to induce Mr. Enraght to contempt of which he was punished was one amend his conduct or resign his appointment that had been set up by Parliament only, withas an alternative to the bishop's taking a de- out the approval of the clergy in convocation, cided course to uphold the authority of the and in the absence of any body through which Ecclesiastical Court. The bishop replied that the laity could make themselves heard — a he could see no reason to hope for such an end wholly secular, in no way spiritual authority, to the troubles as his correspondent desired. an authority of a kind which he could not conThe vicar had publicly declared his rejection scientiously allow to control him in the exerof all direction or control or advice from the cise of a purely spiritual function. To combishop, and the latter was not aware of any ply with the terms named as the conditions on power vested in a bishop by which he could which he could be released, would be to give nphold the authority of the Ecclesiastical Court. up his office and cease from ministering, at the Mr. Enraght was released from jail on account command of this secular authority-a thing of the detection of an error in the manner in he could no more do than the ancient martyrs which the writ against him had been dealt with could abjure their religion to avoid death. in the temporal court. Another order for his The Archbishop of York wrote to Mr. Green imprisonment was subsequently asked for, but in August, suggesting to him as a way in which he having taken an appeal to the House of he might obtain his release and perhaps save Lords, judgment on the application was post- future deplorable embarrassment without makponed. The appeal of Mr. Dale was dismissed; ing or causing any sacrifice of principles on but that clergyman having accepted an incum- either side, that he might write to his bishop bency outside of London, no further proceed- and express his readiness to abide by his sapeings were had against him.

rior's advice in the matters about which the The case of the Rev. S. F. Green, of Miles suit had arisen; adding thatPlatting, Manchester, attracted more interest

It might be that the advice given would be such than any other, and was the incident to which that your undertaking to act upon it would give the the agitations of the year most directly related. court an opportunity of relieving you from your presRitualistic practices were already observed in ent position, and that a clergyman could never rehis church when he took charge of it, and he proach himself for having done that which his very introduced others, with the approval of bis ordination vows made a duty. patron and a majority of the congregation. A Mr. Green replied that to act as the archprosecution was instituted against him at the bishop suggested would be to adopt precisely instance of the Church Association; he was the course which he had rejected, he believed tried in the Court of Arches, inhibited, and on good grounds, two years before, and the assessed in costs. He refusing to pay the costs reasons now were as ten to one why he should or obey the inhibition, a bailiff was lodged in not do so. To surrender in the way his Grace his house. Afterward, on the 9th of March, a suggestedwrit de contumace was issued against him, and Would be simply to surrender the Prayer-Book.

VOL. XXI.--2 A

That

This, I conceive, no person whatever is entitled to providing for the release of a prisoner incarthat yo bishop can make an order contrary to what is cerated under a writ de contumace at the expicontained in that book. . . . Were I, your Grace, to ration of six months, with the consent of the surrender, or even seem to surrender, the great prin- other parties to the suit, by omitting the prociples at stake, I should be for ever troubled with the viso requiring the consent of the other parties. curse of a guilty conscience.

The Archbishop of Canterbury supported this The archbishop, publishing the result of this bill on its second reading in August, but said correspondence, expressed regret at the want there would be a difficulty in applying it satisof success of his attempt to secure Mr. Green's factorily, because it would be hard to keep a release, but did not think that the attempt had gentleman like Mr. Green from getting into been wholly in vain, for it had proved to him, prison again after he was discharged. The he said,

Lord Chancellor, remarking that Mr. Green That the cell from which we should be glad to lead was charged with no fewer than eleven acts of him (Mr. Green) forth is locked on the inside. Mr. disobedience, said that in fact that gentleman Green will not accept the ruling of the archbishop's would appear to be of the opinion that no court, nor the opinion of the assembled bishops of the obedience was due from him in matters of cerAnglican communion throughout the world, nor the resolutions of convocation, nor the determination of emonial to any decisions of the ecclesiastical his own bishop, nor the invitation of the archbishop courts. Under the bill now before their lordof the province. So long as this attitude is preserved, ships, the person proeeeded against might be I do not see any further means that can be adopted to imprisoned for six months over and over again effect his much-desired release.

until he ceased to be contumacious. A systematic agitation was organized by the would require amendment. English Church Union, to be promoted by

A committee of ritualists, selected on acpublic meetings held under the direction of the count of the attention they had paid to the district and branch unions, and the circulation subject, held a series of conferences on the of petitions for Mr. Green's unconditional re- Prayer-Book and its rubrics, and for the disJease.

cussion of ritual conformity during 1880 and A general meeting under the direction of 1881, and published its report in September, the English Church Union, appointed to be 1881. The promoters of this step admitted held in connection with the Church Congress, that it had become apparent that the ritualistic was held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, October 5th, movement, in the absence of any system of Mr. C. L. Wood, president of the union, pre- rules, had resulted in the introduction of a siding. Addresses were made defining and de- great diversity of practice, and that some of fending the position of the union and of the the clergymen, in the excess of their zeal, had friends of Mr. Green; and a letter was read adopted usages which could not be justified by from the imprisoned clergyman, in which he any reference to the Prayer-Book ; and it was said:

believed that if the whole subject were revised If any one asked me why I was here, I should in a scholarly manner, and if what could be reply, “ For the kingdom of Jesus Christ."

It is the supported by appeal to the Prayer-Book were honor of the Church for which we have been content to strive, and, by God's help, hope to continue to exactly defined, a standard of extreme ritual strive as long as life shall last. The awful insult of- might be fixed, under which uniformity of fered to the Church by the Public Worship Regula- practice would be promoted, the irritation and tion Act is such as will not be endured by the hum- friction felt in the Church would be diminblest sect in the land. That a Parliament, not even professing to be Christian, should set up a court and ished, a fair trial of the Prayer-Book, as the prescribe rules for the worship and discipline of the ritualists understood it, would be had on its own Church of God, is going, to my mind, beyond the en- merits, and the advance of liturgical revision durable,

would be sped. The report of the committee Resolutions were adopted thanking Mr. Green embodies the results of its inquiries into the for refusing to acknowledge the authority of true meaning of the rubrics, deals with cases the Privy Council and the courts subject to where a conflict of rubrics exists, and decides its jurisdiction in matters touching faith and in some instances that certain practices which worship; denying-while the duty of submis- have been insisted upon are not sustained with sion to the canonical orders of the bishop was sufficient clearness, and ought to be abandoned recognized—the canonical authority of epis- or modified. copal directions avowedly controlled by and The English Church Union returned in its based upon the decisions of the judicial com- reports for 1880, 19,410 members, showing an mittee as overriding the inherent discretion of increase during a year of 1,684 members; six the episcopate, and declaring that no change new district unions and 264 new branches had in the ecclesiastical courts could be acquisced been organized. The income of the union had in which did not restore the final determination been $24,970. The report said, referring to the of spiritual matters to the bishops and synods. results of the prosecutions of clergymen for

A bill, called the Ecclesiastical Courts Reg- alleged illegal practices, “The apparent want ulation Bill, was introduced in the House of of success which has attended the defensive Lords, with especial reference to the case of efforts to maintain the civil rights of the perMr. Green. It proposed the amendment of the secuted clergy should not be regarded with act of 1813 and of " Thorogood's act” of 1840, feelings of despondency."

ANTHROPOLOGY. The discovery of stone quite similar to implements still made by the implements in gravel-beds in the bluffs of the Esquimaux. Delaware River, near Trenton, New Jersey, There was less difficulty in connecting the raised an interesting question as to the an- Delaware flints with the Esquimau race than tiquity of man in America, since these gravel in accepting them as evidence of glacial or predeposits were believed to bave been formed by glacial man, though found buried in what was glacial action. The discovery of a few human supposed on good evidence to be glacial drift. bones in Pliocene deposits on the Pacific coast The special study of this formation made by was the only evidence of the extreme antiquity Henry Carvill Lewis has led to conclusions of the human race upon this continent before which remove this difficulty. Mr. Lewis says the finding of these relics in the Trenton grav- that the implement-bearing gravel is the most els, to which attention was first called by Dr. recent formation except recent alluvium, and 0. C. Abbott. The genuineness of those Plio- much later than the Philadelphia brick-clay cene remains is, however, anything but well es- and red gravels which were deposited at the tablished. The inter-glacial palæoliths of the melting of the great glacier. It extends up Delaware Valley are rude celts of argillite. the valley of the Delaware to the Water-Gap, They differ distinctly from the implements left and is of fluvial origin, marking the former by the Indians here and in other parts of the bed of the river. It bears marks of icecountry; yet nearer the surface, and occasion- action, which must be ascribed to a second ally upon the surface, in the same region they (more recent) glacier, whose flood cut a channel are found among flint weapons of the Indian through the deposits of the first glacial period. type. Morgan and other American archæolo- The date of this smaller glacier corresponded gists have concluded that the Indians reached approximately to the Reindeer period of Euthe Atlantic coast from the interior, and that rope. The implements found in this gravel, their original seats were near the Pacific. It which is the most recent of nine gravel and must be inferred that they encountered and clay deposits in the Delaware Valley, are unexpelled another race, who had dwelt there questionably of the same age as the formation, since the formation of these gravel deposits. indicating the existence of man at the time There is historical evidence of a race of differ- when the floods of the river covered this gravent ethnological characteristics from the red- el, which is far above the present river-bed. men inhabiting this part of the Atlantic sea This period Mr. Lewis proposes to call the Escoast in the sagas of the Icelandic colonists of quimau period. Greenland, relating to their visits to Vinland in The recent ineasurements of African skulls the eleventh century. The Skrællings, found by M. Hamy show that the races of that conby the Northmen in New England, have been tinent are not as universally dolichocephalous identified by most certain indications in their as has been supposed. He distinguishes bedescriptions with the Esquimau race, and tween two distinct types of cranial formation were called by the same name in the chroni- in the negro races, and between forms within cles. The Northmen first met the Esquimaux these ranging from the sub-brachycephalic low down on the Atlantic coast. Three cen- through the mesocephalic and the sub-dolituries later they appeared in large numbers in chocephalic to the true dolichocephalic. The Greenland, and the severe conflicts which took dwarf race north of the equator, described by place between the colonists and these invaders Schweinfurth and Miani (see Akkas), has been were probably the reason why the Green- studied by M. Hamy, who does not find their land settlements were finally abandoned. The skulls less arched than those of the rest of manmigration of the Esquimaux to the north- kind. Their stature is greater than that of the ward, evidenced by these events, was doubt- Bushmen, and is about the same average as the less caused by the pressure of the Indians Andaman-Islanders. Their horizontal cephalic behind them, who in more recent times have index approaches the true brachycephalous raencroached upon the Esquimaux in British tio. The Noubas, Fourahs, Gallas, and NiamAmerica.

Niams, and the Haoussas, who dwell west of Weapons of a ruder type than the flint, Lake Tchad, and are separated from the above quartz, and jasper arrow and spear heads, of peoples by a population craniologically distinct, many different patterns, attributed to the In- he classes together in a single race. dians, have been found near the surface, not Fossil evidence of the semi-human transionly in the Delaware Valley, but in New Eng. tional stage in the development of the human land and elsewhere in the Eastern States. They species may be claimed to be afforded by a huare always large, rudely-fashioned celts of nearly man jaw-bone found in the Schipka Cave in uniform pattern, much weather-worn, and made Moravia, with bones of the mammoth, and rude of argillite, thus corresponding in all particu- palæoliths. It is a fragment of the lower jaw, lars with the implements of the Trenton grav- containing the incisors, an eye-tooth, and two el-beds. These palæolithic weapons, even in premolars, with the last three back teeth just the absence of historical evidence, could be emerging from the bone. It is therefore a attributed with good reason to the Esquimaux, child's skull, in the stage of development beas being the only race living in the earlier stone longing to the eighth year. Yet the size of age found in an accessible region. They are the jaw and the teeth is that of an adult. The

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